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Biographies of Cook County Residents
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ABBOTT, Emma, prima donna, born in Chicago, Ill., in 1850. Her father was a music teacher, and he encouraged her and her brother George to develop the musical talents that each showed at a very early age. Emma was a singing child, and under her father's training she sang well and became a proficient performer on the guitar. Professor Abbott moved from Chicago to Peoria, Ill., in 1854. There his patronage was so small that his family was in straitened circumstances. He gave a concert in 1859, in which the young Emma was prima donna and guitar player, and her brother was her support. The entertainment was a success, and Professor Abbott and his two talented children gave a large number of concerts in other towns and cities, with varying fortunes. In 1866 the finances of the family were at a low ebb, and Emma took a district school to teach in order to assist in supporting the household. Emma's early lessons on the guitar and her brother's on the violin were not entirely paid for until she had become a successful concert singer in New York. At the age of thirteen she taught the guitar with success. Her education was acquired in the Peoria public schools. When she was sixteen years old she sang in the synagogue in Peoria. At that age she joined the Lombard Concert Company, of Chicago, and traveled with them in Iowa, Illinois, and Wisconsin. When the company disbanded Emma found herself in Grand Haven, Mich., friendless and moneyless. With her guitar she started out alone and gave concerts in Michigan and the neighboring States, and thus worked her way to New York City, where she gave parlor concerts in the hotels in which she staid, and in that way earned the money for her expenses. Failing to gain notice in New York, she borrowed money and returned to the west. She tried a concert season in Chicago and Milwaukee, but was unsuccessful. She then tried a number of smaller towns and ended her tour in a failure in a hotel in Toledo, Ohio. Among her hearers in that slimly attended concert was Clara Louise Kellogg, who recognized her merit and gave her money enough to go to New York, with a letter to raised $ 10,000 to send her to Europe for musical training. She went to Milan and studied with San Giovanni, and afterwards to Paris, where she studied under Wartel for several years. She studied with Delle Sadie also. While in Paris, she suffered an illness that threatened the destruction of her voice. She made a successful debut, however, and she had there a warm friend in the Baroness Rothschild. Numerous enticing offers were made to her by European managers. She made an engagement with Manager Gye in London, but refused, on moral grounds, to appear in the opera, "La Traviata." In this she was supported by Eugene Wetherell, her husband. He was a member of Dr. Chapin's church and had followed her to Europe, where they were secretly married. Her refusal to sing that role ended in the cancellation of her engagement with Mr. Gye. In 1876 she returned to the United States, and with C. D. Hess organized an opera company. She appeared in the Park Theater, Brooklyn, N. Y., in her famous role of Marguerite. Soon after she became her own manager, and her husband and Charles Pratt attended to her business until Mr. Wetherel s sudden death in Denver, Col., in 1888. Miss Abbott, for she always retained her maiden name, was successful from the start. In spite of abuse, ridicule and misrepresentation, she drew large audiences wherever she appeared. The critics at first derided her in every possible way, but the public did not heed the critics and crowded to hear the courageous little woman who could maintain her good temper under a shower of ridicule, the like of which never before fell upon the head of a public personage. She grew artistically every year, and her stainless character, her generosity to her company, her gifts to charity, and her industry and perseverance at length won over the critics, who had simply made manifest their inability to write down a really meritorious artist. Miss Abbott sang throughout the United States, and in an incredibly short time she had amassed a fortune of several millions of dollars. Her voice was a pure, clear, long-range soprano of great flexibility. Her roles included Norma, Semiramide, Elvira, Martha, Lucia, and Marguerite, and in her last years she appeared in costumes more magnificent than any other singer had ever worn. She died in Ogden, Utah, 4th January, 1891, after an illness of less than a week. Her funeral was held in Chicago on 9th January, her body was cremated, in accordance with a provision of her will, and its ashes were deposited in the magnificent mausoleum she had built in Gloucester, Mass. Her large fortune was divided by her will among her relatives and friends, and various churches and charitable societies. (American Women, Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Vol 1, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow.)


AHRENS, Mrs. Mary A., lawyer and philanthropist, born in Staffordshire, England, 29th December, 1836. When she was fifteen years of age her family moved to America and settled in Illinois. Mary was a pupil in the seminary in Galesburg for several years, and a close student until her first marriage in 1857. In her home she took up the study of medicine and earned her diploma. She felt impelled to labor for the elevation of the recently emancipated colored race, and was the first woman teacher in southern Illinois for that ignorant and long-neglected people. For years after her removal to Chicago Mrs. Ahrens devoted herself largely to the lecture field, for which she is well qualified. Soon after her marriage to Louis Ahrens, an artist of ability, this woman of many talents entered the Chicago Union College of Law, and was graduated with honors in 1889. Her success as a practitioner has been marked. As vice-president of the Protective Agency for Women and Children, Mrs. Ahrens has been of great service to that benevolent organization. Mrs. Ahrens was made chairman of the Woman's School Suffrage Association, of Cook county, and her efforts to secure to the women citizens their legal right to vote at school elections entitle her to the gratitude of every woman in the State. She is a member of the Illinois Woman's Press Association. Her home is in Chicago.

(American Women, Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Vol 1, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow.)


AMES, Miss Julia A., editor and temperance reformer, born near Odell, Livingston county, Ill., 14th October, 1861. She was the daughter of a well-known wealthy citizen of Streator, Ill. She was a graduate of Streator high school, the Illinois Wesleyan University, and of the Chicago School of Oratory. Her work in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union began in Streator, where she proved herself a most valuable and efficient helper to Mrs. Plumb, the district president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Her peculiar talents for temperance work soon brought her into prominence, and she was drawn into the central union in Chicago. There, in addition to her elocutionary talents and executive capacity, she showed herself the possessor of the journalistic faculty, and she was soon placed where she could make good use of that faculty for the noble organization of temperance workers. The first of the Chicago daily newspapers to publish a Woman's Christian Temperance Union department was the "Inter-Ocean." In her first interviews with the editors, Miss Ames received many charges and cautions, all of which she tried faithfully to heed. Yet, in spite of her care, everything she sent was sharply scanned and often mercilessly cut. At first only a few inches of space were given to her. This was gradually increased as the editors learned they could trust her, till, before she gave the department into other hands, she usually occupied nearly a column, and editors ceased to cut her manuscript. Other and more important work soon came to her hand. The national superintendent of press-work, Mrs. Esther Housh, found her labor too great for her strength, and Miss Ames was appointed her assistant. She performed all the necessary work in this field until her duties on the "Union Signal" forced her to give the work into other hands. Her connection with the central union brought her into intimate contact with many noble women, among whom were Helen Louise Hood, Mrs. Matilda B. Carse, Mrs. Andrew and Miss Willard. Her intercourse with them molded her views and life visibly, and her progress was rapid. Position after position called her, and in each she did earnest, noble work without stint. When Mrs. Andrew felt that, on account of her health, she must give up her work on the "Union Signal," the question of her successor was earnestly discussed. The thoughts of the leaders at once turned to Miss Ames, and despite her youth, she justified the choice of those who urged her to follow Mrs. Andrew. Up to 1889 her special province was the difficult one of news from the field and children's department. She originated the department of illustrated biography and the queen's garden. In all her work she showed a thoroughness, patience and courtesy absolutely indispensable to success, yet seldom found united in one person. Her forte was not so much writing, though she was ready with her pen, as it was that higher faculty which instinctively told her what to choose and what to reject of others' writing, and the winning power to draw from them their best thoughts. In 1889 she had sole charge of the "Umon Signal" in the absence of the editor. She took a vacation trip to Europe in 1890, spending a month in London, England, and visiting Lady Henry Somerset at Eastnor Castle. Miss Ames was received with honor by the British Woman's Temperance Association. While in London, she organized the press department of that society on lines similar to those of the American organization. She traveled through Europe with a chosen party conducted by Miss Sarah E. Morgan, under the auspices of Mrs. M. B. Willard's school for girls. She witnessed the Passion Play at Oberammergau, visited Rome and other famous cities and returned to the United States refreshed in mind and body to resume her editorial duties on the "Union Signal " She attended the Boston convention in November, 1891, in her editorial capacity. She assisted in editing the daily "Union Signal," prepared the Associated Press dispatches each night, and was the chairman of one or two committees. She was not well when she left Chicago, and she contracted a severe cold, which through the pressure of her work developed into typhoid pneumonia, of which she died 12th December, 1891. Miss Ames was a member of the Woman's Temperance Publishing Association Circle of King's Daughters and was president of that organization when she left Chicago for her European tour. The silver cross and the white ribbon were the symbols of her life. She was an efficient worker, a thorough organizer and the possessor of more than ordinary executive capacity. She was direct, positive, earnest, amiable and indefatigable.

