FLAGLER, HENRY M.
Life Work of Henry M. Flagler
His Work of Developing the East Coast Was done against Adverse Criticism of Friends
The Gazette-News copies the following excerpt from an exhaustive and interesting article in the Manufacturers' Record, reviewing what Henry M. Flagler has accomplished for the development of the Florida East Coast:
The remarkable works of Mr. Flagler on the East Coast of Florida merit careful attention as the undertaking of one man who firmly believes his fortune was given him for the purpose of using it for the best interests of his fellowmen, and who puts his convictions into daily practice. Mr. Flagler's investments in Florida have been the result of careful investigation, absolute faith in the numerous resources of Florida, and the courage to risk large sums of money in backing up his judgment, even in spite of the adverse criticism of his friends.
"In 1887 Mr. Flagler completed the Ponce de Leon hotel in St. Augustine. This is one of the most beautiful buildings of modern times and set the standard for high-class construction of this character of buildings in the United States and abroad. This hotel was built to make of Florida a first-class tourist resort, instead of a sanitarium, and has been successful. The Alcazar, another beautiful hotel, was also finished soon after the Ponce de Leon, and Mr. Flagler then purchased the Cordova hotel, thus making a trio of high-class hotels, accommodating about two thousand people. He built the Memorial Presbyterian church and manse, a most exquisite creation, fitting and furnishing it completely in every detail. He also gave to the Methodists a beautiful building for their church and parsonage. These buildings are all built of concrete and to lay are as solid as when completed. He also built a city hall for the city of St. Augustine and aided in the rebuilding of the old Roman Catholic cathedral, which was almost destroyed by fire. He paved numerous streets with asphalt and established a water, sewer and electric system for his properties.
"To enable the pleasure-seeker to reach St. Augustine comfortably and quickly, he bought a narrow-gauge railroad under construction from South Jacksonville to St. Augustine, widened the gauge, built a magnificent steel bridge across the St. Johns river at Jacksonville, and thus enabled the running of high-class Pullman limited trains from new York directly through to St. Augustine within 24 hours. Mr. Flagler then bought of William Astor his railroad from St. Augustine to Tocoi and Palatka, and from Deacon S.V. White his narrow-gauge railroad from San Mateo to Daytona (he changed the gauge of the latter property), connecting them up to Daytona with his Jacksonville line. He built the Ormond hotel at Ormond, and in the spring of 1893 he bought the McCormick property at Lake Worth, building thereon what has become the world-famous resort, the Royal Poinciana hotel, at Palm Beach. He extended his railroad along the Indian river from Daytona to Palm Beach, throught he famous Indian river orange groves and what is now the equally famous pineapple district, establishing what is now a most attractive town at West Palm Beach. This town has all the comforts of modern cities, a population 'all year round' of about 1,000, and is one of the most thrifty little cities in Florida. In 1895 Mr. Flagler build the Hotel Breakers, facing the ocean beach at Palm Beach. He built an iron pier and enlarged the Royal Poinciana, until now it is the largest tourist hotel in the world. He became interested in the Bahamas and bought the Royal Victoria hotel at Nassau. In 1896 Mr. Flagler extended his railway to Miami, on Biscayne bay, in Dade county. He built a fine hotel there - the Royal Palm." [The Daytona Gazette-News. (Daytona, Fla.), September 24, 1904. Submitted by K. Torp.]
GALLAHER, MAJ. J. C.
