The History of
Crawford and Clark County
W. H. Perrin, O. L. Baskin & Co., 1883
Transcribed by Kevin Ortman and Barbara Z.
Page 237 to 264
CLARK'S FIRST COURTS AND ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE—AN INCIDENT OF FLOGGING— HOW A SHERIFF ADJOURNED COURT—OFFICERS AND THEIR PAY—WAR HISTORY—EARLY MILITARY FORCES OF THE COUNTY—BLACK HAWK —MEXICAN WAR—THE REBELLION—PART TAKEN IN IT BY CLARK, ETC., ETC.
IN the early days justice was administered without much show or parade. Courts were mostly held in log houses, or in tavern rooms fitted up temporarily for the occasion. Yet, in these humble halls, as able and eminent jurists as ever graced any Bench presided over the courts and dispensed justice with dignity and fairness. Not only were these judges renowned for their legal lore, but wore distinguished for their attainments in other fields of learning. Thus the pleadings and doings in those early courts appear strange and primitive to us, and a verbatim, copy of some of the records would furnish considerable amusement to the legal fraternity and generation of the present day. One marked characteristic of early courts, was the pointedness and remarkable brevity of their recorded proceedings. A few words sufficed to explain and record all that was necessary in the most important cases, and a small, three-quire blank book contains all the proceedings of the Clark County Circuit Court for seven years. A record that would scarcely serve to index the cases of one of our modern terms.
The first court ever convened in this county was held at Aurora, Monday, September 20, 1819, Thomas C. Browne, presiding judge. The court lasted but part of one day, and the only business transacted was approving the clerk's, coroner's and sheriffs bonds. " Thereupon," as the old record sagely remarks, "the court adjourned until court in course." The litigation was usually of an inconsequential character. The lawsuits were principally small appeal cases, actions of trespass, slander, indictments for assault and battery, affrays, riots, selling liquor without license, etc. There was now and then an indictment for larceny, murder, and other felonies. There were but two indictments for murder during the first twelve years of the county's history, and very few for minor felonies. The first killing in the county, of which the court took recognizance, was the murder of Cyrus Sharp by Jacob Blaze, in 1823, near Big Creek, and about one half mile south of the residence of Joseph Cook, Sr.
No negro, mulatto, or Indian could testify against a white person. Any having one fourth negro blood was adjudged a mulatto. The offenses committed were usually petty and trifling, and were punishable by fine and imprisonment in the county jail. The penalty for felonies, other than murder and manslaughter, was flogging, fine and imprisonment. The death penalty was inflicted by hanging; and, on application, the body of the criminal turned over to the surgeons for dissection. Burglary, robbery and larceny were each punishable by not over one hundred lashes on bare hack, and tine and imprisonment. Col. Ficklin relates a story, as having actually happened, of a fellow who was convicted of stealing; moat, and was sentenced to receive twenty-five stripes. The sheriff promptly removed the prisoner, and administered the castigation. While undergoing the drubbing, his counsel had motioned for a new trial, and was arguing the same, when the culprit returned into court, smarting and twisting under the vigorous castigation. He soon comprehended the situation, and began sliding toward his attorney, and pulling his coat, said in a loud, hoarse whisper, that all could hoar: "Bell, for the Lord's sake don't git another trial, I took the meat, and they've tarruped the daylights outer me for it, and if you git another hitch they'll lam me again, and ouch, how it hurts."
The first cause ever tried' in Clark County was on Monday, April 17, 1820, in which Thomas Wilson was plaintiff, and William B. Archer, executor of Lewis Bohn, deceased, was defendant. It was an appeal case from the judgment of Charles Patrick, justice of the peace. At this term there were five cases docketed, three of which were continued. Whether our pioneer ancestors were any more given to mendacious tattling than their posterity can only be conjectured. But it seems that alleged slander was a fruitful source of litigation in early times. But the juries of the day either considered character and reputation of little worth, or else the offensive statements were true, as the defendant in these suits was seldom found guilty, and when convicted, the damage awarded was insignificant. The following' cited case will serve as an example for all the rest: Sarah Coneioay v. George W. Catron. Suit for slander. Damages claimed, $5,000. Fifteen witnesses sworn. Jury retire, who, after mature deliberation come into court and say, we, the jury, find the defendant guilty, and assess the plaintiff's damages to six and a fourth cents. Joseph Shaw, foreman. Quite a considerable discount from the original claim.