(American Women, Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Vol 1, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow.)


BROWN, Mrs. Corinne Stubbs, socialist, born in what is now the very heart of Chicago, Ill., in 1849. Her mother, Jane McWilliams, was born in London, England, and when a child was keenly alive to the part taken by her elder brothers in the repeal of the Corn Laws of England. Coming to the United States when she was seventeen years old, she met and was married to Timothy R. Stubbs, the father of Corinne. He was from Maine, with its hard, stony soil, a stair-builder by trade, and a man of strong and somewhat domineering character. His idea of parental duty led him to keep strict watch on his daughters. He forbade the reading of fiction and insisted on regular attendance at the Swedenborgian church. The latter command was obeyed, but the former was by Corinne considered unreasonable, and therefore disregarded. She read everything that came in her way, but her vigorous intellect refused to assimilate anything that could weaken it, and today fiction has little attraction for her, unless it be of marked excellence or originality. She acquired her education in the public schools of Chicago, continuing after her graduation to identify herself with them as a teacher. Good order and discipline were the rule in her department, and her governing ability led in time to her appointment as principal, a post which she relinquished to become the wife of Frank E. Drown, a gentleman well known in business circles, whose name may be found on the list of officers of many benevolent enterprises. During the quiet of domestic life succeeding her marriage, Mrs. Brown's active mind prepared itself for new fields of thought and research, and she eagerly seized upon the social problems which began to thrust themselves upon the notice of all thinking people. She read, studied and talked with those who had investigated the causes of the glaring inequalities in social position, and of the increasing number of immense fortunes on the one hand and pauperism on the other. For a time she affiliated with the single-tax party, but its methods did not satisfy her as being adequate to effect the social revolution necessary to banish involuntary poverty. After much research she accepted socialism as the true remedy and Karl Marx as its apostle. Out of this naturally grew her desire to work for the helpless and oppressed, especially among women. She joined the Ladies' Federal Labor Union, identifying herself with working women and gaining an insight into their needs. In 1888 a meeting of that society was called to take action on an exposure of the wrongs of factory employees made in a daily paper. The result of the meeting was the organization of the Illinois Woman's Alliance, to obtain the enforcement and enactment of factory ordinances and of the compulsory education laws. As president of that society, which now includes delegates from twenty-eight organizations of women, Mrs. Brown has become widely known. In addition to her work in the Alliance, Mrs. Brown is connected with the Nationalists, the Queen Isabella Association and other societies, chiefly those having for their object the advancement of women.
(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies Vol 1 Publ. 1897 Transcribed by Marla Snow)


BUSHNELL, Miss Kate, physician and evangelist, born in Peru, Ill., 5th February, 1856. She is a descendant of a prominent family that traces its ancestors to John Rogers, the Smithfield martyr. She received a public-school education in her native State and attended the Northwestern University, in Evanston, Ill. Selecting the medical profession, she became a private pupil of Dr. James S. Jewell, the noted specialist in nerve diseases. Later she finished her medical education in the Chicago Woman's Medical College, was graduated M.D., and became a resident physician in the Hospital for Women and Children. She then went to China, and for nearly three years remained in that country as a medical missionary. Returning to America, she established herself as a physician in Denver, Col. In 1885, complying with earnest requests from the leaders, Dr. Bushnell gave up her practice and entered the field as an evangelist in the social-purity department of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. It was she who laid the foundation of the Anchorage Mission in Chicago, Ill., an institution which has done great good for abandoned women, giving over five-thousand lodgings to women in one year. In 1888 Dr. Bushnell visited the dens and stockades in northern Wisconsin, where women were held in debasing slavery. That undertaking was heroic in its nature, for she took her life in her hand when she dared the opposition of those she encountered. Fearless and undaunted, she finished her investigations, and her report made to the Woman's Christian Temperance Union startled the reading public by its revelations of the utter depravity she had witnessed.ý As a public speaker Dr. Bushnell is graceful, eloquent and earnest, and as a writer she is well known in her special field.ý This combination of the woman and the physician, the orator and the author has made her the choice of the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union for carrying the gospel of the white ribbon to foreign lands. In 1891 she left Chicago to circumnavigate the earth in the interests of humanity, representing over 500,000 women. Dr. Bushnell went as an evangelist to organize, instruct and encourage. She carried with her the " polyglot petition, "a paper that was intended to be signed by at least two-million persons, representing a general protest against legalizing sale of alcoholics and of opium, and it is to be presented to every government on both hemispheres.
(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies Vol 1 Publ. 1897 Transcribed by Marla Snow)


CANFIELD, Mrs. Corresta T., physician, born in Chardon, Ohio, 6th March, 1833. The Canfields, for meritorious service, received from the king of England, in 1350, a grant of land on the river Cam, in Yorkshire, and settled thereon. After occupying that grant for three-hundred years, they came to America, shortly after the arrival of the Plymouth Pilgrims, and were among the first settlers of New Haven, Conn. Dr. Canfield is descended from French Huguenots and New England Presbyterians. Her mother, reared at a time when it was thought a sin for a man to kiss his wife or babe on Sunday, did not neglect the moral training of her children. Intellectual, well-read, in advance of her time, the daughter has inherited energy, will power and executive ability. Corresta entered the seminary of Chardon at an early age, but she was soon married. Though a wife and mother, reading and study were kept up. From her childhood she was ambitious to be a physician. Left alone without resources, at the close of the Civil War, the ambitions of early youth revived. In 1869 she entered the Woman's Homeopathic College of Cleveland, Ohio. With the help of a half-year's scholarship Mrs. Canfield finished the first college year. In the second year she became an assistant of the president, Dr. Myra K. Merrick, and gained means to continue in college. She was graduated with first honors in 1871, having served for some time as demonstrator of anatomy. During the following summer she practiced in Fort Wayne, Ind., earning enough to enable her to enter the Men's Homeopathic College of Cleveland. While there, she was demonstrator of anatomy in the woman's department, and practiced enough, visiting patients mornings and evenings, to defray expenses. She attended all the lectures, passed through the whole curriculum and was graduated third in the men's course, the faculty acknowledging that she was entitled to a prize, but would not establish a precedent by awarding it to a practicing physician. A full-fledged M. D., she settled in Titusville, Pa. Having but fifteen dollars capital, she borrowed enough to buy out a resident physician, and under great opposition so won public patronage as to pay all her debts the first year. There she remained nearly ten years and amassed a snug sum. She next spent a year in traveling. In 1882 she settled in Chicago, where she has built up a large practice and served in many public offices. She is at present a member of the board of censors of the American Institute of Homeopathy, having been elected for the second time. She was the first woman who served in that capacity. One was elected the previous year but was not allowed to serve on the board of censors. Three years before her admission women were not permitted to join that society, and much opprobrium was still attached to those "hybrids" who did. Even women shared in that feeling. After a time, seeing none of her sex actively represented in the society, she felt that, to enjoy its privileges, one should assume its duties. She therefore prepared a paper and read it before the institute. She has served as president, vice-president and secretary of the Woman's Medical Association of Chicago, vice-president of the Hahnemann Clinical for two years, and has been appointed on the woman's committee for a homeopathic congress to be held during the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893.
(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies Vol 1 Publ. 1897 Transcribed by Marla Snow)