Florida – no city given
MAJ. J. C. GALLAHER is a Virginian by birth, a Tennesseean by adoption, and a Floridian by accident. He is of Irish-English stock. His paternal-grandfather came from Ireland to this country in early colonial times and settled in Virginia . He became a large landowner under some of the grants of King George III, and was in the Revolutionary war. Maj. Gallaher's mother came of New England parentage. Her maiden name was Hannah Crowe. Maj. Gallaher had nine brothers and sisters, now pretty well scattered throughout the Southern States. Maj. Gallaher's early education, and all he ever received, was obtained at the Emory and Henry College at Abbingdon, Va. He left home when but a youth and went to Tennessee, beginning life as a carpenter. He followed this successfully for several years, and in the meantime conceived the idea of reading law, which he began to read privately. He progressed will with his studies and was admitted to the bar at Knoxville, Tenn., in 1857. He practiced there and elsewhere till the beginning of the war. On the opening of hostilities he entered the Confederate service in the engineering corps, but this was too quiet for him, and he got a commission and raised a company of which he was elected captain, and went immediately into the field. He did special and general duty up to the siege of Vicksburg, when he was wounded. He was the first man shot, losing his right arm. He continued in the service, but was sent to Richmond, Va., where, after a consultation with President Davis of the Confederacy, he was assigned to duty with the rank of a major in western Florida, where he was to look after disaffected people and exercise wide discretion in reference to them. This position he held till May 18, 1865, when he was paroled. He subsequently lived in Alabama ; then in Georgia, and finally moved to Florida in 1876, just in time to take part in the campaign of that year, memorable as the most exciting campaign since the close of the war. Maj. Gallaher entered it with enthusiasm and did good service both on the stump and with a newspaper which he started at the time. He has since been engaged in the law, and is also interested in planting. He assists in political work when his services are needed, and recently has been prominent in temperance movements. He is also a zealous member of the Methodist Church, and varies his professional labors with those of the ministry. [Biographical Souvenir of Georgia and Florida by FA Battey & Co., 1889-Transcribed by LA Bauer]
He was governor of Florida from 1861 to 1864. [Herringshaw's Encyclopedia Of American Biography Of The Nineteenth Century: Accurate And Succinct Biographies Of Famous Men And Women In All Walks Of Life Who Are Or Have Been The Acknowledged Leaders Of Life And Thought Of The United States Since Its Formation, 1901 – Transcribed By Therman Kellar]
May 9, 1853-died November 22, 1929
Henry Nehrling was born of German-American parentage in the town of Herman, near Howard's Grove, Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, on May 9, 1853. His father was Carl Nehrling and his mother Elizabeth Ruge. His early education he received from his mother and grandfather and he was later sent to a Lutheran parochial school located several miles from his home. His daily walks winter and summer to and from school, through the then primeval forest, familiarized him with every aspect of nature and helped to develop the passionate love for the out-doors—the birds and flowers, that characterized his entire life. He soon learned the haunts of the wild things of the woods and fields - where the Wild Pigeons roosted, where the Grouse had its drumming log and where grew the rarer plants. From 1869 to 1873 he attended the State Normal School at Addison, Illinois, and upon graduation became a teacher in the Lutheran schools, a position which he held until 1887, teaching at various places in Illinois, Missouri and Texas. It has been said, probably with much truth, that he looked upon his teaching mainly as an instrument by means of which he could carry on his studies of ornithology, and the changes from one locality to another added constantly to the breadth of his knowledge of bird life. During all this time he was accumulating data on the life-histories of North American birds and was publishing articles in popular magazines both in this country and in Germany, while a paper in the 'Bulletin of the Nuttafl Club' presented his observations on the birds of parts of Texas about which comparatively little was known at that time. His studies of our native birds culminated with the appearance, in 1889, of the first part of a pretentious work published simultaneously in German and English and dealing with the life histories of our familiar species. This work, a prospectus of which appeared in 1886, was apparently originally planned as a publication in German only, 'Die Nordamerikanische Vogelwelt,' but by the time of the ppearance of the first part an English edition had been added under the title of 'North American Birds' which, when the twelve parts constituting Vol. I were completed (1893), was changed to 'Our Native Birds of Song and Beauty" Volume II was completed in 1897. The author tells us that the work " is intended to fill the gap between the very expensive and the merely technical ornithological books" and " to combine accuracy and reliability of biography with a minimum of technical description." ..... In 1887 Nehrling was made deputy collector