The first court in Darwin was held on Thursday, May 8, 1823. It was held in the tavern of John McClure, as were the two succeeding terms. The fourth was held at the house of Jacob Harlan, and .afterward in the court house. The arguments of counselors in those days were not embellished with quotations from numberless text book«, nor fortified with culled decisions from a half century of Supreme Court reports, for they had no library of hundreds of volumes to repair to at their pleasure. But in salient points of plain, fundamental law as uttered between the lids of Kent and Blackstone, their arguments were fully up to the standard of today. The appended lists embrace the names of all the judges who have held courts in Clark, with their respective terms of service, and also-' the names of all the prosecuting attorneys:
Thomas C. Brown, Sept., 1819, to April, 1820; William Wilson, Chief Justice, April, 1830, to May, 1825; James O. Wattles, May, 1825, to Nov., 1825; James Hall, Nov., 1825, to May, 1S26; James O. Wattles, May, 1826, to April, 1827; William Wilson, April, 1827, to April, 1835; Justin Harlan, April, 1835, to Oct., 1835; Alex. F. Grant, Oct., 18:J5, to May, 183(j; Justin Harlan, May, 1836, to May, 1841; William Wilson, May, 1841, to May, 1849; Justin Harlan, 1849 to 1801; Charles H. Constable, 1801 to 1860; Hiram B. Decius, 1806 to 1872; Oliver L. Davis, 1872 to 1879; William E. Nelson, Colonel B. Smith, Oliver L. Davis, Jacob W. Wilken.
Prosecuting Attorneys.—.John M. Robinson, Edwin B. Webb, Orlando B. Ficklin, Augustus C. French; Gardner B. Shellady, Aaron Shaw, Alfred Kitchell, John Scholfield, James R. Cunningham, Silas S. Whitehead, John L. Ryan, Thomas L. Orndorff.
The late Judge Harlan, with his prodigious memory, possessed an inexhaustible store of anecdotes, of old time courts, gleaned from his long years of individual experience as judge, and many were the amusing stories he related to the writer of early days, and two we will here repeat: In one of the southern counties of the circuit, a long, lank and cadaverous specimen, and as verdant as the backwoods he hailed from, was elected sheriff. He was clever and good hearted, and had a stentorian voice. At the first court after his election he walked into the room, carrying a heavy rifle, and dressed in a costume at once unique and picturesque. He wore the inevitable wamus, and his nether extremities were encased in a new pair of bright, pea green unmentionables, except a ten inch abbreviation of each leg was pieced out with cloth of blue. His first words were: "Well, Jedge, I'm the sheriff, what'll you have?" "Convene court, Mr. Sheriff." "Do what, Jedge?" replied the sheriff, the word "convene" having floored him. "Open court, Mr. Sheriff." This was done in a tone that shook the rafters. Not a juryman was present, and the judge inquired, "Where is the panel, sheriff?" "Where is the what, Jedge?" "Why, the panel, the jury." "Oh! they're round somewhar, and I'll hunt 'em up." In a few minutes he returned, and said: "There's going to be a fight over at Brayley's, and they won't come 'till after its over." "Mr. sheriff," said the judge sternly, "I command you to bring the jury here forthwith." "All right, Jedge, I'll fetch em." And seizing his rifle he marched over to Brayley's, and in a tone full of meaning, said: "Boys, the old man over thar is madder'n a hornet, and wants you oraediately. I'll give you jest one minit to git, and the chap that aint trottin' then, I'll drop," bringing his gun to his shoulder. It goes without saying, that the jury was speedily impaneled.