CARSE, Mrs. Matilda B., philanthropist, temperance worker and financier, is of Scotch-Irish origin. Her husband, Thomas Carse, was a railroad manager in Louisville, Ky., during the Civil War. In 1869 they went abroad for the benefit of Mr. Carse's health. He died in Paris, France, in June, 1870, leaving Mrs. Carse with three boys under seven years of age. The youngest of those while in Paris had a fall which developed hip disease. He had almost recovered his health, when in 1874, in Chicago, he was run over by a wagon driven by a drunken man and instantly killed. His tragic death caused his mother to register a vow that, until the last hour of her life, she would devote every power of which she was possessed to annihilate the liquor traffic. She early became prominent in temperance work, and has been president of the Chicago Central Woman's Temperance Union since 1878. To Mrs. Carse is due the credit of establishing, under the auspices of her union, the first creche, or day nursery, in Chicago, known as the Bethesda Day Nursery. That was followed in a year or two by the establishment, through her efforts, of a second, known as the Talcott Day Nursery. Beside those nurseries the Union supports two kindergartens among the very poorest class ; two gospel temperance meetings; two Sunday-schools; the Anchorage Mission, a home for erring girls; a reading room for men ; two dispensaries for the poor ; two industrial schools, and three mothers' meetings. Those charities are supported at a cost of over ten-thousand dollars yearly. Mrs. Carse personally raises almost the entire amount. She founded the Woman's Temperance Publishing Association, and in January, 1880, the first number of the "Signal" was published, a large sixteen-page weekly paper. Two years later "Our Union" was merged with it, and as the "Union Signal" it became the national organ of the society. Mrs. Carse also started the first stock company entirely composed of women, as no man can own stock in the Woman's Temperance Publishing Association. It was started with a capital stock of five-thousand dollars, which has been increased to one-hundred-twenty-five-thousand dollars; from having but one paid employee, it now has one-hundred-thirty-five persons on its pay-roll. Mrs. Carse has been the president and financial backer of the association since its first inception. In 1885 she began planning for the great building, the Woman's Temperance Temple in Chicago, the national headquarters of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. The ground is valued at one-million dollars ; the building cost one-million-two-hundred-thousand dollars; the rentals from the building will bring in an annual income of over two-hundred-thousand dollars ; the capital stock is six-hundred-thousand dollars, one-half of which is now owned by the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and it is expected all will be secured to that association. Mrs. Carse is founder and president of the Woman's Dormitory Association of the Columbian Exposition. That work was done in connection with the Board of Lady Managers of the World's Columbian Exposition, of which she is a member. She was the first woman in Cook county to be appointed on the school board where she served a term of years with great acceptability. Her name appears upon several charitable boards as a director. For years she was a member of the board of the Home for Discharged Prisoners. She is also on the free kindergarten boards, and is a member of the Woman s Club of Chicago, which conducts many philanthropies. In all the wide range of charities to which she has given active help the one that probably lies nearest her heart, and to which she has given a stronger hand of aid than to any other, helping to raise for its buildings and maintenance tens of thousands of dollars, is the Chicago Foundling's Home, the Reverend Dr. George E. Shipman being its founder. She established its aid society, and has been its president since its inception. Mrs. Carse receives no compensation whatever for her services to the public.
(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies Vol. 1, by Frances Elizabeth Willard & Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)


CHAPIN, Mrs. Clara Christiana, woman suffragist and temperance worker, born in Gloucestershire, England, 26th December, 1852. Her maiden name was Morgan. Her father was of Welsh extraction, and her mother came of an old country family the Blagdons, proprietors of the manor of Boddington since the days of William the Conqueror. She was educated in Clifton Ladies' College and passed the Cambridge local examination the only form of university privilege open at that time to girls. She came to the United States with her parents and their five younger children in 1870. The family settled in Fillmore county, Neb., and Clara engaged in teaching. In September, 1872, she became the wife of Clarence C. Chapin, of Sheffield, Mass., and shortly after they removed to Franklin county, Neb., where both took a prominent part in the development of that new State. Mr. Chapin served as a member of the State legislature, while his talented wife by the use of her pen and personal influence aided in securing the enactment of the famous Slocum license Taw, at that time supposed to be the panacea in temperance matters. They also aided materially in securing the temperance educational and scientific law for that State. She was particularly interested in all movements for the advancement of women and took an active part in the woman suffrage campaign of 1882. She was a prominent member of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and wrote much for the press on the woman and temperance questions. Being a little body, Mrs. Chapin commonly went by the name "La Petite" among her co-workers in Nebraska, but, though small of stature, she is of that fine mental acumen which gives great individuality and force of character. Though of English birth, Mrs. Chapin's life-work has been and still is American. She now resides, with her husband, son and two daughters, in one of the pleasant suburban towns Chicago. Ill.
(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies Vol. 1, by Frances Elizabeth Willard & Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)


DARK, Mrs. Ella, lecturer and journalist, born in West Batavia, Genesee county, N. Y., 1st May, 1842. Her maiden name was Ella Jones. Her father was born and reared in Point De Bute, New Brunswick, but came when a young man to the United States, and ever afterward gave to this country his unswerving allegiance. On her mother's side she is a direct descendant from William Cook, a distinguished soldier of the Revolution, who served faithfully upon the staff of both Washington and La Fayette. During the Civil War she was active in the line of sanitary service, and was associated with Mrs. Mary A. Livermore in that work. She has been an ardent advocate of all movements looking toward woman's advancement and has taken earnest part in philanthropic work. In the lecture field she has won success. For years she has been engaged in literary and journalistic pursuits in both prose and poetry. Mrs. Dare was married in 1872. She has no children, and therefore gives her life to her work, in which she is greatly aided by her husband's earnest sympathy. Her home is in Ridgeland, Ill., a suburb of Chicago.
(American Women,  by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Volume 1, Publ. 1897, Transcribed by Marla Snow.)


DUNHAM, Mrs. Marlon Howard, born in Geauga county, Ohio, 6th December, 1842, passed the first part of her life upon a farm. She early decided to be a teacher, beginning her first district school at the age of fifteen, and taught in the public schools of Chicago, Ill., from 1866 to 1873. In July, 1873, she became the wife of C. A. Dunham, an architect, of Burlington, Iowa, where they now live. In 1877 she entered upon temperance work with the inauguration of the red-ribbon movement, but, believing in more permanent methods, she was the prime mover in the organization of the local Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and has ever since been an active worker in that society. In 1883 she was elected State superintendent of the department of scientific temperance, and held the office four years, lecturing to institutes and general audiences on that subject much of the time. She procured the Iowa State law on that subject in February, 1886. When the Iowa State Temperance Union began to display its opposition to the National Union, she was rather slow to declare her position, which was always fully with the National, but she was soon forced to declare herself, and came to be considered rather a leader on the side of the minority. When the majority in the State Union seceded from the National Union, 16th October, 1890, she was elected president of those who remained auxiliary to that body. At the State convention in 1891 she was re-elected. She has spent a large part of her time in the field. She has always been a radical equal suffragist, and has spoken and written much on that subject. She is a Christian socialist, deeply interested in all reforms that promise to better the social system and the conditions of life for the multitudes.
(American Women, Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Volume 1 Copyright 1897.  Transcribed by Marla Snow.)


FREEMAN, Mrs. Mattie A., freethinker and lecturer, born in Sturgis, St. Joseph county, Mich., 9th August, 1839.  Her ancestors were French and German, Americanized by generations of residence in the State of New York. Her father was a freethinker, her mother a close-communion Baptist. The mother tried to keep the children from what she considered the contamination of infidelity. They attended revivals and passed through all the usual experiences, but the daughter became an infidel in her early youth. Mrs. Freeman as a child learned rapidly. Her first public discussion was at the age of fourteen. An associate editor of a weekly newspaper had written an article on the inferiority of woman. Over a pen-name the school-girl replied to it. The controversy was kept up through several papers, the German student wondering, in the meantime, who it was that was making so effective an argument against him. He w as thoroughly disgusted when he discovered that his opponent was a girl. At fifteen she taught her first school. It was a failure. She was yet in short dresses, and the "big" pupils refused to obey her. She endured it for six weeks, and then, disheartened and defeated, sent word to her father to take her home. About that time she heard Abby Kelly Foster speak on abolition, and the young girl's heart became filled with a burning hatred of slavery. Being invited soon after to take part in a public entertainment, she astonished all and offended some by giving a most radical anti-slavery speech. Her father was an old-time Whig and retained an intense admiration for Henry Clay. Even he was horrified to hear his young daughter, of whom he had been so proud, attack his dead pro-slavery idol. If her first attempt at teaching was a failure, the subsequent ones were crowned with success. She was hired to take charge of a winter school, receiving only one-third the pay that had been given to the male teachers, and had the credit of having had the best school ever taught in the district. Soon after the war, in a city in Illinois, whither she had gone from the East, a prominent so-called liberal minister preached a scathing sermon against women. Highly indignant, a committee of the suffrage association went to Mrs. Freeman and requested her to reply. At first she hesitated, but finally consented, and her lecture was a success. She has delivered many public lectures. After the Chicago fire Mrs. Freeman devoted herself to literary work, writing four years for a Chicago paper. She is the author of many serials, short stories and sketches. "Somebody's Ned," a story of prison reform, was published in 1880, and received many favorable notices. At that time Mrs. Freeman began her work in the Chicago Secular Union. To this for ten years she has devoted herself almost exclusively. She gave the first lecture on Henry George's Progress and Poverty" ever delivered in Chicago. She is interested in the reform movement, and especially in woman's emancipation, which she is convinced underlies all other questions. Her last venture is the publication of the "Chicago Liberal." Her home is now in Chicago, and she is corresponding secretary of the American Secular Union.
(Source: American Women by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Vol. 1, 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)