and inspector of customs at the port of Milwaukee a position which he held until 1890, when he was appointed secretary and custodian of the Public Museum of Milwaukee, a post evidently much more to his liking. During his connection with the museum a former member of his staff states that "he made many important additions to the collections and laid the foundations for the future greatness and educational usefulness of this, well-known institution," Unfortunately owing to politics Nehrling lost his position in 1903 after twelve years of unselfish service. As early as 1884 Mr. Nehrling had bought a tract of land at Gotha, Florida, not far from Orlando. He first visited it in 1886 and from that time seemed to have definitely fixed upon Florida as his future permanent home. Thither, then, he moved in 1904 after a brief association with the Philadelphia Commercial Museum, an association notable particularly for the;fact that the American Ornithologists' Union met in Philadelphia in the autumn of 1903 and Nehrling enjoyed the opportunity for the first time of attending a meeting of the Society of which he had been a member for so many years. It was during this period that I made his acquaintance and much of his time was spent in the bird room at the Academy of Natural Sciences studying the collection—a friendship developing which has always been one of the pleasant memories of my life. While always a lover of flowers, even from his early boyhood, Nehrling apparently did not seriously take up horticulture until the time of his residence in Milwaukee where he built a greenhouse and devoted his spare time to the rearing of tropical plants, especially species of Amaryllis of which he produced many new horticultural varieties.... His most disastrous experience occurred only three years before his death. He had been induced to combine with others of whom he knew but little in the formation of a nursery at Siebring, Florida, and all of his collections of living plants were removed to this site. He was to receive a handsome salary as president of the company and other perquisites but, when the salary suddenly ceased and investigation was made, it developed that his agreements were mainly verbal, and he had few written guarantees or legal claims. Broken in spirit, he returned to Gotha where he died on November 22, 1929. In consideration of his outstanding knowledge of horticulture, Nehrling had been appointed a collaborator in the Bureau of Plant Industry of the U. S. Department of Agriculture as early as 1906. At the Garden Club convention at Miami, in March 1929, he was awarded the Meyer Medal for distinguished service in his chosen field, a tribute that brought tears of gratitude to his eyes as in faltering tones he expressed his appreciation. The life of Henry Nehrling was one wholly devoted to science but always to out-door science and contact with living things, rather than to the technical research of the closet naturalist. It was also pretty evenly divided between his two consuming interests — ornithology and horticulture and, to use the terms of the breeders of plants and animals, the former was the dominant factor in his earlier years and the latter in the closing period of his long and useful career. On July 20, 1874, about a year after graduation, Nehrling married Miss Sophia Achoff of Oak Park, Illinois. They were blessed with a family of seven children, the eldest son Walter Nehrling, following his father's footsteps and becoming professor of botany in the Illinois State Normal School. From the wide circle of Mr. Nehrling's acquaintances one hears only the highest praise of his personal character. "Above all" writes Mr. A. H. Andrews, of Estero, Florida, "Dr. Nehrling was intensely human, being a man of genial and kindly disposition, as only a real lover of nature can be. A typical German professor of the old school, of courtly manner and enthusiastically absorbed in his work, he made a host of warm friends and was as pleased as a child when visitors admired his garden...." [Excerpts from "The Auk, A Quarterly Journal of Orinthology", vol. XLIX, April 1932 - Sub. by KT]
From Wikipedia: He was laid to rest in the Gotha Cemetery. His Naples garden was preserved as the Jungle Larry's Caribbean Gardens.
Osceola, sometimes called "Powell," was born in the Everglades of Florida, somewhere about the year 1804. His father was Chief of the tribe, and his early life was spent as a vagabond, in most inglorious barbarism. He was famous for his sagacity in hunting, his agility and strength in the athletic sports practiced among his tribe, such as dancing, racing, shooting, wrestling, &c. As he grew up, he entered fully into the grievances of his tribe with the whites, and when the " War of Title " (otherwise called the "Seminole War)" commenced, he at once took the field in defense of his fatherland.
A treaty was made with them by the United States Government, stipulating the conditions on which they should relinquish their title to the hunting-grounds, but in which the Seminoles declared they had been deceived; and therefore, the treaty was violated. The Government insisted on its fulfillment; but the Indians resisted, and one of the most bloody and merciless struggles followed, Osceola being chosen, by the universal consent of his people, to the Chieftaincy of the Seminole warriors.
With almost superhuman strength and energy, he traveled through the length and breadth of his tribe, encouraging resistance and slaughter of the whites.