No irreverence is intended by the following, but is merely to show the ignorance and stupidity of an officer, and a practical joke of early days: Among the hangers-on at the court, was a fellow named Murray, occasionally a jury man or bailiff. He was a great favorite with the judge, who liked him for his many genial qualities and sunny nature, but he was an incorrigible wan-. Taking the sheriff aside after the first adjournment, he told him privately as a friend, that he had been talking to the judge, who was well pleased with his promptness and efficiency, all except his manner of adjournment. But that he, the judge, felt some delicacy in telling him, for fear of wounding his feelings. That the adjournment ought to be made in his loudest tones, so the outside world could hear, and that under the new code, the adjournment should be closed with "so help me Jesus Christ and General Jackson, Amen," as this was a Democratic county. He urged him to say nothing, and at the next adjournment, both surprise and please the judge. The sheriff, aware of Murray's intimacy with the judge, believed him implicitly. That evening, at the proper hour, the judge observed, "Mr. Sheriff, adjourn court." At a nod from Murray the officer braced himself and with a roar that awoke the echoes for a mile or more, he yelled: "Oh! yes; Oh! yes; the honorable Circuit Court is now adjourned until to-morrow morning at nine o'clock, so help me Jesus Christ and General Jackson, amen!"
The court was adjourned, and the sheriff near losing his position for contempt, until Murray explained, and received a severe reprimand.
Clark County with a distinct organization extending through sixty- four years, from the morning till the twilight of the nineteenth century has had but very few officers in some departments. Owing to the absence of some of the old records, it is difficult to collate an accurate list of all those who have been honored by the citizens of the county with positions of profit and trust. Especially is this the case with regard to the treasurers and coroners. It is a fact to be remarked, however, that in all the offices since the formation of the county but one vacancy has been occasioned by death, and but three from resignation. Owing to the then large area of the county, and the sparse population, the duties of some of the pioneer county officers were extremely arduous. In the listing of taxable property by the treasurer, and the collection of the revenue by the sheriff, the isolation of the settlements necessitated long and tedious journals, through a wilderness without roads, leagues often intervening between habitations. Judge Stockwell relates that he once collected the taxes throughout the county, and walked through deep snow over the site of the present town of Charleston, Coles county, at the time the surveyors were laying it out, and at the end of a week, he found upon comparing, that he had traveled a mile for each cent of revenue he had received. At the December term, 1819, of the commissioners' court, the following appears of record: "It appearing to the court, that William Lockard, treasurer, has been put to much trouble in taking a list of taxable property this present year, that the sum allowed by law is not sufficient to compensate him, therefore court do allow him extra of his allowance by law, which amounts to only nine dollars and ten cents for this present year, the sum of fifteen dollars." No doubt this was considered ample remuneration for listing the property of a county at that time comprising one eighth of the entire State. To-day the sum would scarcely complete the assessment of a school district. In the summoning of jurors, witnessess, etc., the serving of a single process often involved a journey of a hundred miles. Yet the salary of the sheriff was but fifty dollars per annum. County treasurers were appointed by the commissioners, and the office was not one usually from which the incumbent retired rolling in wealth. In addition to his allowance for assessment services, he received two per centum commission on collected revenues, which, in exceptional years, amounted to as much as four dollars, which swelled the aggregate of his annual salary to as much as thirty dollars. Charles Patrick, a pioneer treasurer, in an exhibit of the fiscal concerns of the county, reported that the levy of the previous year was two hundred and fifty dollars, and that all outstanding orders, except two for a dollar each, had been redeemed, and these remained in the treasury, not otherwise appropriated, the sum of sixteen and one fourth cents. He also suggested and recommended a reduction in the tax levy of the then current year. No doubt he had the interest of the tax payers at heart, and perhaps was desirous to avoid the weighty responsibility of having as much as three hundred dollars in the county coffers at one time. The clerk of the circuit and commissioners' courts, for one person filled the dual position, was paid about in the same proportion.
The salary of Jacob Harlan for the year 1834 was but $74.25, which amount included the sum of $6.87 1/2 expended for years' supply of stationery. For every dollar then paid, we now pay hundreds for the same articles. But these were the days of real frugality and economy. All legal instruments and documents, summons, deeds, assessment lists, county orders, election notices, and in fact every instrument, was written out at length, as printed blanks were very rare and etc :exceedingly costly. In 1824 the clerk was ordered to procure one quire of printed blank deeds, and the same cost $9 in Vandalia, the nearest press in the State, besides seventy-five cents postage to Darwin. This was the last purchase of blanks for many years. And it should he had in mind that the salaries of these officers were paid generally in State bank notes, then very much depreciated. Though the county was small in population and extensive in territory, yet when we compare the cost of conducting affairs then with that of to-day', one is astounded at the contrast, and is a convincing argument that advanced civilization and refinement are expensive luxuries. The population at the time referred to was about one eleventh as large as it is to-day, and it would be natural to presume that the business of the county, and the cost of conducting it, would increase in the same ratio as the inhabitants. But such is not the case in the matter of expenses, which have grown enormously' and far beyond all reasonable proportion. It is safe to say that the present cost of maintaining any one of the important county offices for one year would have defrayed every county expense in that day, including all courts, jurors, elections, salaries of officers, stationery, etc., for five years.
