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Part 1 - Transcribed by Mary Saggio


It was originally intended by the author to print the names of those Alabamians who volunteered for service and were rejected in the physical examinations. The men who were willing to forsake their civilian interests and share the volunteer's lot are deserving of credit; but letters reaching the historian show that a large number of the rejected patriots are reluctant to have the fact of their ineligibility published. Many appear to smart under the examining surgeons' distinctions. In deference to this spirit and because the author's purpose was to honor rather than embarrass the physically ineligible volunteers, none of their names is published. M. K.  Montgomery, Oct. 19, 1893.


It may have been an accident that the six regiments selected to suffer at Miami came from Southern States. The author is anxious that the title, "Southern Martyrs," be understood as intending geographical designation rather than sectional significance. There were among the two Alabama regiments many noble Northerners whose eagerness to fight for the Stars and Stripes was greater only than their eagerness to go into battle under Southern officers with Southern comrades.

While the historian does not attempt to fix specifically the blame for the tortures and mortality thrust on the volunteer troops by American mismanagement, it might be well to explain what this narrative purposes to prove.  The culpable responsibility rests not only on the military unpreparedness in which the national solons permitted the country to remain for years, but weighs with equal burden in North and South, East and West, wherever political influence was exercised to gain the appointment of incompetent officers.

History ranks in the class of compensatory literature because truth is its essence. "Southern Martyrs" is intended as a truthful narrative. Imagery has been abandoned for accuracy. Such truths in these chapters as may pain individually are calculated to benefit generally through the lessons they teach. And, therefore, though the few comparisons employed may be reckoned by some as odious, though the descriptions given and the facts recited may earn the resentment of some and the gratification of others, the author will feel his object attained if the book succeeds in extending the agitation for a military regimen under which American patriots will cease to suffer such martyrdom as Miami.

To the surviving members of the First and Second Alabama, "Southern Martyrs" may prove useful for souvenir and record purposes. Great pain has been taken to chronicle in unbiased verbiage those incidents that really compose regimental history. Necessarily, many episodes of interest are omitted, because to print all would be practically impossible and to select only some would be as unsatisfactory to the majority of the two regiments as it would be embarrassing to the author. Unfortunately, some of the facts that the author is most eager to exploit can be confirmed only by the testimony of men yet in the service. To jeopardize the commissions of some or to menace others with the embarrassments of courts-martial is not the purpose of the author.

Some of the passages, therefore, in "Southern Martyrs," are guardedly written. None of the statements is exaggerated. At times, where important assertions may lack detail, the absent definiteness may be traced to official records which are as yet guarded in the pigeon-holes of interested officers. Some day, untrammeled by the obligations invested in them by their commissions, a number of these officers will elaborate the averments made in "Southern Martyrs."

Already, before his book has reached publication, skeptical persons — men who wallowed in domestic comforts while fellow-citizens were battling for the nation's welfare — have approached the author with such questions: But what history can the Alabama regiments have? They saw no active service, and surely regiments in the Civil War suffered more?"

It is in the selfish indifference of such supercilious questioners that the abuses and outrages of America's military methods are fostered and nurtured. If these skeptics would devote more time to a quest for information and less industry in the pursuit of personal pleasures, they might be of political assistance in righting the great wrongs that have been and are being done.

To go barefoot, in tatters, hungry and cold, to toil in the burning sun with torn fingers and emaciated forms, to sleep in the open with no counterpane but Heaven's canopy, to suffer and bleed and famish and endure the harrassings and distresses of unpaid, unfed soldiers in a bloody service— all this is terrible. Americans have experienced such sufferings; Heaven forefend that they shall be again called on to do it. But speaking for the men of the First and Second Alabama, writing for himself who was one of them, the author solemnly declares that rather would they have gone through all the worst struggles of Santiago than have endured one month of Miami.

In "the fierce ecstasy that thrills through manhood's heart of oak when trumpets blow for war" is recompense enough to Americans for all the deprivations of an ordinary campaign. Napoleon's grenadiers grumbled at the inactivity and hardships of Italy, but, once under his master leadership, the horrors of the march to Moscow failed to wring from their lips a single complaint.  It is one thing to hear the singing of shot and shell, to see the spattering blood, to catch mind-pictures of ghastly, upturned faces, to quiver and shake in the hellish throb of battle.  It is one thing too, to swelter on long, strength-stealing tramps, to bolt uncooked food, to go, perhaps, half-clothed and worse housed.  And it is one thing, too, to know you are doing all this for Old Glory, with true comrades beside you, under courageous and capable leaders, for a grateful nation.  The chill of the yawning grave, the fearful whisperings of the flying missiles, the stench, the racking scenes, the sheol of it all becomes one grand epoch of glory in which the proddings of peril, the harassing of hunger and the worry of weariness are merged into a tingle of gratifying excitement.

But, oh! what a different thing it is to grovel in misery at Miami— to toil beyond the limits of human endurance because a blind or criminal officer has been led into a trap and a querulous taskmaster forgets that soldiers are men;to know that doctors are fighting to rescue you from a hell hole of horrors while incompetent officers, superior in authority, deny the presence of danger; to drink disease germs from day to day because those same incompetent officers withhold you from pure water; to stumble about bare-foot, in rags, because a prosperous people has failed to appoint men who have energy enough to clothe you out of plethoric coffers; to stifle and swelter, thirsty and weak, through unreasonable and unprofitable drills; to spend the nights battling with mosquitoes and the days contending with insidious death agents; to subsist on illy-cooked food that would of itself have already sent less hardy men to their graves; to slave and have added to your slavery the humiliation of knowing that the men who thrust this martyrdom upon you are protected and favored by the nation you volunteered to fight for.