With the most consummate skill he would evade detachments of the American army, and beguile them into fatal ambuscades, where they would fall a prey to savage cruelty. He would never hesitate in taking the field, as his presence inspired his brethren, and his wonderful feats in arms gave heart to the timid, and fired each brave with a more determined will. He was foremost in every fray, and his place was sure to be where the blows fell fastest and hardest.
The unerring aim of his splendid rifle, and the exact and deadly force of his keen-edged and glittering tomahawk, told fearfully on the ranks of the whites, while he seemed to bear a charmed mail, through which no American bullet could penetrate.
Thus for years he kept at bay the soldiers of the United States, when at length, in 1828, he fell into a snare, and became a captive. He was taken to Fort Moultrie, in South Carolina, where his mighty spirit chafed itself in chains, and where poor Osceola died of a broken heart on the 31st of January, 1839. His name became a terror to his enemies, and to his fellow-braves a countersign to victory and glory. Thus perished the " Master-Spirit" of a long and desperate war; and Osceola will be long remembered as the man that, with the feeblest means, produced the most terrible effects. ["Biographies of Two Hundred and Fifty Distinguished National Men" by Horatio Bateman 1871 - Sub by a BZ]
YULEE, David Levy
A Biographical Sketch by C. Wickliffe Yulee.
The adage that: no man is a hero to his valet, may be coupled with one that: every man is a hero to his child; which fact the writer promises to bear ever in mind, endeavoring to anticipate the modifications of those candid friends whose friendship is never so demonstrative as when clipping one's wings. But it is a matter of some regret that a person who feels compelled thus to issue a self-denying ordinance, should have been selected to write, for the Florida Historical Society, the biography of Senator Yulee; since any historical narrative must have a strong element of hero-worship in order to make a substantial picture for the general reader.
David Levy Yulee was born in the year 1810 on the island of St. Thomas, W. I., which being at that time a British possession, made him by birth a British subject, and his earliest recollection of life was, when at the age of five, upon the transfer of the island to Denmark, he saw the English flag hauled down. Evidently the portentous significance with which this was regarded by the inhabitants, created such an atmosphere of awe as to impress the event upon his childish memory, where it stood, in isolated importance, the only thing he could recall within that period which ended with his ninth year.
His grandfather had been, although racially Portuguese, a high official in the Emperor of Morocco's court, and as such had been given the rank of prince. Upon the death of the Emporor, whose side he had espoused against the intriguing heir, he was obliged to fly at a moment's notice to England, taking with him his wife, an English Jewess, and their infant son. The last named, upon maturity, was obliged to go into trade, and his mother, who had exaggerated ideas as to the importance of the princely title, insisted upon his dropping the name of Yulee temporarily, and the adoption of Levy, that of her own father. This name he retained to the day of his death, although, long before, he had acquired an independent fortune in the lumber business in St. Thomas. He approved, however, of the resumption of that of Yulee by his son-the subject of this sketch and for convenience it will be the one used throughout.
There are two other incidents of Senator Yulee's childhood which must be recorded, because of the mark they left; the one upon his physical, the other upon his psychological being. Having been given an apple by someone if a woman, the fall of Adam might be traced, pari passu - he climbed upon one of the stone gate-pillars of his father's residence in order to enjoy himself, with tranquility, in "splendid isolation." A passing practical joker threatening to seize the fruit, he started back, fell, and as a result, bore for the remainder of his life, upon the center of his forehead, a deep blue scar, which, curiously enough, formed the letter Y with perfect distinctness. The second occurrence took place when, at the age of nine, in order to attend school at Norfolk, Virginia, he had sailed from St. Thomas, never to return. The ship lay becalmed, and the lad was watching with great interest the sailors enjoying a sea bath. Suddenly one of these, approaching from behind, seized him, and dived deep into the bottomless water. Anyone who has ever been in a position to realize with Clarence can well imagine the terrifying impression, made by such an unwonted experience upon a child, whose misgivings had been already excited by seeing all vestige of land sink mysteriously below the horizon.