The following county judges have worn the judicial ermine since the organization of the county. In early times they were appointed by the Legislature and were paid by fees:
Samuel Prevo, 1819 to 1823; Charles Neely, 1823 to 1825; Jacob Harlan, 1825 to 1835; Uri Manly, 1835 to 1843; Stephen Archer, 1843 to 1853; John Bartlett, 1853 to 1854, resigned; John Stockwell, 1854 to 1857; William C. Whitlock, 1857 to 1869; William R. Griffith, 1869 to 1873; Justin Harlan, 1873 to 1877; William R. Griffith,(1) 1877 to 1882; Eth Sutton, 1882.
The commission of Samuel Prevo, first Judge of Probate, is among the county files, and is the oldest document of the kind in the county. It is dated February 12, 1821, signed by Shadrach Bond, Governor, and Elias K. Kane, Secretary of State, and the usual formula, " To whom all these presents shall come, greeting:" reads, "To all who shall see these presents." The first instrument ever recorded in the county, however, was the stockmark of Charles Neely, bearing date May 26, 1819. The judge of the Circuit Court appointed its clerk,and the county commissioners their clerk,though one person usually filled both positions. And it was not uncommon for the offices of probate judge, circuit and county clerk, and justice of the peace, to be held by one individual. Jacob Harlan officiated in three of these capacities for years.
CLERK OF CIRCUIT AND COUNTY COMMISSIONERS' COURTS.
William B. Archer, (2) 1819 to 1832; Jacob Harlan, 1823 to 1836; Jonathan N. Rathbone, 1836 to 1837; 'Uri Manly, 1837 to 1842; Newton Harlan, 1842 to 1848; William B. Archer, 1848 to 1852; William P. Bennett, 1852 to 1860; Thomas W. Cole, 1860 to 1872; Daniel J. Davidson, 1872 to 1880; William B. Hodge, Jr., 1880—elected for four years.
In 1836, the circuit and county clerkships were separated, the latter being made elective. Jonathan N. Rathbone was chosen to the office September 5, 1836, and served until March, 1837, when he resigned, and Joshua P. Cooper was appointed to fill the vacancy, and served until September of same year, when Darius Phillips was elected and held the office until 1851, when he resigned. Phillips was an able and competent officer; was an old resident, and was county treasurer for one or more terms. By accident he became crippled in his right hand, and acquired the art of writing with his left, and was an accomplished scribe. He was very popular for a time, and possessed the unlimited confidence of the entire people. But at last he was suspected of being connected with that extensive and thoroughly organized horde of murderers and thieves, which infested the Mississippi valley, and for a long time defied the law, and was under the leadership of the notorious Bob Birch, of Anderson township, this county, whose capture, escape, and final breaking up of the gang is so thrillingly recounted by Edward Bonny, a renegade member, as was generally believed. Phillips was accused with being in constant communication with the gang in this county, and forewarning them with needful information concerning legal prosecutions, etc. So confirmed became this suspicion that, in 1851, the regulators gave him an unmerciful whipping, his shirt being cut into ribbons. Immediately after the castigation, he climbed upon a stump, and in a brief but affecting speech to the regulators, resigned his office, and in a short time left the country. Howard Harlan, Sr., filled the vacancy, by appointment, until the succeeding fall, when John Stockwell was chosen, and served until December, 1853. Allen B. Briscoe was elected in November of same year, and was re-elected five consecutive terms, and was succeeded by the present incumbent, Harrison Black, December 1. 1377, who was re-elected in 1885, for the term of four years.