It is one thing to know you are suffering in a good cause; it is another matter to realize that you are being done to death by incompetents placed above you.

There were, and are, in the First and Second Alabama, as well as throughout the volunteer army, a number of efficient and brilliant officers; but, unfortunately, it was not in their hands that the direction of affairs was vested.

Some scoffers make the puerile, nay childish, argument that the volunteers of 1898 should not complain — that they have no ground for grievance in view of the fact that Confederate and Union soldiers suffered more in the '60's than have the men who served against Spain. How short sighted are these views!  The men who bore the privations and hardships of the Civil War accepted them as a matter of course.  There was no overflowing commissary from which the Confederate armies could draw; and the tremendous drain on the coffers of the Northern States had taxed every resource of Lincoln's administration.  And the troops were performing the most active service, constantly subjected to the exigencies, losses and inconveniences of interminable contact with hostile forces.

On the other hand, the men at Miami were so far removed from the theater of active operations that they were not even furnished with ball cartridges; they were always in close touch with an undisturbed base of supplies; the energies and activities of a War Department, backed by incalculable means, were supposedly at hand to fill all requisitions; no danger from an armed foe threatened the camp or menaced the commissary; a plan of hardening the volunteers was purposed — and yet the First and Second Alabama need not have suffered more had they participated in the most unfortunate of McClelland's campaigns.

 It is difficult then to picture what would have been their fate under similar management in the enemy's country, isolated from their supply depots and dependent upon their surroundings for their subsistence.  If men should be trained for war as slaves are led to the galleys; if health is enhanced by disease; if strength comes from exhaustion; if thirst and suffocation and sleeplessness lend endurance; if military morale is obtained through disgust, then the author will become his own apologist and confess that this history is futile and nugatory.

But this explanation could not close with justice unless Mr. Flagler and his pretty coast town of Florida were exonerated from the vituperative assaults of superficial observers.  Mr. Flagler has done so much for Florida, he has shown so much sympathy with the soldiers' sufferings, he has given with such unstinted generosity to all the Red Cross and auxiliary causes that one can scarcely believe he countenanced Miami's misery.  Miami itself holds forth varied and extensive possibilities of pleasure to the tourist.  Superb scenery and magnificent situations lend to the attractiveness of the place and it is easy to live with more than ordinary comfort at the big hotel on Biscayne Bay.  As to the responsibility for the mistakes& of Miami, the author agrees in a measure with the editor of the Augusta (Ga.) Chronicle, who wrote in a September issue of his paper:

 "In two and a half years before the camp was established at Miami there had been only one case of typhoid fever. When the soldiers came they bathed in the reservoir and dynamited fish, which rotted in the water supply. But what did the authorities in charge of the troops do? Instead of carting away the offal of the camp daily, it was deposited in sinks near the company wells. The troops were allowed to wash themselves, their clothing, and dishes upon the ground at wells from which they drank water. * * * * Had the troops at Miami been commanded by a wise and firm officer, with any ordinary knowledge of sanitation, there would have been no reasonable complaint.  But maledictions were poured upon the Secretary of War for establishing the Miami camp.

" That the official careers of the responsible officers are fringed with the graves of Miami martyrs is certainly true. But that the responsibility weighs heaviest with the men who forced the selection of Miami as a camp-site in the face of Gen. J. F. Wade's adverse report, is a fact which will be fully recorded, if not in earthly tribunals, then at that bar where plutocrat and patriot, murderer and murdered meet for eternal judgment. That Gen. J. F. Wade reported Miami, after careful inspection, as utterly unfit for camp purposes is in itself a copious commentary on the subsequent sufferings of the First Division of the Seventh Army Corps.



Hugh Collius, sergeant, Company K, killed at Mobile, Ala., May 3.

Robert J. McCullough, private, Company L, died in division hospital, Mobile, May 27;

Olen J. Olsen, private, Company I, died in division hospital at Mobile, June 9; fever.

V. Walter Smith, sergeant, Company A, died in marine hospital, Mobile, July 15; fever.

J. W. Hannah, private, Company C, died at his home in Gadsden, June 23; fever.

Nicholas P. Gaines, private, Company I, died in marine hospital, Mobile, June 27; fever.

 Herman Brada, private, Company M, committed suicide, Miami, July 12.

Charles Schitz, private, Company K, died in division hospital, Miami, August 18;fever.

James M. Stewart, private, Company A, died in division hospital, Miami, August 23; fever.

J. F. Horton, private, Company E, died in division hospital, Miami, August 29; fever.

Philip Neeley Finch, sergeant, Company G, died in division hospital, Jacksonville, August 29; fever.

Captain George F. Hart, commanding Company L,died in St. Luke's hospital, Jacksonville, September 9; inflammation of bowels.

William M. Pride, Jr., private, Company B, died in Florence, Ala., September 20.

William Thompson, private, Company I, died at Opelika, Ala., September 21; complication of ailments contracted at Miami.

W. M. Franklin, private, Company M, died at Hillman hospital, Birmingham, Ala., October 1; dysentery.

Fred Sizemore, private, Company K, died at Hillman hospital in Birmingham, October 3; typhoid fever.

Fred Maloney, private, Company A, died at Birmingham, October 6; apoplexy.


Robert N. Alston, private, Company G, died at Miami, July 23; fever.

L. P. Simmons, private, Company A, died at Miami, August 14; dysentery.

Henry B. McCutchen, private, Company I, died at Miami, August 17; typhoid fever.