GILBERT, Miss Linda, philanthropist, born in Rochester, N. Y., 13th May, 1847. She removed to Chicago, Ill., with her parents when she was fifteen months old, and was educated in St. Mary's Convent, in that city. From an early period she regarded criminals with profound interest. At the age of eleven years she gave books from her grandfather's library to the prisoners in the jail of Cook county, Ill. Her home was directly opposite. The first county jail library ever established she placed in that prison when she was seventeen years old. At the age of fifteen years she inherited a handsome fortune. After spending one-hundred-thousand dollars in philanthropy, the remainder was lost in a bank failure. After that her benevolent work was a continuous struggle. She entered into several business speculations to keep it alive, hoping that some rich man would leave it a legacy to place it on a permanent foundation. In all, she has established twenty-two libraries in six different States, each containing from two-thousand-five-hundred to three-thousand volumes. In Lincoln, Neb., her library has been the means of educating eighteen or twenty native Indians, who were sentenced for long terms. She has procured employment for six-thousand ex-convicts, over five-hundred of whom she started as pedlars, furnishing them with an outfit worth from three to five dollars. Less than ten per cent. of that number have turned out unsatisfactorily.  For her last thirteen years she constantly agitated the question of building an industrial and educational home to meet the wants of this class, who find it so impossible to secure employment after their release from prison. Miss Gilbert felt that society more than the criminal is to-day responsible for crime. She was known as "The Prisoners' Friend." Miss Gilbert patented several devices, including a noiseless rail for railroads and a wire clothespin, and used these for the purpose of gaining money to carry on her philanthropic work. She died in Mt. Vernon, N. Y., 24th October, 1895.
(Source: American Women by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Vol. 1, 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)


GILES, Miss Anne H., philanthropist, born in Prairie du Chien, Wis., 1st August, 1860 She removed to Chicago in early life. Her father is William Alexander Giles, in pioneer days of Wisconsin a representative of the press. She was graduated from Smith College in 1882, taking the degree of A. B. From her childhood she was imbued with the missionary spirit, always attempting to help the poor and the suffering. As a teacher of the Chinese she was a special leader among church workers for a number of years. As foreign corresponding secretary of the Woman's Presbyterian Board of Missions she has become widely known. Practically interested in the education of the freedmen, associated with various societies of Christian Endeavor, devoting all her time to benevolent work, and being a general financial contributor to home and foreign missions, she is recognized as one of the most earnest and useful daughters of philanthropy in Chicago. The story of the Poacher s Daughter, which has gone through numerous editions, was translated by her for Sunday-school libraries.
(Source: American Women by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Vol. 1, 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)



GRASER, Miss Hulda Regina, customhouse broker, born in Montreal, Canada, 23rd June, 1869. In 1870 the family removed to Chicago, Ill., where, in the great fire of 1871, they lost all their property and nearly lost their lives. Her father, Ernst G. Graser, was a native of St. Gallen, Switzerland, where he was born in 1842. He came to America in 1867 and settled in Montreal. Her mother was a resident of Zurich, Switzerland. After the loss of their home and property in Chicago, the family went to Cincinnati, Ohio, where they began life anew. Mr. Graser, who was a thoroughly educated man and could speak several languages well, secured employment with the government. He also gave private instruction in foreign languages. He remained in the customhouse ten years, after which time, in 1882, he opened what is called a customs brokerage business, and one year prior to his death, which occurred in 1884, he took into partnership with him his older daughter, styling the firm E. & M. Graser. After his death the daughter continued the business until her marriage, in 1885, to Dr. E. H. Rothe, when she sold it. Hulda, the younger daughter, was educated in the Cincinnati free schools, and in 1885 she was employed as clerk and then as cashier in a wholesale and retail notion house. She afterward studied stenography, did some reporting and helped on the senatorial investigation, in the above capacity, and in the fall of 1886, when seventeen years old, opened a new office as customs broker and forwarder, her sister's successor having sold out to her present competitor. In 1887, about five months after she commenced, there was a decision by the department, on the strength of false representations made to the department, prohibiting brokers or their clerks from getting any information from customs officials without an order from the different importers, thus making her beginning doubly hard. That necessitated her calling upon every importer in the city, securing his signature to a petition asking for any and all information regarding each firm's importations. In 1890, in connection with brokerage, she took up an agency for tin-plates, and she handles large quantities of that article. The greater amount of tin-plates arriving at Cincinnati between January and July, 1891, went through her office, and her undertaking has proved very successful. She occupies a unique position, and her success in that arduous line of work is another demonstration of the truth that women can conduct business that exacts great care, sound judgment, originality and untiring industry.
(Source: American Women by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Vol. 1, 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)


GRINNELL, Mrs. Katherine Van Allen, (Adasha) religious worker, born in Pillar Point, Jefferson county, N. Y., 20th April, 1839. Her maiden name was Katherine Van Allen, and her father was the owner of a fine estate near Sackett's Harbor. About the time of her birth a great religious revival swept over the country. Her parents came under its influence and joined the Methodist Episcopal Church. Their home thereafter was the home of the Methodist preacher and a center of active work for building up the interests of the town. At the age of fourteen years she became a member of the church. At fifteen she was sent to Falley Seminary. Her preceptress was Miss Rachel C. Newman, and the young student owed much to the influence of that noble woman. In 1864 she became the wife of Graham G. Grinnell, a deacon in the Presbyterian Church in Adams, N. Y., and united with that church, frankly asserting her inability to accept its doctrines as she understood them, engaging to acquaint herself with them and to come into harmony with them if possible. As the years passed, her spiritual life deepened and her sympathy with dogmatic teachings grew less. In 1871, just before the great fire, the family removed to Chicago, Ill. Soon after she took up seriously spiritualistic study and has written much upon that subject.  Whatever success she may have achieved has been the result of the sincerity and spirit of absolute self-renunciation with which she strove to find the truth of things. Mrs. Grinnell is now living in Mayfair, Cook county, Ill., devoting her time to the propagation of her exalted theories.
(Source: American Women by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Vol. 1, 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)


HAVEN, Mrs. Mary Emerson, educator, born in Norfolk, Conn., 22nd November, 1819,  where her father, Rev. Ralph Emerson, subsequently professor in Andover Seminary, was then pastor. He was a relative of Ralph Waldo Emerson, and many of the family were noted educators. Her uncle, Joseph Emerson, was celebrated as a pioneer in female education, having given a life-long inspiration to such pupils as Mary Lyon and Miss Z. P. Grant, which resulted in their founding such institutions as those in Ipswich and Mt. Holyoke. Mary was educated in her uncle's school and in Ipswich, Andover and Boston. She became the wife of Rev. Joseph Haven, D. D., LL. D., pastor successively in Ashland and Brookline, Mass., and afterwards professor, first in Amherst College, and then called to the chair of systematic theology in the Chicago Theological Seminary. He was the author of text-books on "Mental and Moral Philosophy," standard in various colleges and schools in this and other countries. Mrs. Haven's position has given her large acquaintance with the literary world. Since her husband's death, in 1874, she has continued to reside in Chicago and has carried on work for the intellectual upbuilding in social life, for which she is admirably fitted by education, experience and extensive travel in this and foreign countries. She has been president of various clubs, of the Haven Class in English literature, of art and history classes, of the "Athena " and of the "Heliades," or Daughters of the Sun, who are following his course around the world, studying all lands he shines upon. Mrs. Haven is a member of the Fortnightly of Chicago, the Woman's Board of Missions of the Interior, and of other associations. Her daughter, Miss Elizabeth Haven, was a teacher in Rockford Female Seminary. Another daughter, Mrs. Alice Haven Danforth, is the wife of Rev. J. R. Danforth, D. D. A third daughter. Miss Ada Haven, has been a missionary under the American Board of Foreign Missions in Pekin, China, since 1879. Mrs. Haven resides with her son, Joseph Haven, a physician, in Chicago.
(Source: American Women, by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Vol 1, 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)