Clark, since her organization, has had twenty-four sheriffs, as follows:
Isaac Parker, 1819 to 1S20; .John Welsh, 1820 to 1833; Joseph Morrison, 1833 to 1834; James P. Jones, 1S34 to 1831; John Stockwell, 1S31 to 1S3S; James Lockard, 1838 to 1843; William P. Bennett, 1843 to 1848; Samuel McClure, 1848 to 1850; Thomas Handy, 1850 to 1853; Samuel McClure, 1853 to 1854; Horace E. Ritchie, 1854 to 1850; Morrison Spenny, 1850 to 1858; John B. Briscoe, 1858 to 1860; Nicholas Hurst, 1860 to 1863; Andrew J. Smith, 1863 to 1864; Timothy H. Connely, 1864 to 1866; Joseph A. Howe, 1866 to 1868; Timothy H. Connely, 1868 to 1870; Samuel Lacy, 1870 to 1873; Warren Bartlett, 1873 to 1876; William T. Flood, 1876 to 1878; William H. Beadle, 1878 to 1880; Henry Sherman, 1880 to 1883; Jacob N. Farr, 1883—elected for four years.
Though lacking the halo of warlike tradition and romance; though destitute of historic personages and deeds of arms, embalmed in story and in song; though wanting memorable battle-fields, made sacred by patriot blood; though not glorified with heroic achievements in the " times that tried men's souls;" though not a county during the struggle of 1813; yet the military history of Clark, though young and limited, is honorable, and one of which she may well be proud; one that reflects luster on her name, and credit on her patriotism; a history, every page of which has proven her sons worthy descendants of courageous ancestry. The sires and grandsires of our early settlers had fought with unwavering hearts through the darkest hours of the Revolution; had crimsoned the snows with bleeding feet on long and perilous marches; starving and in rags, they had counted the lonely day's through that terrible winter at Valley Forge; they had lived on parched corn, and burrowed with the " swamp fox " in Carolinian- marshes, only sallying from their fastnesses to strike a blow for freedom; sustained and inspired through all their hardships, through all their sufferings, with an unfaltering and implicit faith in their ultimate independence. Strong in their might, invincible in their cause, the day of triumph at last dawned, and beneath the bending skies at Yorktown, they beheld the lion of England prostrate in the dust before the eagle of America. And from these heroes our pioneers inherited the same fierce love of liberty that brooked no trammels which partook of oppression and injustice. They, too, knew what war was. They bad threaded dangerous defiles, with Harmer, bristling with unseen and relentless foes; had stood in the gloom of death under ill-fated St. Clair, when the groans of the scalped and dying mingled with the crack of the rifle and the yells of savage victory. They had seen the blackened ruins and charred remains of kindred at Fort Minns; had fought with Harrison at Tippecanoe, and with ringing shouts hurled back the purple tide of Indian warfare, and avenged the sickening butcheries of other days. They stood at New Orleans, and before their deadly rifles the flower of Britain's chivalry melted like morning mist before the sunbeams.
The first attempt to establish a military force in Clark, on a peace footing, was in June, 1831, when the commissioners proceeded to lay off the county into company districts for the organization of the militia. Union and Dubois townships were each a company district, and Washington and Pike composed one. County musters were required to be held at county seat the first Saturday in April, annually. Yearly battalion and regimental drills were had in September. Fines were imposed upon members for non-attendance to these, ranging from fifty to seventy five cents. Officers were fined for neglecting to wear any and every article of uniform. At all musters, shooting matches for beef and other property, including whisky, were legalized by State law. At these gatherings collected the best marksmen, far and near, and many were the close and exciting trials of skill. Running, jumping, wrestling, pitching horse-shoes, and other athletic sports, were indulged in, while every crowbait in the county, that could head off a steer, was paraded as a race-horse. In fact these musters were carnivals of environment on the frontier, during which our early settlers abandoned themselves to feasting, carousing and general jollity.