W. E. Rollins, private, Company G, died at Jacksonville, August 19; typhoid fever.

Solomon W. Gold, private, Company I, died at Larkinsville, Ala., while home on sick leave; fever.

Anthony Sammereier, private, Company B, died at Jacksonville, August 19; typhoid fever.

J. F. Black, private, Company F, died at Jacksonville, August 24; typhoid fever.

E. E. James, private, Company B, died at Jacksonville, August 26; typhoid fever.

Charles A. McHugh, private, Company C, drowned at Jacksonville, September 2.

Columbus M. Herrin, private, Company E, died in division hospital, Jacksonville, from dysentery contracted at Miami, September 7.

Harmon W. Cox, private, Company C, died in division hospital, Jacksonville, September 10; concussion of the brain.

J. M. P. Hicks, private, Company I, died in division hospital, Jacksonville, September 19; typhoid fever.

Wallace Winborne, private, Company M, killed in railway accident at Montgomery, Ala., September 23.

Robert Tipton, private, Company K, killed in railway accident at Montgomery, Ala., September 23.

Alonzo E. Wells, private, Company B, died at City Infirmary in Montgomery, Ala., October 6; typhoid fever.

This death roll becomes more and more significant as it is studied. Eighteen of the deaths are immediately attributable to ailments contracted during the sojourn of less than five weeks at Miami. This means that a continued stay there would have developed a mortality rate of at least nine in each regiment per month or 216 in the two commands in a year. But surgeons declare that when the order finally came directing a removal to Jacksonville, the "present for duty" men were in such a debilitated condition generally that disease would have found in them a wonderfully rich field.  The mortality would have increased as the time passed — if the conditions remained the same — the death rate would have become so appalling as to call forth the indignation of the entire country. The most sinister element of the situation is the fact that the Moloch of Miami has not yet designated all his victims. Surgeons, whose names are withheld because they are still in the army, have assured the writer that months hence the morbific waters drank in Miami will assert themselves in the illness of numbers of men now apparently in good health.  Their theory is simple.  It is contained in a diagnosis of Capt. George F. Hart's fatal malady.  Part of the water at Miami not impregnated with typhoid germs was rendered brackish by silicate substances that the men frequently discussed but continued to swallow.  It is theorized that these silicates accumulate in the abdominal canals and produce calculus.

Capt. George F. Hart's death was generally attributed to ulceration of the bowels. "Miami water killed him," said a surgeon at St. Luke's hospital in Jacksonville, Fla. "And Miami water has not yet finished its work in the First Division of the Seventh Army Corps," said another surgeon whose reputation goes beyond three states."All its death marks have not yet been tallied." And this prophetic utterance was made September 15,1898.


ELIJAH L. HIGDON - Colonel Commanding

JOHN B. McDONALD, Lieutenant Colonel

First Battalion            TOM O. SMITH.
Second Battalion,     DANIEL D. McLEOD.
Third Battalion          OSCEOLA KYLE.
First Lieutenant, LEWIS C. MORRIS. (Resigned)
First Lieutenant, HARDEE JOHNSTON.(Resigned.)
First Lieutenant, R. M. FLETCHER, JR.



First Lieutenant, LUCIEN C. BROWN.
First Lieutenant, R. M. FLETCHER, Jr. (Resigned.)
First Lieutenant, MORGAN FELIX WOOD.
BATTALION ADJUTANTS: (First Lieutenants.)
First Battalion, LEON SCHWARZ.
Second Battalion, P. G. SEAMAN.
Third Battalion, L. E. BROWN.
Sergeant Major, WALTER E. GARDNER.
Quartermaster Sergeant, LEWIS W. PATTERSON.
Hospital Stewards, DAVID W. GASS, ROBERT E. HOGAN,and PAUL D. VANN.

Maj. Tom O. Smith, Commdg First Battalion, First Regiment  Ala Vols.

Birmingham Rifles.
HENRY T. DEAN, 2d Lieut.
LIEUTENANT LUCIEN C. BROWN. Transferred to Regimental Adjutant.


Henry M. Dozier, First Sergeant
R. Emmett Craddock. Transferred to Band Sergeant.
Walter M. Hagood,
William S. Reynolds
C. Will Nichols, Q'master Sergeant
Wm. M. Huey,
Chas. G. Gardner,
Frank M. Barnett, Q'master Sergeant. Discharged


Ben Catchings,
John E. Ellis. Discharged.
Tom Bowron,
D. O. Robinson,
Charles G. Reid,
Reuben T. Johnston. Discharged. 
Frank L. Moses. Discharged
Herbert E. Reynolds,
  Willie C. Ball, Cook.
Charles F. Morgareidge, Musician.     John Rensford, Musician
Allen G. Brown, Wagoner. Discharged.
Chas. O. Douthit, Wagoner.