Hawes, Miss Frac P., artist, was born near Chicago, Ill.  She spent the larger portion of her life in the East, and returned to Chicago in 1886, where she now resides. She comes of good ancestry and claims descent from Queen Anne of England. She is a daughter of John Hughes Hawes, a Virginian, and is related to the Lees and other noted Virginian families. The first wife of Mr. Hawes was a cousin of Jefferson Davis. He was a benevolent, liberal, public-spirited man, and a lawyer by profession. His second wife, the mother of Miss Franc, was a native of Cincinnati, O., and from her the daughter inherited her artistic talents. Miss Hawes, both as woman and artist, is a person of marked individuality. She has been an artist from her infancy. In childhood she painted whatever she saw, and frequently what her imagination saw. There are treasured still in her family several quaint landscapes and animal studies, painted by the eight year-old girl before she had had a lesson, either in painting or drawing. The first landscape she painted under the eye of a teacher illustrates her singular gifts. It was scarcely "laid in" before the teacher was called away on some errand. He was gone three hours, and at last returned, with apologies for his absence, but they were unuttered, because in amazement he saw the picture finished, and finished so well that he had no suggestion to make, and it was never touched afterward. One artist, to whom she went for lessons, set her at work in drawing from the cast, but she declined to do that; her wish was to paint directly from nature, and she required instruction only in the intricacies of coloring. She has an intense earnestness, combined with a natural woman's gift of understanding without analysis From a delicate water-color of Venetian landscape with local color and atmosphere to a study of lions, her range is seen. A striking characteristic possessed by Miss Hawes is her memory. An idea once worked out never leaves her remembrance. While she prefers landscape, with an occasional excursion into the field of still life, as evidenced by her lion pictures, she yet has done a great deal in decorative work. She has received orders from Marshall Field, of Chicago, and others, receiving $5,000 for a single commission. Many of her tapestries and screens are exquisite, and all of them show originality and artistic merit. Though she has given the greater part of her life to art, she is distinguished for achievements in other fields. She has been a contributor to various publications in the East, furnishing articles on philosophical subjects which show much research. She has also acquired an enviable reputation as an organizer of clubs for philanthropical and literary study.
(Source: American Women, by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Vol 1, 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)


HENRY, Mrs. Sarepta M. I., evangelist, temperance reformer, poet and author, born in Albion, Pa., 4th November, 1839. Her father, Rev. H. Nelson Irish, was a Methodist clergyman of the old style. He was preaching in Albion at the time of the daughter's birth. In 1841 he was sent to Illinois as a missionary, where he did heroic pioneer work and where he ended his days. In 1859 Miss Irish entered the Rock River Seminary, in Mt. Morris, 1ll., when she had for her pastor Rev. J. H. Vincent, then just coming into his life work. Recognition had been given to her literary ability, and during her school days she won many honors in composition. On 7th March, 1861, Miss Irish became the wife of James W. Henry, of East Homer, N. Y. The Civil War broke in upon the plans of the young couple and left Mrs. Henry, in 1871, a soldier's widow. The trio of children born from this union are just such as would be expected from so true a marriage. Mary, an alumna of the Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill., is already a writer of acknowledged ability in both prose and verse, and at the national convention of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union in New York, in 1888, she was elected to the position of superintendent of the press department. Alfred, the oldest son, is a faithful and eloquent clergyman, and Arthur is an author. Mrs. Henry was among the first to join the crusade against rum. From the beginning of the organization of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union she has been associated with the national body as superintendent of evangelical work and as evangelist. The result of her seven years of service in gospel temperance in Rockford, Ill., would alone suffice to crown the labors of any ordinary life-time. A partial record of this work is found in her book "Pledge and Cross." Her published books number fourteen, of which two, "Victoria," written during the first year of her daughter's life, and "Marble Cross," are poems. The prose works are "After the Truth, in four volumes, Pledge and Cross, Voice of the Home and its Legend, Mabel s Work, One More Chance, Beforehand, Afterward, Unanswered Prayer, and Frances Raymond s Investment.   Mrs. Henry has long occupied pulpits among all denominations throughout the land.  Through her evangelistic work saloons have been closed, churches built and hundreds converted. Her home is now in Evanston,. Illinois.
(Source: American Women, by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Vol 1, 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)


HURLBUT, Miss Harriette Persis, artist, born in Racine, Wis., 26th February, 1862. She is a daughter of the late Henry H. Hurlbut, the author of several works, among them "Chicago Antiquities" and "Hurlbut Genealogy." Through her mother, Harriet E. Sykes Hurlbut, she traces her ancestry back to four of the Mayflower pilgrims, among them Priscilla Mullins and her husband, John Alden. The line of descent through their daughter, Ruth, includes the names of Deacon Samuel Bass, his daughter, Mary Bass Bowditch, Abigail Bowditch, Jeremiah Pratt and Harriette Partridge Pratt, who married Dr. Royal S. Sykes, of Dorset, Vt., and was the grandmother of Miss Hurlbut.  With her family Harriette moved to Chicago in the winter of 1873, and has resided in that city ever since.  Miss Hurlbut possessed patents of marked superiority, whose constant companionship she enjoyed, as the youngest child and only daughter, until the death of both occurred within the past two years. Her father was a man of literary tastes and pursuits, especially devoted to the graver works of learning and research. He loved history, personal and impersonal, and cultivated it with unfailing enthusiasm. Mrs. Hurlbut possessed many graces of mind and strength of character. The daughter partakes more of the traits of her father, his fondness for matters historical and genealogical. From this tendency it comes that even her art is not to her an inspiration, and what success has been achieved has been due to hard work. She was graduated from Park Institute, Chicago, 11 June, 1880. An early fondness for drawing turned her attention to art, and she entered the studio of Professor P. Baumgras, with whom she pursued her studies in sketching and oil painting almost continuously for eight years. Her first venture was in connection with Mrs. Mary B. Baumgras. Together they opened a studio in Chicago. Miss Hurlbut's best known picture is the life-size portrait of Samuel Champlain, which forms part of the Chicago Historical Society's collection. Always of a serious cast of mind, Miss Hurlbut passes her life in retirement, with her brother, in the paternal home in Chicago, where she is devoting herself at present to the completion of a family record-book, which her father began long ago.
(Source: American Women, by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Vol 1, 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)


 John C. Ames, collector of customs for Chicago, ex-United States marshal for the northern district of Illinois and an active and prominent Republican leader of the state, is a native of Freedom township, LaSalle county, Illinois, born on the 17th of July, 1852.  His paternal ancestors were early New Englanders and his father, who was a native of Maine, was for many years a leading business man of Streator, Illinois, where he also became prominent in public affairs and whence he was sent as a representative to the state legislature.

When John C. was about two years of age the family moved to Livingston county.  After working on the home farm and attending district school until he was fourteen years of age, John C. Ames commenced a broader life by entering the State University at Normal, where he remained for two years.  In the meantime his father had removed from Livingston county to Streator and upon leaving school the young man joined the family there.  Just before reaching his majority John C. entered the drug business, but after two years joined his father in the hardware trade by purchasing the interest of the latter s partner.  Two years later, when their entire stock was destroyed by fire, he became the sole owner of the concern.  Notwithstanding this temporary setback, Mr. Ames continued to profitably conduct the business for ten years.  In 1880, while thus engaged, he organized the J. C. Ames Lumber Company of which he is still president and in 1891 founded the City National Bank of Streator, of which he also remained the head until in January 1898, when he was appointed by President McKinley to the office of United Statesmarshal for the northern district of Illinois

In the meantime Mr. Ames had been attaining prominence by gradual and most creditable stages.  From 1885 to 1889 (two terms) he served as mayor of Streator and declined a nomination for a third term.  During four years, under Governor Fifer, he also held the office of president of the board of canal commissioners.  His appointment to the United States marshalship was therefore considered but a deserved advancement.  Mr. Ames continued to discharge the duties of that office with zeal, honesty and ability, until he was honored with the appointment of collector of the customs for the port of Chicago, on July 12, 1906.

On March 2, 1876, Mr. Ames was united in marriage with Miss Minerva Ross, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Hunter) Ross, of Lacon, Illinois.  Of their three children one only survives Isaac Carlos Ames, born in 1880. In 1899 he enlisted for the war in the Volunteer Infantry.  He served as corporal with his regiment in that service and resigned in 1901.  He is now associated with his father in the lumber business at Streator, Illinois, being a director in the company. John C. Ames is popular socially, belonging to the Chicago Union League and Hamilton clubs of this city and the Streator Club of Streator, having served as the first president of the organization last named.