In November, 1804, by a treaty made by Gen. Harrison with the chiefs of the Sac and Fox nations of Indians, all their lands. Rock river, and much more elsewhere, were ceded to the government. This treaty was afterward ratified by portions of the tribes in 1815 and 1816. But there was one old turbulent Sac chief who always denied the validity of these treaties, and by his wild and stirring eloquence at times, though usually gloomy and taciturn, incited the Indians to hostilities. He was distinguished for his courage, and for his clemency to prisoners. He was firmly attached to the British; had been an aid to the famous Tecumseh and cordially hated the Americans. This chief was Mucata Muhicatah or Black Hawk. Under pretense that the treaties before referred to were void. Black Hawk, in the spring of 1831, with three hundred warriors, invaded the State, drove off the white settlers, destroyed their crops, killed their stock, and other violent depredations, besides committing several murders. By the promptness of the military he was quickly checked, and compelled to sue for peace, and ratified the original treaty of 1804. Notwithstanding this treaty, Black Hawk, with about six hundred warriors, again entered the State in the spring of 1832, and committed many acts of vandalism. Great alarm prevailed, and Governor Reynold's issued his call for two thousand troops which was promptly answered. This was the first demand upon the patriotism of our county. Drafting was at first resorted to fill Clark's quota, but as this entailed considerable hardship and injustice, volunteers were called for. Two companies of about eighty men each were quickly raised and mustered at Darwin, and reported to and were accepted by the governor. The officers of the first company were William B. Archer, captain, Danie Poorman, first lieutenant, and Royal A. Knott second lieutenant. Upon arriving at the rendezvous, Captain Archer was assigned to the staff of the commanding general with the rank of colonel, and Royal A. Knott was elected captain. The officers of the second company were John F. Richardson, captain; Woodford Dulaney, first lieutenant, and Justin Harlan, second lieutenant. Both these companies served with distinction until the war was ended.
The next call upon Clark for the military services of her sons, was in the war with Mexico. One company of about seventy-five men was raised and mustered at Marshall, and officered as follows: William B. Archer, captain; Nicholas Hurst, first lieutenant, and Charles Whitlock, second lieutenant. The company left Marshall June 6, 1846, and was transported to Alton in wagons; arrived there and reported to the governor, and was by him received as company number twenty seven, on the 9th following. The company was discharged June 27, 184G, the State's quota having been filled by previously accepted troops. By an act of the Legislature, of February 20, 1847, the sum of six hundred dollars was appropriated by the State to defray the expenses and pay for the services of the company; and Justin Harlan, Timothy R. Young and Uri Manley, were appointed a B lard of Commissioners for the disbursement of the fund. Several members of the company, confident that it would not be received, and anxious to serve their country}-, enlisted in other organizations, and served through the entire war, participating in its fiercest battles, one being killed at Buena Vista. Among these were the Hon. .James C Robinson, David Dolson, Austin Handy, Daniel and Luther Groves, and James Bennett.
The next occasion upon which Clark was called upon to manifest her patriotism and devotion to the country, was the war of the rebellion 1861-5. It is unnecessary to refer to the causes which precipitated that stupendous struggle, that most gigantic civil war that marks the history of the world, for they are familiar to all.
On the 4th of March, 1861, on the marble in front of the national capitol, in the presence of thronging thousands that surged like an ocean around their feet, stood two men, Abraham Lincoln and James Buchanan, one old and gray, and bowed by responsibilities and years, gladly laying down the burden of his power and august position over a great people, for the quietude of a peaceful home; the other, accepting the thorny glories of the White House, and outward bound into the wild turmoil of contending hosts and heroic deeds. The strife of opinions and clash of factions which had been waxing deeper and stronger between the North and South concentrated after Lincoln's election, and the heart of the Nation was almost rent in twain before he took the inaugural oath. Already had a Southern government been organized; already had the Palmetto flag kissed the sky at Montgomery. And when these two men shook hands, it was a supreme moment portentous with mighty events—the commencement of an epoch grand and terrible in the history of our country. And when Abraham Lincoln solemnly swore to preserve intact the Constitution and Union of his fathers, peace veiled her face, and shuddering, fled before the darkening pall and lowering gloom of intestine war. No one realized the coming terror, or thought how easy it was for a war of passions to verge into a war of blood. The idea of a rebellion that would rend our fair country for long and cruel years, that would fill the whole length and breadth of the land with widows and orphans, was not recognized as a possibility. The people hoped against hope that the calamity of war would be averted, that milder counsels would prevail, that some plans of pacification could be united upon. But all in vain, and when in the twilight calm of a southern morning a screaming shell burst over Sumter, its reverberations echoed from sea to sea, and aroused a mighty nation to arms. How little did the actors in that opening scene dream of the horrors that were to follow!