 Baker, Ernest A. Honorably Discharged
Ballard, Clarence,
Barks, Henry L.,
Ball, Willie C,
Brown, Reuben J.,
Barnes, Walter,
Brock, Ellis R.,
Brooks, Oliver T.,
Burbridge, Samuel H.,
Butcher, Oscar,
Byers, Edgar B.,
Butler, Mike, 
 Cowan, A. Sid. Discharged. 
Campbell, Goodrich,
Crowder, Geo. A.,
Connolly, Chas. E.,
Cushen, John W., 
Clisby, Warner,
Davis, Ed A.,
Davis, William, 
Dyer, Charles,
Endsley, Arthur B.,
Faunce, J. N.,
Francis, Sears,.
Fields, Wade H.,
Fowler, Harry,
Fowler, Jack,
Fuller, Allen A.,
Germaine, Pete G.,
Hall, James W.,
Hall, John,
Hathaway, H. Bert,
Havis, Glen W.,
Hicks, Will J ,
Hyche, William T ,
Huddleston, George,
Hutto, Walter B.,
Jones, Tom R.,
Joseph, Leon,
Keheley, Walter D.,
Kelly, Jeff,
Lamb, William B.,
Latham, John D.,
Lawes, Leo V.
Leonard, Ernest Eugene,
Lester, Robert E.,
Lockhart, David,
Long, James McK
Lytle, J. Fred,
McCaa, Waights,
McCaskey, John P.,
McDonald, Ellis P.,
McDonald, James,
McGrady, Walter
McKendrick, Allen,
McNulty, John. Transferred to band
Moore, John W.,
Moser, Gotlieb Aug.,
Napier, John F.,
Oglesby, William S.,
Parrish, Thad,
Patterson, W.,
Perkins, John R.,
Price, Cliff S.,
Raisler, Fred W.,
Randolph, Victor M.,
Ransom, Edgar F.,
 Redmayne, Marmaduke,
Reid, Charles G. & McD,
Reed, Sam P.,
Ross, Walter M.,
Russell, Robert L.,
 Roebuck, Hamilton D.,
Sizemore, Fred. Dead.
Smith, Fred,
Stewart,Malcolm M.,
Sparks, Fred Y.,
Sziepok, Joseph S.,
Taylor, George O.,
Terry, Percy W.,
Tambling, Frank,
Webb, Alonzo W.,
Whelan, Patrick C.,
Williams, John,
Zeigler, Thomas E.,
Schitz, Charles. Dead

Few organizations in the country's national guard have seen more service than Company K (Birmingham Rifles). Its war record is part of Alabama's war record; and its militia history is intertwined in the history of Northern Alabama. After the company's reorganization it was of valuable service in quelling a number of public disturbances. Up to and including the Birmingham riot in 1894, the company manifested the most creditable promptness in responding to every call issued to it. Since then it was summoned to Huntsville, in June, 1897, to save three colored prisoners from mob violence. The company has for years been recognized as a crack military organization and, as a part of Colonel Higdon's regiment, anticipated the call for volunteers in the Spanish-American war by assuring Governor Johnston of a readiness to go to the front at any moment. The officers claim that eighty per cent, of the old membership reported for duty in Mobile in May, the company reaching that rendezvous with ninety-seven men.

The Birmingham Rifles were mustered into the volunteer service on May 9, 1898. Afterward, on June 13, First Lieutenant Lucien Brown was transferred to the regimental adjutantship to succeed Lieutenant Johnston in that office, the latter being relieved at his own request. The company's official personnel was then changed in the manner indicated in the accompanying roster.
Company K gained the mournful prominence of having the first funeral in the regiment, Sergeant Hugh Collins being shot and killed by a negro at Camp Clark, May 3, 1898.
Huey Guards(East Lake, Alabama)

GEORGE F. HART, Captain, deceased.
NEWMAN D. LACY, Captain.
JOHN S. CARROLL, 1st Lieut.
GEORGE R. BYRUM, 2d Lieut.


Andrew J. Lacy, Q'master Sergt.,
William W. Nutt,
John S. Hargrove,
Elbert M . Gibson, 
Curley H. Self



Homer R. Brown,
John H. Cook,
Charles C Hagin,
William W. Lampkin,
George Swanton
Edmund D. McCrary,
Herman L. Merz,
Smith C. Fuller,
Rufus W. Jones
August Martin,
Fred M. Warner, 
John J. Burnette
Charles H. McClaflin, Alonzo G. Worrell,Musicians.
Joseph Wolf, company cook; James H. Worrell, artificer; William
 D. A. Brown, wagoner



Adams, Joseph B.,
Adamson, Charles L.,
Alley, James,
Anderson, Walter H.,
Armstrong, James,
Atkins, Joseph,
Barnwell, Eugene C,
Bentley, William F.,
Brown, Albert C
Burgin, Darby,
Burke, Thomas J.,
Campbell, Augustus,
Craton, Thomas
Cook, Theodore A.,
Dann, Peter,
Day, Jack,
Day, Frank,
Daly, Patrick,
Daughdrill, Ernest P. Discharged. 
Dodd, John,
Duncan, Walter E.,
Fickett, Albert W., Jr.,
Frierson, Leland,
George, Bartley T., 
Glasscock, Jone G.,
Graff, Laban C,
Gratz, Alexander H., 
Guthrie, William E.,
Harris, Albert T.,
Hatter, Ira S.,
Hambright, Bart H.,
Hannigan, Daniel,
Haddock, William, 
Henderson, William F.,
Howard, James,
Huffman, Dock E.,
Hurley, Benjamin,
James, Newton T.,
Jones, Morgan,
Keegan, James L.,
Leonard, William O.,
Link, Lewis L,
Lucas, Thomas,
Mayne, John F.,
Meadows, Marion W.,
Morris, Elgin W.,
Morris, Alonzo W.,
Morris, William E.,
Oates, John A.,
Odell, James T.,
O'Sullivan, Eugene J.,
Owen, Walter D.,
Paschall, Edward A.,
Pearson, James P.,
Powell, Edwin B.,
Ratliff, Orange S.,
Roberts, Thomas,
Saulsbury, Lennard L.,
Schley, Leonard P.,
Sharrit, Amos L.,
Seawright, Jack C.,
Simpson, Edward,
Skinner, Edwin R.,
Sparks, William E.,
Stribling, Lyman F.,
Suttle, David,
Stone, James H.,
Titus, Frank E.,
Tippler, Benjamin F.,
Tucker, Larkin S.,
Webb, Geo. B.,
Williams, John L.,
Williams, Richard L.,
Williams, John H.,
Zuber, Lee K.,


Johnson, Henry L.,
Ross, Edward A.,
Russell, Gilbert E.,
Baggett, Jesse A. Physical disability.
Davidson, George B. Physical disability.


