Knox County Illinois
Knox College and Galesburg were the outgrowth of one plan—the unique conception of a college growing up in the midst of, and supported by, a village, which was to exist solely for the purpose of giving to the young people of the west a college, where near at hand, with but little expense, they could acquire a higher education.
In January 1837, Nehemiah H. Losey, afterward Professor of Mathematics at Knox College, assisted by Miss Lucy Gay, opened a school at Log City for the especial benefit of the families of the colony, who settled here in 1836. This school continued until the academy was opened in 1838, when Professor Losey became its Principal. With this small school, Knox College, as a working institution, may be said to have had a beginning.
In Whitesboro, New York, on January 7, 1836, the subscribers to Rev. George W. Gale’s plan had voted to name their embryo institution “Prairie College,” but in the act of incorporation the name “Knox Manual Labor College” was substituted. The title at first selected, it was thought, would seem less appropriate when placed in a thriving town, surrounded by a highly cultivated country. Knox, as a name, might define the location, or it might call to mind the founder of the British and American Presbyterian churches. It will be borne in mind that manual labor was to be a feature of the institution. The fact that land, such as cost the Oneida Institute in New York State one hundred dollars per acre, could be had in Illinois practically without cost, was a leading consideration in the undertaking. But it soon appeared that, while the town population around the Oneida Institute furnished a market for what could be produced by the manual labor of men working a small part of each day with inexpensive outfit, farming in Illinois, requiring continuous work with team and implements, was impracticable under college management. Students were encouraged to take advantage of opportunities for work in the shops, houses, and grounds of citizens and such as chose generally found situations. Labor was always honored in Knox College. It was the prevailing sentiment with the founders that indolence was disgraceful and idleness a crime.
Only about one hundred acres of the college farm reservation was put under cultivation before the coming of the railroad, with depots, shops and yards, located on the premises, made its sale a source of wealth to the institution. The name “manual labor,” becoming inappropriate and misleading, was, on petition of the trustees, stricken out by act of the Legislature.
As incorporators, were selected five of the original colonists already on the ground, George W. Gale, John Waters, Nehemiah West, Thomas Simmons, and Nehemiah H. Losey. To them were added Matthew Chambers and Erastus Swift, of the Vermont accession to the colony. Parnach Owen and John G. Sanburn, prominent citizens of Knoxville, George H. Wright, a Monmouth physician, and Ralph H. Hurlburt, a leading merchant, packer, produce dealer, and land holder living at Mount Sterling—Hurlburt and Wright being from Oneida County, New York.
The charter made the Board self-perpetuating, with power to increase their number to twenty-four, in addition to the College President, who was to be a member ex-officio. All vacancies were to be filled by vote of the Board itself. The thirteen places not filled in the charter were intended for colonists not yet arrived, new-comers, or influential men in the surrounding country from which patronage was expected.
On August 9, 1837, the Board of Trustees held its first meeting at Knoxville, in the house of Matthew Chambers, when it was voted to erect an academy building as soon as possible. John Waters was chosen President; N.H. Losey, Clerk; and John G. Sanburn, Treasurer; the term of office to be one year. William Holyoke, Peter Butler, and Silvanus Ferris were at the same time added to the Board. The building was finished in the Fall of 1838 and opened for students, with Professor N.H. Losey as Principal and Hiram Marsh as assistant.
In 1841 the college was fully organized, with Rev. H.H. Kellogg as President (he was chosen in 1838); Rev. George W. Gale, Professor of Belles-Lettres and acting Professor of Ancient Languages; and N.H. Losey, Professor of Mathematics. The next year Innes Grant was made Professor of Languages. In 1843 the first catalogue was issued, showing an enrollment of one hundred and seventy-five students.
In 1845, President Kellogg, who had been pastor of the church and college agent as well as president, resigned, and was succeeded by Rev. Jonathan Blanchard, who filled these offices until 1857. In 1846 the first class, nine in number, was graduated. In 1851, three young ladies graduated from the seminary, Knox’s first alumnae. In all, one hundred and fifty-nine students graduated in the thirteen classes which left the institution under the Rev. Jonathan Blanchard’s presidency.