In response to the first call for troops, in early May, 1S61, a company was at once enlisted, with. Edwin Harlan as captain, and Nineveh S. McKeen and A. G. Austin as first and second lieutenants. It was afterward assigned to and became Company " H," 21st Infantry, of which U. S. Grant was colonel, and then began his illustrious military career. The next were Company " G," 10th Infantry, and Company " B," 2d Artillery. As the war progressed old Clark, true to her ^ancestry, sent company after company. She was represented by Companies " F," of the 30th; " G," of the Sixth; "C,"of the 62d; "G," of the 70th; "I," of the 79th; " K," of the 130th, and " G," of the 152d Regiments of Illinois Infantry. She had Company " K" in 1st Missouri Cavalry; her sons fought in the 14th Indiana. She was represented by detachments in Illinois and other State regiments other than above mentioned. Space precludes an extended mention of each, and comparisons would be invidious. Suffice it to say they fought and died as freemen, and shed imperishable glory on the arms of the State. Clark, throughout that long and desperately contested war, sent 1,.560 men to the field, over one tenth her population at the time, of which number it is safe to say, one eighth never returned.
Old Clark was largely represented in the War of the Rebellion, and her sons fought in nearly every important battle in the south and Southwest. They were in that gallant host that captured Forts Henry and Donelson. They stood in the murderous hail at Crab Orchard and Stone River. They stormed at Lookout midst missing shot and hurtling shell, and planted the banner of their country amid the war and shock of battle upon his dizzy crest. At Chickamauga they rallied around that " Rock of the Union," General Thomas, and aided in stemming the tide of inglorious defeat. They charged at Fredericktown and fought at Mission Ridge. Their blood crimsoned the fated field of Shiloh, and reddened the sod at Atlanta. They were in the sieges of Vicksburg and Mobile, at Corinth and the Wilderness. Before Nashville, at Franklin and Five Forks. They were in that wonderful masterpiece of modern warfare, unequaled in its boldness of conception and execution in the history of the world, in that army that swept to the sea, and thence northward through the Carolinas and Virginia. They wore out their lives in weary waiting and hopeless captivity amidst the cruelty and disease of loathsome prison pens, and their ashes repose at Andersonville and Tyler. The bones of her children rest in unmarked graves along the lonely bayous of Texas and Louisiana. In the dusky glades of the Wilderness, in the sunny savannahs of Georgia, at the foot of frowning Lookout. And their bones reposing on the fields they helped to win, and in the graves they fill, are a perpetual pledge that no flag shall ever wave over their silent dust but the flag they died to maintain.
Herewith are appended the muster-rolls of the two companies furnished by Clark County, during the Black Hawk War, and also the names of those who served, during the war with Mexico. They are appended in the belief that it is eminently appropriate that the names and memories of these gallant men should be perpetuated within the pages of this work, and that it will be a matter of interest to their descendants, for generations to come. The first company raised in the Black Hawk War, was that of William B. Archer, of which mention has heretofore been made. It was known as Capt. Royal A. Knott's company of the 1st Regiment of the 2nd Brigade, Illinois Mounted Volunteers, called into the service of the United States by the Governor's proclamation of May 15, 1832, and mustered out August 15, 1832
The following is the roster:
Daniel Poorman, 1st Lieut. George W. Young, 2d Lieut, discharged July 21, 1832. Lost mare.
Sergeants.—Stephen Archer, John Fears, James Lockard, Oliver C. Lawell.
Corporals.—William T. McClure, James Dunlap, discharged July 31, 1832; Noah Beauchamp, discharged July 31, 1833; John W. Thompson, lost mare, saddle, bridle and blanket.
Privates.—Jesse K. Archer, Daniel Boone, lost horse, strayed away; Samuel Burk, lost horse; William Bostick, George Berry, Thos. F. Bennett, Theophilus Cooper, lost his horse; Joel Cowen, Chalkley L. Cooper, lost mare; Jeremiah Crip, lost mare; Martin L. Chenoiveth, Alexander H. DeHart, discharged July 21, 1832; Lorenzo D. D. Hart, disch. July 21, 1832; Alhanan Davis, Daniel Davis, Samuel Dolsiin, furloughed, Aug. 9, 1832; Andrew Fleming, discharged July, 21, 1832; Ahalis Fanin, horse worn out; Phineas Fears, lost his blanket; Martin Grove, John B. Grant, James E. Henderson, Hez. A. Henderson, Sanford Johnson, Moses Kennedy, discharged July 21, 1832; Marshall Lafferty, Artemas Lathrop, William McCabe, John McCabe, John McGuire, Thomas Minor, Benj. Ogden, sick and furloughed June 21; Nehemiah Ogdon, Absalom O. Peters, Samuel Poorman, discharged July 21 ; Samuel Prevo, furloughad August 7, 1832; Ira Prevo, Ebenezer Payne, discharged July 24 ; Lyman B. Squires, Elon Sharp, lost blanket; James Shaw, Elijah Stafford, discharged July 21; John Van Winkle lost his blanket; John Waters, lost his horse; Thomas Warle, Thomas White, lost his horse.