Fore, Rufus B. To hospital corps.
Wadsworth, Lewis D. To hospital corps
 Dinning, Joseph. To Co. C.
Jones, John H. To Co. C.
Mack, William. To Co. C.
Hengl, Joseph L. To Co. G
Noble, Charles O. To regimental band. 


McCullough, Robert J. At Marion hospital, Mobile, Ala.,  June 27,1898. Buried in National Cemetery, Mobile, June 28, 1898. 


 Jordan, Zack G. July 14, 1898.
Brown, James P. July 23, ’98
Hood, Joseph F. August 4, ’98.
Kleiber, John L. Aug. 17, ’98

Captain Newman D. Lacy, Co L. 1st Regiment Ala Vols

To Robert W. Huey was chiefly due the credit for Company L's organization. At first, the command was a detachment of the Birmingham Rifles but on July 21, 1893, it was mustered into the state service as Company L of the Second Regiment, A. N. G., becoming widely known by the name of its organizer. In the military reorganization that subsequently occurred, the command was shifted into the Third Regiment, though continuing to be designated by its original company letter.
At East Lake, in 1894, the Huey Guards rendered valuable service in repressing the coal miners' and American Railway Union riots of that year. Captain Hart, since numbered with the departed martyrs, was in command. At the time of the company's inception, in 1893, he was serving as first sergeant of the Birmingham Rifles and the Huey Guards, without solicitation on his part, called him to their first lieutenancy. He had held a commission in the Minnesota National Guard and was therefore fitted to succeed to the captaincy of the Huey Guards.
In April, 1898, before the president had issued his call for volunteers, Lieutenant N. D. Lacy, then in command of the company, called the members together. He set forth the imminence of war with Spain and asked the militiamen to express their wishes concerning active service. A majority favored an immediate tender of the company to the governor. Accordingly, Lieutenant Lacy telegraphed Governor Johnston and received in response a message announcing that Colonel Higdon had been instructed with relation to his regiment's services. Thus, the Huey Guards claim the honor of being the first company in Alabama that offered its services to the nation in the Spanish-American war.
Meanwhile, Captain Hart, who had resigned his commission in order to engage in business at Jacksonville, Fla., hastened to Alabama to fight with his militia comrades.He was chosen to lead the company and was mustered in as its captain. After his death, at Jacksonville, First Lieutenant Lacy was elected to the captaincy, the second lieutenant being promoted one step. First Sergeant George R. Byrum and Sergeant John S. Hargrove competed for the second lieutenancy and though the latter secured a plurality of the company's votes, the former was commissioned because of his eminent fitness for the position.
Woodlawn Light Infantry.
MORGAN FELIX WOOD, 1st Lieut. (Appointed Regimental Quartermaster Sept. 5,1898.)


Alfred W. Baker, First Sergeant.
Garland Kirvan,
V. Walter Smith (Died July 15, 1898).
Alonzo H. Abel,
Ellie W. Bullock, Q. M. Sergt.
Arthur W. McDaniel,
Mack Rittenberry.


J. Haywood Bullock,
Louis J. Blau,
Shannon Jones,
Walker J. McCarty,
William F. Young,
John W. Vendrick,
Thomas E. Greene,
Samuel I. Bingham.
William T. Lyons, Musician.
Richard R. McFarlin, Artificer.              Riley S. Dorough, Wagoner



Arvin, William H.,
Anderson, Fred,
Alexander, Joseph F.,
Bare, William G.,
Beckley, Orange T.,
Bowers, Alonzo F.,
Barnes, George L. Discharged Sept. 12, 1898.
Buchanan Harry M.,
Cooper, John O.,
Cooper, W. E.,
Connelly, John,
Cox, Sidney L.,
Creiley, Otto C,
 Cunningham, William J.,
Daniel, Earl P.,
Draper, Lewis A. Discharged Sept. 7, 1898.
Dubose, James A.,
 Dupey, W. L. Transferred to Co. C. 
Dwyer, John,
Ferrie, Jacob T., 
Frazer, James A.,
Geis, Arthur I., 
Graham, J. Waller, 
Honn, Hermann,
Hunt, Frank E.,
Hambright, Pate H.,
Hanesberger, G. C., Transferred to Co. C.
Hazelwood, James,
Holt, Thomas E.,
Johnson, Pearce M.,
Jones, Calvin M.,
Keirsey, David B., 
Lawler, Charles A.,
Landrum, Houston D.,
Lee, Pat J.,
Lee, George F.,
Lee, Frank G.,
McCombs, Charles,
McCombs, J. Wallace,
Mcintosh, Robert,
McBurney, Harry J.,
Maloney, Frank J.,
Marsden, Isaac,
Middleton, James,
Marble, Allister E, Transferred to Co. C.
Montgomery, Bert,
Montgomery, George H.,
Moran, Thomas A.,
Noland, James P.,
Norman, James E.,
Norton, Thomas S.
Nail, William F., 
Nunn, William M.,
O'Connell, William S.,
Osger, Frank,
Phillipe, William C,
Powell, Frank C,
Parrett, G. Frank,
Quirouet, William E.,
Reed, James, 
Reed, John,
Reese, William,
Rock, Thomas J.,
 Rodderick, John F.,
Stanley, Arthur L.,
Stirling, Charles T.,
Scroggins, Jerry M.,
Stewart, George W.,
Stewart, James M. Died Aug. 23,1898.
Smith, Albert,
Smith, John E. Bandman.
Smith, John F.,
Smith, Charles W.,
Small, George E.,
Stowe, Fred S. Bandman.
Tate, Porter K.,
Tyler, Charles A.,
Tyler, William,
Vann, Hobert H. Discharged Sept. 12, 1898.
Veitch, Gideon W.,
Walsh, Patrick H.,
Wells, William,
Welsh, Michael J.,
Williams, Byron L. Company Clerk.
Wims, Martin E.
Wood, Walker F. Discharged Sept. 9, 1898.
Wright, Mark A.,
Yingling, David C.,
Zaner, I. Benton