[Source: Waterman, Arba N.. Historical review of Chicago and Cook County and selected biography. Chicago: Lewis Pub. Co., 1908. Page 841-842  Transcribed by Nancy Piper]

John C. Ames
John C. Ames, Mayor of Streator is a native of La Salle County, Ill., and was born in Freedom Township, July 17, 1852, a son of Isaac and Arilla (Mooar) Ames, natives of Maine and early settlers of La Salle County, coming here in 1848.  He received his primary education in the district schools and afterwards attended the Illinois State Normal, at Normal, two years.  On leaving school in 1872 he became associated with John Dickerman in the drug business, under the firm name of Dickerman & Ames.  He sold his interest and in 1873 he engaged in the hardware business with the father, the firm name being I. Ames & Son. This firm was burned out in 1875 and he resumed the business alone, continuing it till July, 1885, when he sold out and has since been engaged in the lumber trade, which he began in 1878 in connection with his hardware business.

March 2, 1875, he was married to Minnie Ross, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Hunter) Ross of Lacon, Ill.  They have two children living Isaac Carlos and Walter Cope.  Arilla Elizabeth died while on a visit at Prairie Cetner, aged fourteen months. 

In 1880 Mr. Arms helped to incorporate the Streator Glass Works and has been one of its directors since its organization.  He was one of the incorporators of the Plumb Hotel Stock Company of which he was one of its Directors.  He is also a Director and Vice-President of the Streator Loan and Building Association, which was organized in 1874.  In April, 1884, he was elected Alderman for a term of two years, but on being elected Mayor the following April, he resigned his position of Alderman.  In 1885 he became a stockholder of the Streator National Bank and the same year was elected one of its directors.  He has been a successful business man and although starting out with no capital except that borrowed from his father he has accumulated considerable real estate, both in Streator and in Chicago.

[Source: History of La Salle County, Illinois : together with sketches of its cities, villages and towns, educational, religious, civil, military, and political history, portraits of prominent persons, and biographies of representative citizens : Chicago: Inter-State Pub. Co., 1886, City of Streator, Page 592 Transcribed by Nancy Piper] 


John C. Ames was the second mayor of the city of Streator, was founder and active head for many years of the Ames Lumber Company and eventually became a notable figure in the public life of Illinois. The late Mr. Ames was born in Freedom Township, LaSalle County, July 17, 1852.  His father, Isaac Ames, settled in La Salle County in 1848, was a farmer and was also identified with the early affairs of Streator as a merchant and banker, being one of the original stockholders of the Union National Bank.

John C. Ames grew up on a farm, was educated in the country schools and spent two years at the State Normal.  When he moved to Streator in 1872 he was a member of the drug firm of Dickerman & Ames and subsequently became associated with his father in the I. Ames & Son s hardware store.  This business was burned out in 1874, but John C. Ames continued to sell hardware until 1885.  In 1879 he became a lumber dealer and in 1891 incorporated the J. C. Ames Lumber Company.  In later years his son Carlos took the active management of the business, while John C. Ames was named president and principal owner.  He was at one time president of the Old City Bank.

In 1885 Mr. Ames was elected mayor of Streator to succeed Col. Ralph Plumb, the first mayor.  He has previously served as a member of the city council and during his two terms of mayor, being reelected in 1887, a substantial progress was made in the material improvement of the community.  His administrations settled the waterworks question, stared the sewer system and planned the physical growth of the city.

The late Mr. Ames was for many years one of the ablest leaders of the republican party in the state.  He was a man of engaging personality, diplomatic and practical and had a host of friends not only in his home city but all over North Central Illinois.  Governor  Fifter appointed him president of the Illinois and Michigan Canal Commission.  President McKinley appointed him United States marshal for the Northern Illinois district and he was reappointed by President Roosevelt.  Later President Roosevelt appointed him collector of the Port of Chicago and he was reappointed by President Taft and served until 1915 in President Wilson s administration.  This was an office of great responsibility, many millions of dollars being collected through the office.  He was also for several years custodian of the Federal Building at Chicago.  Mr. Ames retired from office and sold his lumber business at Streator in 1915.  He enjoyed the personal friendship of many prominent Americans and Illinoisans, including President McKinley, President Taft, President Roosevelt, Governor Fifer, Congressman Reeves and Judge Humphrey.  For several years after his retirement he spent his winters in Florida, and was one of the men identified with the development of the Lake Wales community in that state. Mr. Ames died at Lake Wales, March 21, 1922, but was brought back and laid to rest in Streator.

On March 2, 1875, he married Miss Minerva Ross, who survives him and has recently returned to Streator to make it her permanent home.  She was born in Marshall County, Illinois, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Hunter) Ross, being the twelfth of the thirteen children of her parents.  Her father and mother were both natives of Pennsylvania, her father of Cumberland County and her mother of Indiana County.  Her father was a pioneer farmer of Marshall County, Illinois.  Mrs. Ames is of Revolutionary ancestry through both her parents and for many years has been prominent in the Daughters of the American  Revolution, serving as state regent two years, as vice president general one year and was annually elected delegate to the national convention by the Streator chapter.  She became a charter member of the first literary club in Streator and was also prominent in the Kings Daughters Society.

Mr. and Mrs. Ames had three children, but the only survivor is Carlos Ames, who was born July 21, 1880 and who for a number of years was the active manager of the J. C. Ames Lumber Company at Streator, but is now a resident of Chicago.  He was a soldier with the rank of sergeant in the Spanish-American war and during the World war served with the rank of major.  Maj. Carlos Ames married Beulah VanHeyde and they have one daughter, Elizabeth Virginia, born June 28, 1913.
[Source:  O'Byrne, M. C.. History of La Salle County, Illinois. Chicago: Lewis Pub. Co., 1924. Vol. 3, Pg 629-632 Transcribed by Nancy Piper]



 AYER, Mrs. Harriet Hubbard, business woman and journalist, born in Chicago, Ill., in 1852. Her maiden name was Hubbard. The Hubbard family tree extended back without a break to 1590. About 1844 its then youngest offshoot left New England for Chicago, and there his youngest daughter was born. Graduated at fifteen years of age from the Convent of the Sacred Heart, she was soon after married to Mr. Ayer, whose wealth enabled her to train and gratify her taste and love for beauty, and her home became a house famous for its refinement and hospitality. She was then, as now, a many-sided woman. She was an indefatigable reader and student, an art connoisseur of trained critical taste, a leader in philanthropic effort, and a business counselor of rare judgment. Her frequent trips abroad made London, Paris, Vienna and Rome second homes to her. She speaks a half-dozen languages. In 1882 Mr. Ayer failed for several millions. Disheartened by the blow, he became a wreck. Mrs. Ayer gave up to her husband's creditors much that she might have legally claimed as her own. Without a dollar and with two little daughters dependent upon her, she left a home of luxury and became a saleswoman in a leading shop in New York. For eight hours a day, and sometimes for fourteen, she worked behind the counter, returning to the tiny apartment where she, her mother and her children were attended by a solitary maid-of-all-work, there to write letters, sketches, essays and editorials by the weary hour. Within a year she had an income from her salary in the shop, from the agreed-upon commissions on her sales, from her pen, and from a successful real estate operation, devised and carried out by herself, of more than ten-thousand dollars a year. The strain upon her health was too great. A change became inevitable. She decided to leave the shop and begin to buy goods and furnish houses for her friends upon commission. She succeeded in this departure also, and was soon able to take a house of her own. In an unfortunate moment for herself she offered the Recamier toilet preparations to the public. Within a month the house was filled from top to bottom with women trying to manufacture them fast enough to meet the public demand, so that the home ceased to be a home. The avarice of some of the assistants whom she had gathered about her led to a conspiracy to capture the Recamier Company. The careless generosity with which she had given away some shares of her stock in the company was abused. A desperate, determined fight was made to wrest the control of the company from her, and to deprive her of all share in the profits of her industry and her brain. Mrs. Ayer discovered this conspiracy while in Europe. She returned to find her business in the possession of her foes, her offices barricaded against her, and her money used to hire lawyers to rob her of her rights. Alone, ill, reduced to absolute poverty a second time, this undaunted woman at once began the fight, one against many, a pauper against millionaires, and she won. At the close of the litigation she was again in possession of the business, the offices and the money as sole owner. Since that victory Mrs. Ayer has devoted herself to extending and increasing the business of the Recamier Company, of which she is the president and chief owner.