In this period, occurred that bitter controversy which threatened at one time to disrupt the college, sometimes called the “Blanchard War”. It was a struggle to place the government of Knox College in the hands of the Congregational Church. It was practically terminated (though the existing bitterness remained long after) April 30, 1858, when Rev. Dr. Harvey Curtis was chosen President. Since then the college, while non-sectarian in government and instruction, has had a Presbyterian President, except during the four years of Dr. Gulliver’s incumbency, and a larger number of the trustees have belonged to that church than to any other.
In May 1859, the General Association of the Congregational Church in Illinois adopted a report reflecting severely on Knox College and the opponents of Dr. Blanchard. But for many years past Knox College has found its warmest supporters in that as well as in the Presbyterian Church.
Dr. Harvey Curtis remained through June 1863. It was a hard time for the infant college. The war cut down the attendance so far that in the five years of his presidency only seventy-nine were graduated from both college and seminary.
In 1863, Dr. William Stanton Curtis was chosen President and remained in that office five years, during which period the college had only sixty graduates.
At the close of his administration, the condition of the institution’s finances had become alarming. At the beginning of its history, the net proceeds from the sale of lands, after meeting expenses attending establishment of the colony, fell below expectations, and failed to provide an endowment sufficient for the support of the college, even in those times of low salaries, when the requirements were so much less than now. An unfortunate liberality, allowing more than one student to receive free tuition on a single scholarship at the same time, caused the attendance to be almost entirely on scholarships, thus cutting off revenue from tuition. But the gradual sale of town lots, on which little calculation seems to have been made, supplied sufficient income to meet expenses, until the location of the railroad on college land brought its reserve property into market and largely advanced the value of all its unsold holdings.
The sudden and great increase in the wealth of the institution was followed by liberal expenditures, extensive building, an enlarged faculty, increased salaries, and the organization of the Female Seminary on a more expansive scale. The panic of 1857 dissipated much of this apparent wealth, but the sales had been large, and the full effect of the revulsion was not felt for some years.
While in 1868, the college still had a large property, the difference between current expenses and income made the necessity of aid from the public soon apparent. Dr. John P. Gulliver, at that time a trustee, the pastor of a large Congregational church in Chicago, and well known as an effective speaker in pulpit and on platform, was proposed for President. It was urged that his talents and reputation would attract and hold students, and with the public, secure recognition and pecuniary aid. The Presbyterian trustees waived objection on denominational grounds, and he was unanimously elected. His administration was brilliant; he brought strong additions to the faculty; the number of students increased; and through his four years, from 1868 to 1872, there were seventy-two graduates. But expenses increased, little tuition was collected, the scholarships were still alive, and there was no considerable addition to the endowment by donation. At the end of four years, so great was the reduction in the income-bearing property that the trustees deemed large reductions in expenses imperative. The President insisted on an increase both in teaching force and equipment, and resigned, several members of the faculty going at the same time. For three years the presidency remained unfilled, most of the duties of that position being filled by Dr. Albert Hurd. In 1875 Dr. Newton Bateman, who had then just retired from the State superintendency of Public instruction, where his marvelous record had made him famous, was induced to accept the vacant place. During Dr. Bateman’s administration the college grew largely. His character admirably fitted him for just this work. He gradually smoothed over the difficulties still surviving from the Blanchard controversy. His first graduating class numbered sixteen; his last, forty-nine. It was while he was President that Knox, in 1887, celebrated its semi-centennial. The gymnasium, the Alumni Hall, and the additions to Whiting Hall were built, and the standard of the curriculum was very materially raised. In 1884, the cadet corps was started, a law being enacted authorizing the Government to detail a special officer here for the work. In 1883, under Miss Lepha A. Kelsey, the Conservatory of Music was started. Under her successor, W.F. Bentley, the school has grown till over two hundred and fifty pupils are now enrolled. An Art School has also been established.
In 1892 Dr. John H. Finley, a Knox graduate of 1887, was elected President, Dr. Bateman continuing to act, however, for one year, and remaining with the institution which he had so greatly benefited and on which he had shed such honor, as President Emeritus, until his death in 1897. In 1892-3, the college extension courses were organized, and are now conducted by the Professors, to the great good of the places visited by them and the consequent favorable advertising of the college. Extension lecturers from other schools are also brought here. In 1894, the Summer School was established. Many more elective courses than formerly are now offered; the library has been greatly enlarged; the scientific equipment is much improved; and the education here obtainable is much more thorough than ever before.