Charles W. Grace, musician, discharged Aug. 31, 1898.
 Maurice D. Marble, musician, transferred to Co. C.
To the people of Woodlawn, Ala., the Woodlawn Light Infantry has been ever since its organization a sacred institution. The diligence with which the company constantly sought to perfect itself lent credit to the town whose name it bore; and wherever the command was summoned it took with it the best wishes and hopes of Woodlawn. The Light Infantry's militia record was of the brightest character; and that the company was among the first to reach the state rendezvous on May 1, 1898, occasioned no surprise.
The Woodlawn Light Infantry, as Company A, Third Regiment, A. N. G., was offered to the governor for service in the volunteer army before the regular call for state troops was issued. The company reported for duty with a relatively large roster of available men.But the surgeons rejected the commander, Captain Parkes. His militia service, however, had shown so many desirable qualifications that influence was brought to bear at Washington to overcome the examining surgeons' objections.Captain Parkes previously commanded the Capital City Guards, of Atlanta, Ga. The Woodlawn Light Infantry were indisposed to relinquish him for another leader and the company was for awhile in an unusually unpleasant dilemma. The First Battalion of the First Alabama was to have been mustered, May 9, but the Woodlawn company declined to take the oath until assured that Capt. W. J. Parkes would lead them. Captain Parkes was much chagrined at the action of his men and told them he feared their course would appear to have been influenced by him. He made the men a talk on the matter, urging them to be mustered. They were firm, however, saying they would follow Captain Parkes to the end of the earth; if the government did not want their commander the government did not want the Woodlawn Light Infantry. So only Companies K, L and G were mustered May 9. The following day, however, word came from Washington authorizing Captain Parkes' acceptance and his company took the oath of service at 9 a. m.
The company served through the Spanish-American war without untoward incident, maintaining its accustomed standard of soldierliness. At Camp Cuba Libre, First Lieut. Morgan Felix Wood was appointed regimental quartermaster and Second Lieut. Will Mudd Martin succeeded him as the company's first lieutenant.  Sergeant Lucien C. Montgomery was then chosen second lieutenant.

PART 2 - Transcribed by Sandra Stutzman


Jefferson Volunteers.  (Birmingham, Ala.)

RICHARD B. GOING, 1st Lieut.      F. E. DAVIDSON, 2d Lieut.


L. F. Luckie, First Sergeant. 
L. S. Hanley, Jrs.,
C. T. Thomason, 
Fred B. Kelso, Q'master Sergeant.
J. Cary Thompson,
W. Frank King.


Fred W. Bowron,  
J. Emmett Benton, 
James G. Johns, 
John G. Cobb,
 A. Newman Farley,
William C. Perkins,
 Berlin R. Starnes,
Wallace Smith,

Robt. L. Gregory.
Charles W. Manley, Musician.
Ernest L. Weiss, Cook,      Robert L. Daniels, Artificer.
Thos. Smith, Wagoner



Alfred, Charles A., 
Baxter, Robert,  
Bracknell, Albert, 
Bean, Alex. W., 
Burton, William L.,
Bragdon, __, 
Brown, Lewis
Brown, Walter, 
Boyd, Charles.
Bean, Aelx.[sic] W.,
Creasy, Burtis E.,  
Carson, Albert D.,   
Carson, Clarence E.,
Coleman, Tillman,  
Caffee, Robert H., 
Cunningham, Modie E.,  
Duke, James B., 
Dee, Leslie,
Daly, Martin W., 
Evans, Frank A., 
Ellis, Clarence B.,
Eastman, P.M.,
Fancher, Julian L.
Fillingen, Barney,
Fletcher, Frank
Gilbert, Albert,
Gettins, Pat,
Goodman, Melvin,
Gorman, A. A.,
Harris, Houston,
Harris, S.,
Hend, Eugene F.,
Hayes, Charles,
Hunter, John R.,
Hengl, Jos. L,
Hosmer, Van,
Johnson, A Syd,
Jennings, Charles D.,
Jones, Ernest,
Joller, Edgar R.,
Kimball, John C.,
Kimball, Robin C.,
Keiling, Harry, 
Lawley, Fred B.,
Lewis, Herbert,
Levy, Julius, 
Mackey, Ed C., Jr.,
Magness, John, 
Martin, Tom A.,
Martin, James, 
Meagher, James
Nelson, W. Jones, 
Norwood, William W.,
O'Hear, Arthur,
O'Rear, Jas. A.
Pierce, __,   
Pitts, G. Chapman,
Pickard, Toney,  
Reeves, Walter,
Russell, John, 
Rice, Charles E., 
Ray, Charles E., 
Summers, R. Fletcher,
Shaw, Williams  
Shaw, Orish W.,
Schwend, Frederick W.,
Stephens, John,
Schilling, Frank,
Short, Malcolm C., 
Tutwiler, J. Cooke,
Tutwiler, Tom,
Venelle, Edward C.,
Walthall, Hay B.,
Wallace, Pulaski,
Witte, Hermon,
White, Thomas W.,
Winters, Jonathan,
Winston, Edward C., Jr.,
Wooley, David C.,
Yancey, William L.