(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Volume 1, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)



 BAGLEY, Mrs. Blanche Pentecost, Unitarian minister, born in Torquay, England, 19th January, 1858. Her father is the Rev. R. T. Pentecost, a Unitarian minister, now of Salem, Mass. Miss Pentecost received her early education partly in private schools in London, England, where her family then resided, and partly in a French college in Avenches, Canton Vaud, Switzerland, from which she was graduated. In 1882 the family came to this country and made their home in Chicago, where three of her brothers, architects, still reside. Blanche Pentecost, like the rest of her family, was brought up in the Established Church of England, but she became a Unitarian while visiting a sister, whose husband, the Rev. F. B. Mott, was then studying for the Unitarian ministry. By them she was induced to enter the Meadville Theological School, from which institution she was graduated in 1889. She had first met her future husband, the Rev. James. E. Bagley, in Meadville, where they had entered and left school together. Her first experience of preaching, outside of the college chapel, was in Vermont, in the little town of Middlesex, where she spent the summer of 1887. After her graduation she took up work as a minister in Reedsburg, Wis. There she continued until her marriage, on 4th September, 1889, when she accompanied her husband to All Souls Church, Sioux Falls, S. D., to which he had received a call. Mr. and Mrs. Bagley were ordained and installed together there as joint pastors on 17th November, the same year, the ceremony being the first of that kind in the history of the world. It was, however, only returning to the New Testament custom of sending the disciples out two by two. During their residence in South Dakota Mrs. Bagley took an active interest in all public questions and moral reforms in that State. She usually conducted the evening services in the church and occasionally assisted in the morning service. She was also assistant superintendent of the Sunday-school, chairman of the executive board of the Unity Club a literary organization, a charter member of the board of directors of the Woman s Benevolent Association, a member of the Ministers Association, and with her husband, joint chairman of the executive committee of the Equal Suffrage Association. She was a member of the Relief Corps, of which, a short time before she left the city, she became chaplain. While in Sioux Falls she made the acquaintance of Susan B. Anthony, and the Rev. Anna Shaw, and had the honor of introducing both of these speakers to Sioux Falls audiences. During the first year of her married life she took part in the ordination of two other woman ministers, the Rev. Helene Putnam and the Rev. Lila Frost-Sprague, both of whom had been college friends. Her home is now in Haverhill, Mass., where her husband in 1890 was installed pastor of the First Parish Church. They have two children, and Mrs. Bagley is naturally much occupied, as she feels that home duties have the first claim upon her, but she finds time for some outside work, occasionally taking her husband's pulpit and conducting the afternoon service at a little church in the outskirts of the city. She is also local superintendent of the department of scientific temperance instruction in connection with the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Mrs. Bagley is an accomplished pianist and has an inherited gift for painting which she has found time to cultivate. She has a vigorous constitution and an unusually strong, clear contralto voice, with a distinct articulation, which makes it easy for her to be heard by the largest audiences.
(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Volume 1, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)



  BARNES, Mrs. Frances Julia, temperance reformer, born in Skaneateles, Onondaga county, N. Y., 14th April, 1846. Her maiden name was Allis. Her parents and ancestry were members of the orthodox society of Friends, of which she is a member. She received her early education in the schools of her native village and was finally graduated at the Packer Institute in Brooklyn, N. Y. After her graduation her family resided in Brooklyn, during which time she became interested in church and Sunday-school and mission work. On 21st September, 1871, she was married to Willis A. Barnes, a lawyer of New York, and made her home for a time in that city. In the fall of 1875 professional business called Mr. Barnes to Chicago, Ill. Mrs. Barnes accompanied him, and they remained there five years. During that time she became associated with Miss Frances E. Willard in conducting gospel temperance meetings in lower Farwell Hall and meetings in church parlors in the Newsboy's Home, and in visiting jails, hospitals, printing offices and other places. It was while the temperance movement was confined to the object of "rescuing the perishing" the attention of Mrs. Barnes and her co-workers was drawn to the necessity of not merely seeking to reform the fallen, but also of directing efforts to implant principles of total abstinence among young men and women, and enlisting their cooperation while they were yet on life's threshold. In 1878, in the national convention held in Baltimore, Mrs. Barnes was made a member of the committee on young women's work, and in the next convention, held in Indianapolis, in 1879, she made a verbal report, and was at that time made chairman of the committee for the following year, and at its expiration made the first report on young women's work, which appeared in the National Minutes. In 1879 and 1880 twenty Young Women's Christian Temperance Unions were organized in the State of New York, and of the twenty-live unions in Illinois, with a membership of seven-hundred, two-thirds had been formed during the year. In 1880 young women's work was made a department of the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and Mrs. Barnes was appointed superintendent. In 1890 she was appointed fraternal delegate to the annual meeting of the British Women's Temperance Association, held in London, 21st and 22nd May, at which time she so acceptably presented the subject that the department of young women's work was immediately organized, and Lady Henry Somerset accepted the superintendency. As an outgrowth of that interest sixteen branches were organized in Great Britian the first year. In 1891 Mrs. Barnes was made the superintendent for the World's Young Women's Christian Temperance Union work. Under her care it has so grown that there is a membership of 30,000 in the United States alone. The members distribute literature, from hygenic and physical culture clubs, have courses of reading, flower missions, loan-libraries, jail visiting, Sunday-school work, in all covering forty different departments of philanthropic and religious labor. During the year she travels extensively through the country, delivers addresses at public and parlor meetings and organizes new local unions. Not only is her voice heard in the cause of temperance, but practical sentiments flow from her ready pen. Mrs. Barnes has edited a manual on young women's temperance work and is a regular contributor both of prose and poetry to the "Oak and Ivy Leaf," the organ of the National Young Women's Christian Temperance Union. She has been president of the Loyal Legion Temperance Society of New York City for ten years, under whose care a free reading-room for working boys has been maintained during that length of time, the attendance aggregating over two-hundred thousand boys.
(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Volume 1, Publ. 1897 Transcribed by Marla Snow)



 BATES, Mrs. Clara Doty, author, born in Ann Arbor, Mich., in 1838. She was the second daughter of Samuel Rosecrans Doty and Hannah Lawrence, who were among the pioneers of Michigan. Mrs. Bates came of stalwart stock, mingled Dutch and English blood. Her great-grandfather, a Rosecrans, was ninety years old when he died, and the legend goes that at the time of his death "his hair was as black as a raven's wing." Another ancestor was with Washington at Valley Forge. On the mother's side are the Lawrences, and Hannah Lawrence, the great-grandmother, was famous for her gift of story-telling. Clara had a rhyming talent from her earliest days. She wrote verses when she could only print in big letters. Her first poem was published when she was nine years old. The most of her published work has been fugitive, although she has written several books, chiefly for children. Among these are "Aesop

s Fables Versified," "Child Lore," "Classics of Babyland," "Heart's Content," and several minor books, all published in Boston. Her life up to her marriage was passed in Ann Arbor. The homestead, "Heart's Content," was well known for its treasures of books and pictures. The location of the State University in Ann Arbor gave better facilities for education than were offered in the usual western village. It was before the admission of women to equal opportunities with men, but it was possible to secure private instruction in advanced studies. This the little flock of Doty girls had in addition to private schools, while the son had the university. Clara Doty was married in 1869 to Morgan Bates, a newspaper man and the author of several plays. Her home was in Chicago, Ill., where she was a member of the Fortnightly literary club, and was on the literary committee of the Woman's Branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary All her manuscript and notes were destroyed by the burning of her father's house several years ago. Among them were a finished story, a half completed novel and some other work. Mrs. Bates was a woman of marked individuality. Died in Chicago, 14th October, 1895.
(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Volume 1, Publ. 1897 Transcribed by Marla Snow)



 BIRKHOLZ, Mrs. Eugenie S., author, born in Garnavillo, Clayton county, Iowa, in 1853. She is the daughter of Dr. F. Andros, who was the first physician and surgeon, regularly licensed to practice, who settled west of the Mississippi river and north of Missouri He settled in Dubuque, Iowa, in 1830 Mrs. Birkholz was educated in the school of the Catholic sisters in Benton, Wis., and was in her early life a woman of original thought and sent many literary contributions to the periodicals and papers of the day In 1881 she was married to John Birkholz, of Chicago, Ill, in which city they both resided, and whence they emigrated to Grand Forks, N. Dak., where she has since made her home. Mrs. Birkholz devotes considerable time to literary work.
(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Volume 1, Publ. 1897 Transcribed by Marla Snow)