While, in after life, he frequently went upon coasting steamers between Southern ports, his aversion to being out of sight of land was so great as, not only to prevent all travel abroad for pleasure, but also to induce his refusal, when offered the choice of representing this country at any one of three most attractive European courts. The school in which young Yulee now found himself, was one kept by an English clergyman, a friend of his father's, nearly all the other scholars belonging to the old Virginia families, whose places lined the banks of the river James . The friendships he formed here lasted, without exception, all his life, and were, Southern fashion, inherited by the succeeding generation, as the writer was glad to find, when he entered the University of Virginia. Fortunate, too, was the School in its master, who, while holding the affections of his pupils, bent his chief energies toward forming their characters. The present master of Harrow has well said: "However we may fail in teaching our pupils the classics or mathematics, we hope that we do teach them to 'play the game.'" Truly, is not a fine scorn for success, by unfair methods, worth all the hexameters and integral calculus in the world?
Some six years later, his stay at this school, and that of his elder brother at Harvard College, was suddenly terminated by a letter from their father, announcing that he would no longer contribute to their support, except as he would to any other of God's creatures. He had worked himself into this condition of religious socialism by long pondering upon. the failure of all religions to supply some simple rule of action to be used by the learned or unlearned - instead of a series of varying dogmas. Educated at an English university, his father a Mahometan, and his mother a Jewess, his mind, as was indicated by marginal notes on books, seemed ever reaching out for some foundation upon which alike could stand the most humane, the most extensive, and the oldest of existing religions. The precept by which he finally enunciated this universal religion was: "All our actions must be for the love of God only;" which, while theoretically most sound, led practically to a few spasmodic ultra examples, but far oftener, resulted in sophistic self reasoning, through which he did whatever he wished. Thus cast adrift, the lad, probably by the advice of friends, went to a plantation of his father's in Florida, where the overseer felt no hesitation in sheltering and feeding him; while his clothing was supplied out of the abundance provided for the slaves. His scholastic education thus abruptly terminated, he found himself equipped with good elementary knowledge, a little Latin, no Greek, and some French of that sturdy British kind which pronounced "un garcon," "ong garcong." But he had, partly inherited, partly acquired, a great love of reading, and, as the only form of sport for which he cared was fishing, of which there was little nearby, most of his time was given to books.
As he grew to manhood he frequently visited St. Augustine, where to the many charming old Spanish families there were added, as residents, those of the military and legal United States officers, as well as a large number from the Northern states, attracted by the quaintness of the ancient city and its salubrious climate. Here he soon had a large circle of warm friends, who gave him that sympathy and, in some cases, which he should have received from his father guidance. It was with one of these that he studied law, and in this profession he succeeded from the first, and would probably, had he adhered to it, have attained quite as high rank as he did in political life, for which he soon abandoned it. His entry into the latter arena was, without blare of trumpets, simply as the clerk to the Territorial Legislature, a hotly contested post, to which he was chosen, not so much because of special fitness as because his numerous friends thought he needed it. Thus, at the outset, was struck what may be deemed the keynote of his character and career, the capacity of binding to himself those to whom he gave his friendship by the strongest cords of mutual affection. While he never spared himself in their cause, they were in turn devoted, and the friends of his friends were his. As a corollary, his enemies, though few in number, were correspondingly bitter, but, almost without exception, undesirable in any different relation.
The next phase in this career, was when, in 1841 he ran as the Democratic candidate for the office of Territorial Delegate. In this successful canvas she had to cover a vast extent, and address himself to a constituency which varied from the cultured society of St. Augustine and Tallahassee, to gatherings of cowboys and woodsmen, so primitive that once, at a barbecue, he won the entire vote of a solid Whig precinct by a lucky bull's-eye shot. Unknown himself, a Delegate from a newly-formed, remote and sparsely settled Territory, he appeared in the House of Representatives at a time when it contained, perhaps, more brilliant debaters than ever before in its history ; and he might have remained long without being able to command attention, but for a malignant attack by some personal enemies. These individuals petitioned the House to declare him ineligible, on the ground that his father, having remained a British citizen, he himself remained one, although residing for twenty years in Florida [Volume 02 Issue 01. April 1909. Historiacal Quarterlies.. Submitted by Janice Rice]