    Browne, George M.,
      Browne, Richard,
     Kline, Ahl,
     Vaughn, Harris C.,
     LaPointe, Ernest,
     Swanson, A. Gulmer,
    Steele, James G.,
      Vickers, James, Jr.,



Finch, Sergeant Philip Neeley.

No company in the First Alabama ranked higher on drill than the Jefferson Volunteers.  Organized in 1888 as a zouave company, the "J. V's" never failed to distinguish themselves at every encampment they attended.  Louis V. Clark was the company's first captain.  Under the efficient command of Captain Clark, who afterward became brigadier general of the state militia, the company was readily recognized as a crack zouave team.  Afterward, however, the Jefferson Volunteers became a regular infantry company.  After several reorganizations, it was finally captained by H. B. Kennedy, who resigned in 1892.  He was succeeded by First Lieut. John K. Warren.  The latter resigned in 1896 to accept an appointment on the staff of Brigadier General Clark.  Then Captain Kennedy was recalled to the company's command.

When the call for volunteers came in April, 1898, no militia organization in Alabama evinced more patriotic enthusiasm than did the Jefferson Volunteers.  Indeed, it was afterward a company boast that no other command in the state reported at Mobile with a larger percentage of old members.  Forty of the company's national guardsmen went with Captain Kennedy to Camp Clark.  First Lieut. C. H. Schoolar did not volunteer with his company, however, and on the train, en route to Mobile, May 1, 1898, it was decided that Second Lieutenant Going should be elevated to the first lieutenancy.  Then, after a spirited contest, Second Sergt. O. J. Miles was chosen second lieutenant over Sergeants Davidson and Luckie.  Lieutenant Miles, however, was afterward rejected by the examining surgeons.  Meanwhile, Sergeant Davidson was detailed as special instructor of the guard at Camp Clark.  After Lieutenant Miles was rejected, Sergeant Davidson was finally elected second lieutenant.

Death struck a shining mark in Company G-Sergt. Philip Neeley Finch, a son of Mrs. Julia Neeley Finch, the authoress.  He died at the division hospital at Jacksonville from typhoid fever contracted in Maimi.

It would be difficult to speak too highly of the Jefferson Volunteers' record as a company in the volunteer army.  But in fairness it can be said that no other command in the two Alabama regiments excelled it in point of military proficiency.


Bessemer Rifles.

THOMAS T. HUEY, Captain.
JAMES B. HOUSTON, 1st Lieut.      JAMES M. PERKINS, 2d Lieut.


Louis N. Mullen, First Sergeant. 
Wm. Edwards,
Joe H. Wiles, 
Nick L. Nail, Q'master Sergeant.
  Grey J. Huffman,
 Gus A. Hagan.


C. E. Faulkner
Joe T. Crawford
Ed A. Kinch
Hugo Robbins,
Joe F. Hines,
John Reilly.

 Frank Lyons,
   Charles Seay and Paul Copeland, Musicians.
A. H. H. Poppe, Artificer.      Thos. L. Saxon, Wagoner


Adams, Ed.,
Allbright, Z. B.,  
Annesley, Jack, 
Ayers, Robert L.,      
Babcock, Wirt A., 
Balcomb, W. W.,
Baxley, Benj. F.,
Bethea, J. F., 
Blankenship, Richard,  
Blevins, Chas. H.,  
Bond, Wm., 
Bullard, Geo.,
Cadenhead, W. A., 
Cates, Chas., 
Champ, Jas. H., 
Cole, Wm. R.,
Curren, John,
Craig, Abe,   
Davidson, John,
Donnell, T. John, 
Edmonson, L. E., 
Edmonson, Joe,
Edwards, C. B., 
Fuhrman, J. F., 
Fuls, Adolph,
Gary, Thos.,
Gentry, Jas. H.,
Gerst, Chas.,
Gibb, John,
Gladden, Jack,
Goocher, Joe.,
Graham, Miner E.,
Gurney, J. Frank,
Hale, George,
Hardwick, Chas. P.
Harry, Lawrence,
Hoster, Adolph E.
Houston, Geo.,
Howard, Edw. G.,
Hyland, Dennis J.
Kelly, W. Edw.,
Kelly, John,
Knapp, Anton,
Kobler, James F.,
Lipscomb. J. A.,
Mahone, Wm. L.,
Marbut, Harry I.,
Martin, Arthur M.,
Miller, Joel,
Miller, Dave, 
Moran, Thos. W., 
Motley, Jas. H.,
Mullins, Wm. D., 
Norris, J. C., 
Norris, M. Luther, 
Nunnally, Wm. G.,
Parsons, Ira, 
Pinkerton, Chas., 
Pendley, J. J.,  
Polk, Dave A.,
Raybon, George,  
Ragsdale, Eugene,
Reeves, E. A.,
Reeves, T. O.,  
Robertson, John,  
Robertson, Robert L.,
Russell, John C.,
Salter, John D.,
Sapp, Ben. R.,
Schaffer, Albert,
Sexton, Wm. E.,
Simmons, R. L.,
Simmons, W. S . H.,
Smith, E. C.,
Smith, Lawrence,
Spain, F. J.,
Taylor, O. H.,
Thomas, Henry,
Tragesser, Fred. C.,
Tremholm, C. V.,
Tussie, D. C.,
Waller, E. L.,
Weed, J. Walter,
Westberg, Knute,
Williams, W. Lon,
Wilson, C. C,
Witherspoon, Hugh,
Zolleycoffer, Jas. W.