 BLACKALL, Mrs. Emily Lucas, author and philanthropist, born in Salem, Ind., 30th June, 1832, and died in New York City, 28th March, 1892. The first ten years of her life were spent in her birthplace amid picturesque surroundings. Her early school days were marked by a quickness of apprehension and an appreciative literary taste that gave indication of the life that was to be in later years. Her parents were Virginians of English descent. During a considerable period, including the years of the Tate Civil War, her residence was in Louisville, Ky., where she was identified with the Baptist Orphans' Home from its beginning until she left the State, and also was treasurer of the Kentucky branch of the Woman's Missionary Society, founded by the late Mrs. Doremus of New York. Removing to Chicago, she became identified with the woman's temperance crusade and aided in forming the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. She was one of a committee of women who appealed in person to the city council to restrain the liquor-saloon influence, and one of a special committee of three appointed to visit the mayor and urge him to carry out a plan for the protection of homes against the saloon. She was one of the founders of the Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary Society of the West, and was treasurer of that organization until she left Chicago. She was largely instrumental in the formation of the Women's Baptist Home Mission Society, located in Chicago, with which she was actively engaged at the time of her death. In 1882 she became a resident of Philadelphia, Pa., where she was identified with various benevolent enterprises. A member of the Philadelphia Women's Council, a member of the Women's International Congress in 1887, and a delegate to the Woman's National Council in 1891, she showed a depth of sympathy and touch with progressive ideas that proved the breadth of her character and her influence. As a presiding officer and public speaker Mrs. Blackall always gave satisfaction and pleasure. As an author she was successful. Her first story, "Superior to Circumstances" (Boston, 1889), was followed by "Melodies from Nature" (Boston, 1889), and "Won and Not One" (Philadelphia, 1891). Short stories and biographical sketches have frequently appeared in various periodicals, and missionary literature has had numerous contributions from her pen. In collaboration with her husband, the Rev C. R. Blackall, she was joint author of "Stories about Jesus" (Philadelphia, 1890). Her literary style is marked by purity, vigor and correctness. She dealt with social and economic problems in a practical, common-sense manner, writing from experience and broad observation rather than as an idealist, yet always with tenderness and in a spirit of helpfulness In the various relations of wife, mother and home-maker, she was eminent for the sweetness of her disposition, the unfailing accuracy of her judgment, and the purity of her life.
(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Volume 1, Publ. 1897 Transcribed by Marla Snow)


  BUCKWELL, Miss Emily, physician, born in Bristol, England, in 1826. She is a younger sister of the well-known Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell. The story of her early life is similar to that of her famous sister. In 1848 Emily began the study of medicine, taking a course of medical reading and dissection with Dr. Davis, the demonstrator of anatomy in the medical college in Cincinnati, Ohio. Like her sister, she was endowed with great determination, good health, high ideals, quick perceptions and an exceptionally strong memory. Her early studies made her thoroughly familiar with French, Latin and German, and in Greek and mathematics she was well versed. She worked as a teacher to earn the funds to pay for her medical education Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell had graduated at the Geneva Medical College in 1849, and at her graduation the professors had testified that her presence in the school "had exercised a beneficial influence upon her fellow students in all respects," and that "the average attainments and general conduct of students, during the period she passed among them, were of a higher character than those of any other class which has been assembled in the college since the connection of the president with the institution." The college professors having been severely criticised for making such an innovation, when her sister Emily, in 1851, applied for admission, she was met with the discouraging declaration that they were not ready to look upon the case of Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell as a precedent, and that the admission, training and graduation of one woman did not mean the permanent opening of the doors of the Geneva Medical College to women. Emily made application to ten other colleges, and each of the ten refused to permit her to enter. She then went to New York City, where she was admitted to study in the free hospital of Bellevue Medical College. In 1852 she was admitted to Rush Medical College in Chicago, Ill. The following summer she spent in New York in hospital work in Bellevue and study and experiment in the chemical laboratory of Dr. Doremus. Returning to Chicago to begin her second term, she was dismayed to learn that Rush College had closed its doors against her. The authorities of the college had been censured by the State Medical Association of Illinois for having permitted a woman to enter the institution as a student. She next went to Cleveland, Ohio, where the medical school admitted her. She studied earnestly and was graduated after passing triumphantly a most searching examination. She then went to Edinburgh, Scotland, where she studied under the eminent Dr. Simpson in the lying-in hospital. Then she went to Paris, where she attended clinics under the great physicians of that city in the Hotel Dieu, the Beaujou, the St. Louis and the Hospital des Enfants Malades, living and working in the Hospital of the Maternite. After Paris, she went to London, England, where she "walked" the wards of St. Bartholomew and other hospitals. In 1856 she returned to the United States, bringing the highest testimonials of training, study and acquirement. On her return she discovered that the popular sentiment seemed to have turned against women physicians more strongly than ever before. After the graduation of the Doctors Blackwell, several other schools had graduated women, but the faculties were determined that no more women should be admitted. Then separate schools sprung up. One of the immediate results of this revulsion of sentiment was the establishment of the hospital in New York by the Doctors Blackwell, in connection with a cultured Polish woman, Dr. M. E. Zakrzewska. In 1865 the legislature conferred college powers upon that institution. The new college extended the course of study to three years and was the first college to establish a chair of hygiene. Dr. Emily Blackwell has been from the first, and still is, one of the professors of that college, and the medical head of the infirmary for women and children established by the joint efforts of herself and her sister. The success of the college is a matter of history. The graduates number hundreds, and many of them have won distinction. It has been a "woman's college" throughout, owned, maintained, officered and managed by women. Dr. Emily Blackwell has also a large and lucrative practice and an honorable standing in her profession. She is interested in all the reform questions of the day and has written and published much in connection with her profession. She is one of the vice-presidents of the Society for the Promotion of Social Purity and the better protection of the young, and has written some of the leaflets published by that society, among them " The State and Girlhood," the "Need of Combination among Women for Self Protection," and "Regulation Fallacies  Vice not a Necessity." She is deeply loved and revered by her numerous friends and pupils. Her character is one of rare wisdom, disinterestedness and undeviating principle.

(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Volume 1, Publ. 1897 Transcribed by Marla Snow)



 BRADWELL, Mrs. Myra, lawyer and editor, born in Manchester, Vt., 12th February, 1831. She is a daughter of Eben and Abigail Willey Colby, Her parents removed to New York State in her infancy. When she was twelve years old, Chicago became her home. Her family were well represented in the War of the Revolution, two of her ancestors having been in the battle of Bunker Hill. Myra was educated in Kenosha, Wis., and at the seminary in Elgin, Ill., and afterwards taught school in Memphis, Tenn. In 1852 she was married to James B. Bradwell, whose father was one of the leading pioneers of Illinois. She studied law under the instruction of her husband, and passed a creditable examination. She was the first woman in America to ask for admission to the bar, and it was refused because she was a married woman. She immediately set to work, with the aid of her husband, to have this legal disability removed, and the success of their undertaking is a matter of congratulation for all women. Mrs. Bradwell declared that she should never again apply for admission to the bar, but, to her surprise, she one day received a certificate upon the original application from the court that had refused her years before. Mrs. Bradwell was the first woman who was made a member of the Illinois Bar Association, and also of the Illinois Press Association. The first weekly legal paper published in the Western States was the Chicago "Legal News," established twenty-three years ago by Myra Bradwell, who has always been its manager and editor. The legislature gave her a special charter for the paper, and passed several acts making it evidence in the courts and a valid medium for the publication of legal notices. The law giving to married women their own earnings was drawn by Myra Bradwell, and its passage was secured through her efforts in 1869. Judge Bradwell retired from the bench in order to assist his wife in the large business to which the Legal News Company had grown. The Bradwells made place in their busy lives for much charitable and philanthropic work. During the Civil War they were active helpers among the sick and wounded soldiers, and did good service in the Sanitary Commission. Mrs. Bradwell has been for nearly thirty years a member of the Soldiers' Home Board. She was untiring in her efforts to secure the World's Fair for Chicago, and is one of the Board of Lady Managers and chairman of the committee on law reform of the World's Congress Auxiliary. She is a member of the Chicago Women's Club and of the Illinois Women's Press Association, and is treasurer of the South Evanston Industrial School, of which she was one of the organizers. Four children form her family. Of these, two died in infancy. Thomas and Bessie remain. They are both lawyers. Bessie's husband, Frank A. Helmer, is also an attorney. Notwithstanding her profession and her numerous activities, Mrs. Bradley is a favorite in the society of Chicago.

(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Volume 1, Publ. 1897 Transcribed by Marla Snow)



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