Including the class of 1899, the total number of Knox graduates is twelve hundred and fifty-nine.
In June 1899, President Finley resigned, to engage in magazine work in New York, and the college is as yet without a President. In the interim, the trustees elected Professor T.R. Millard Dean of the Faculty, and the present outlook for the institution is very bright.
In what has been already said, no special reference has been made to the gradual multiplication, and improvement of the college buildings. The original structure was long known as the “old academy”. It stood on the northeast corner of Main and Cherry streets, and is now a dwelling house. Next came a Female Seminary, built in 1841 at a cost of $5,000, and burned in 1843. In 1844 the “East Bricks” which is still standing, and the “West Bricks”, torn down to make room for Alumni Hall, were built. In 1846 the “new academy” was erected, and used as an academy for about twelve years, after which it was utilized for a High School, until it was finally demolished, to give place to the Union Hall. In 1855, the trustees found Knox College so much enriched by the rise of its real property, induced by the opening of the railroad, that they erected the main building and the principal portion of the Whiting Hall at a cost of nearly $100,000.
The first Gymnasium, a wooden building still standing on the east side of the campus, was erected by the students.
In 1885, the east wing of Whiting Hall was built, and in 1892, the west wing, each costing about $10,000. In 1888 the Observatory was erected.
On October 8, 1890, President Harrison laid the corner stone of Alumni Hall, a handsome building erected by the gifts of old students. It contains a chapel, seating nearly one thousand, with Adelphi and Gnothautii Halls in either wing. Its cost approximated $50,000.
Among the student organizations, the literary societies are the oldest and best known. Their work has been a distinguishing feature of the college for many years. The training there given in the facile use of language and in oratory has put the college at the head of all in the West in prize winning. Her orators have won the inter-state oratorical contest six times, taking five first prizes and once being awarded second place. The drill in debate, in impromptu speaking and in parliamentary law, obtained in these societies, has also proved of incalculable value to their members in after life, as many graduates can testify.
In the order of their founding, these societies are:
The Adelphi, which was organized in the Spring of 1846 and chartered in May 1847. About one thousand members have been connected with it since its organization. It owns the west wing of Alumni Hall. Until that was built, its meeting place was in the second story of the old “West Bricks”. The society awards a prize of $35 every year to the member who wins the Adelphi Debate, which takes place in the Spring term, between four contestants chosen by the society.
The Gnothautii, which was organized November 1, 1849, by Adelphians, who felt aggrieved at the position taken by the parent society in the “Blanchard War”. It also has a prize debating contest, known as the Colton Debate, because General D.D. Colton gave the fund, the income from which has been used since 1877 for this prize. The society used to meet in the “East Bricks”, but now owns the east wing of Alumni Hall, leasing the first story to the college.
Both these societies are open to all male students of the academic department. Recently Mr. George A. Lawrence established two prizes for extempore debate, to be competed for by two members from each society. The first contest was held in 1896. Mr. E.A. Bancroft has also offered two prizes for oratory, the contestants to be members of these societies, the first competitive exhibition being given in 1897.
The L.M.I., which was organized November 20, 1861. It seeks to afford the female students the same advantages that the two societies mentioned above give the men. The meetings are held every Wednesday afternoon in the large, nicely furnished hall on the third floor of Whiting Hall, owned by the society and fitted with a stage, where most enjoyable entertainments are frequently given.
The Zetetici (Seek to know) and E.O.D. (To be, not seem) are the young men’s societies of the preparatory department. Zetetici was organized in the Fall of 1865 and E.O.D. in December 1873.
The Oneota, the young ladies’ society of the academy, was organized in October 1889. The name is an Indian word, meaning “the pursuit of fine arts”. Meetings are held every Friday afternoon.
The Greek letter fraternities supply most of the social life for the college at the present time. As in other schools, in late years, their growth has been marvelous, and in numbers and influence, they are now far stronger than ever before. At present there are five chapters in the school.