Company H was organized in Bessemer, Ala., on April 12,1890, by T. J. Cornwell, a prominent business man.  He served two years as captain and was succeeded by Thomas M. Owens, a lawyer and son-in-law of Congressman Bankhead.  Captain Owens, who made a most efficient officer, resigned to accept a federal position.  His successor, George D. Waller, "rose from the ranks."  In June, 1894, he commanded his company at Ensley,  Ala., with the result that no organization in the state won more laurels during the labor troubles of that year than did the Bessemer Rifles.

Captain Waller resigned to study medicine to study medicine, leaving Alabama for that purpose.  The "war captain," Thomas T. Huey, who succeeded him, was no less popular than his predecessors.  Captain Huey was city treasurer of Bessemer when the national call to arms came.  He relinquished a charming home and excellent civic prospects to lead his company. 

In Company H, military competence was common.  All the company's commanders, save the first, worked their way up from the ranks; and among the "non-coms" were men who had at different times demonstrated their fitness to command companies.  One of these, Sergeant Gus Hagan, served for a time in the national guard as first lieutenant of the Lomax Rifles, of Mobile.


Anniston Rifles (Regimental Color Company).

GEO. W. TUMLIN, Captain.
BRENTON R. FIELD, 1st Liet.     HAMILTON BOWIE, 2d Lieut


C. W. Sproull, First Sergeant. 
James B. Garrison,
Charles H. Jackson, 
Jas. A. Wilerson, Q'm'ter [sic] Sergt.
Chas. A. Wilkerson,
A. N. McLeod, Color Sergeant.


S. F. Cornelius,
Sam Noble, 
F. W. Beasley,
J. J. Gladden,
Fred H. Roussaville,
B. W. Ingersoll,

Howard S. Williams
George Worth, Chas. Herron, Hance Hall, Musicians.
Burke Hanford, Artificer.     J. P. Hale, Wagoner.
Frank Rohner, Mascot.



Arberry, Wakefield, Transferred to Hospital Corps.
Adams, Wm. H.,
Amrin, Wm.,      
Brown, W. E.,      
Banks, Walter,
Bates, Walter, 
Benford, Benjamin, 
Blake, Asa, 
Boguski, Wm,
Bowman, W. D.,
Black, R. C.,
Branch, Henry, 
Burge, James, 
Burns, Ben E., 
Burns, John F.,
Breadion, Wm.,  
Carter, Thos., 
Cary, Edgar
Comeaux, W. E.,
Cook, Wm.,
Costner, Alfred,  
Conyers, E. L.,
Coulter, N. H.,
De Loney, O. T.,
Evans, W. G.,
Emberg, Oscar,
Francher, Eugene,
Freeman, Eugene,
Flynn, Ernest,
Frederick,  Wm.,
Futrell. G W.,
Gilbert, Lon,
Goff, J. W.,
Griffin, Luther,
Gunn, Elwood,
Guill, Reuben,
Goeddel, J. Albert,
Hall, R. E.,
Hall, Leo. J.,
Hampton, John S.,
Hutchens, Henry,
Head, Joe,
Hogan, R. J.,
Herz, Carl,
Inman, Jas. B., 
Jackson, Sydney,
Jackson, W. F.,  
Johnson, Columbus, 
Kopp, Fred,  
Killough, W. S.,
Land, H. W., 
Lane, Wynatt, 
Layton, Chas.,
Learned, W. L.,
Lloyd, S. C.,
McDonald, Jas. D,
McRae, Harrison, 
McGowan, W. W.,
McMillen, LaFayette,
Mordue, Robert,
Moore, E. H ,   
Minor, S. D.,  
Nabers, French,  
Purdy, Bradley, 
Randolph, Arthur, 
Rogers, J. W., 
Reeves, Wm.,   
Ritch, A. E., 
Ryan, Patrick,
Reynolds, Wm.,
Salmon, Newman,
Sansom, Collier,
Sellers, W. D.,
Smith, Richard,
Samples, H. S.,
Schmitt, Theo.,
Skudlas, Andrew,
Sutton, J. W.,
Tally, J. W.,
Tensley, Oakley,
Thomas, Chas.,
Turner, Lon,
Turner, Jake,
Vann, D. Paul. Transferred to Hospital Corps.
Watson, Chas. P.,
Watts, John T.,
Williams, Tom,
Williams, Tom G.,
Williams, W. H.,
Westbrook, M. C.,
Whisenant, R. G.,
Young, John W.,
Yongue, Willie.  Discharged.

The Anniston Rifles were among the first companies to report for duty at Camp Clark.  The command's creditable record in the state militia was sustained in the volunteer army.  Indeed, Company D was one of those companies from which little was heard save when need of their services arose.  Then, the entire command met the emergency as one man.

Company D's position as the right center company of the Second Battalion entitled it to the colors, A. N. McLeod being appointed the color sergeant before Camp Clark was fairly established.  The company reached Mobile, May 1, and was mustered in May 13.

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