This company of volunteers assembled in Darwin, Clark County, Illinois, May 31st, 1832, and then and there elected officers; and from that place marched June 3, 1832, and under the Governor's order rendezvoused at Hennepin, on the Illinois river, June 11; next day marched and arrived at Fort Wilbourn, Lower Rapid, Illinois river, and the company was mustered into the United States' service June 19th, 1832.
August 15, 1832, (signed) Royal A. Knott, Captain
The next command was Captain John F. Richardson's company, of Spy Battalion, 2d Brigade Illinois Militia Mounted Volunteers, called into service same as company foregoing; organized June 5, 1832, marched to Fort Wilbourn and was mustered into the service of the United States June 19, 1832, and mustered out at Dixon's Ferry, Rock River, Illinois, August 15, 1832.
The following is the roster:
Woodford Dunlaney, 1st Lieut, furloughed August 4, 1832; Justin Harlan, 2d Lieut, furloughed August 4, 1832.
Sergeants.—Jacob Dolson, John Wilson, lost horse, saddle and bridle ; Asher V. Burwell, lost saddle and spancels; Robert Davidson, horse gave out, left at Ft. Winnebago.
Corporals.—Christian Jeffers, Nathan Hallenbeck, Richard Ross, George Wilson.
Privates.—Zeno A. Ashmore, Samuel M. Biggs, furnished Martin I.,. Ashmore, as subst.; Franklin Cooper, lost horse and saddle; Daniel Davidson, Aspano Elliot, Andrew Hadden, supposed to have been discharged; Samuel Hadden, supposed to have been discharged;.Joseph Hogue, supposed to have been discharged; George Johnson, supposed to have been discharged; John Kerr, supposed to have been discharged; Conrad F. Locker, lost his horse; Joseph W. Markle, Stephen Nott, Nineveh Shaw, appointed adjutant; Cyrus Sharp, Martin Thomas, Robert Taylor, deserted June 20; James Williams, Gideon B. White, Samuel White, lost his gun and blankets; Luther White, Robert White, Tarleton Wheeler, lost his horse; Alexander Yocum, Abel Laugham, supposed to be discharged.
As has been elsewhere remarked, Clark had no distinct organization in the war with Mexico. After the rejection, by the governor, of the company from this county, several of its members enlisted in other organizations, and served through the war. The following list is reasonably accurate, though others may have served whose names are not embraced within it.
In company " K," Capt. Lyman Mowers, of the First Regiment Illinois Foot Volunteers, commanded by Colonel John J. Hardin, were the following privates: David Dolson, Isaac English, Stephen Elam, Lyman Guinnip, Jonathan Groves, Luther Groves, Austin Handy, Cyrus Lathrop and W. H. Robinson. They were enrolled June 18, 1846, at Alton, and were discharged June 17, 1847, at Camargo, Mexico. In company " D," Captain W. W. Bishop, of the Third Regiment, Illinois Volunteers, Col. Ferris Fornian, were Sergeant Burns Harlan, left wounded in hospital at Vera Cruz, May 7, 1847, and Corporal James C. Robinson. Their company participated in the siege of Vera Cruz, and at the battle of Cerro Gordo, and was discharged at New Orleans, May 21, 1847. In company " H," Captain John S. McConkey, of the Fourth Regiment, under Col. E. D. Baker, was Robert J. Eaton, discharged October 13, 1846, in Mexico, on surgeon's certificate of disability.
(1) It will be seen by the foregoing list that Judge Griffith, as well as all the other officers whose terms of office expired in 1881, held until the general election of 1882, as provided by legislative enactment
(2) W. B. Archer resigned as clerk Commissioners Court, March, 1820, and as circuit clerk, May, 1822, and was succeeded in each position by Jacob Harlan.
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