Those to which men only are admitted are:
The Phi Delta Theta, Illinois Delta chapter, which was organized March 16, 1871; reorganized in 1880. The fraternity hall is on the third floor of the new Tunnicliff Building.
The Beta Theta Pi, Xi chapter, which was organized in 1855; reorganized as Alpha Xi chapter in 1888. A chapter house is rented on the corner of Cedar and South streets.
The Phi Gamma Delta, Gamma Deuteron chapter, which was organized in 1867; reorganized in December 1885. Their hall is on the third floor of the building on the southeast corner of Main and Cherry streets.
The societies for ladies are:
The Phi Beta Phi, Illinois Delta chapter, which was organized March 7, 1884.
The only secret society for women students is the Delta Delta Delta, Epsilon chapter, which was established during the Fall term of 1888.
Besides the literary societies and the fraternities, there are several organizations of a more or less miscellaneous character.
The Inter-State Oratorical Association dates from February 27, 1874 when, in response to an invitation from the students of the college, orators from six colleges in Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin contested at Galesburg. From this small beginning, grew the present association, consisting of ten Intercollegiate Societies in as many different States, and representing nearly one hundred colleges. Out of twenty-six contests, Knox College has won five first and one second prize.
The Contest Association is made up of the members of the Adelphi and the Gnothautii. It elects an orator and delegates to the Illinois Inter-Collegiate Oratorical Society.
The Athletic Association has for its aim the promotion and perfection of physical culture.
The Memorabilia Society, which was formed in the Spring of 1890, seeks to preserve interesting data in connection with the college.
The chief societies of a religious character are as follows:
The Y.M.C.A., which was organized in 1884. It meets every Friday evening in Whiting Hall chapel. The Knox Volunteer Band, which is composed of those who have agreed to go as foreign missionaries.
The first college publication was “The Knoxiana”. Its first issue appeared in August, 1850. It soon suspended, but was revived in May 1851, by the “Knoxiana Publication Company”, and was prosperous for five years. In the Fall of 1856, the Gnothautii started a rival paper, “The Oak Leaf.” But two papers could not be supported, and after one year’s rivalry, they were discontinued. In 1860-61, Adelphi published a quarterly, the last effort at journalism in the college until 1878. In the Spring of that year the students, in mass meeting, decided to have a paper, and that same Autumn “The Knox Student” was started. It ran though 1880-81, when the “Knox Student Joint Stock Company” was organized. It held a meeting, September 15, 1881, in which such a storm arose that the “Coup d’ Etat” was started, and immediately supplanted the old paper. It remained till June 1898, the literary magazine of the college, and was published monthly by the “Coup d’Etat Joint Stock Company”. The college newspaper during that time was “The Knox Student”, published weekly by the “Knox Student Joint Stock Company”, founded in June 1894, in order to supply fresher news than could appear in a monthly. But two papers were more than the college could support, so in June 1888, the “Student” and “Coup d’Etat” were consolidated un the name of the former. “The Knox Student” now appears weekly and combines the literary and news features.
The college annuals have been “The Pantheon”, for 1869-70; the “Mischmasch”, for 1870-71; and “The Gale” published first for 1887-88. For four years the fraternities published it. In 1891-92, a Knox Souvenir was prepared by two students. In 1893 no annual was published. In 1894 the Juniors, class of 1895, revived “The Gale” and in 1895 two Juniors published it. It now seems established as a Junior publication, after the fashion of most other colleges.
By C. Ellwood Nash, D. D.
The motives which inspired the founding of Lombard University may be learned from the preamble and resolutions adopted, upon motion of the Rev. C .P. West, by the Spoon River Associations of Universalists in session at Greenbush, Illinois, May 19, 1850:
“WHEREAS, The intellectual and moral improvement of our youth is a subject of vital importance not only to our denomination but to the community at large; and
‘WHEREAS, Most, if not all, of the literary institutions of the State, higher than common schools, established by law, have ever been and still are in the hands and under the control of our religious opponents; and
“WHEREAS, The sectarian influence of these is detrimental to the cause of free inquiry after religious truth, injurious to the spread of Universalism, and sometimes ruinous to the peace and happiness of the students themselves; therefore
“RESOLVED, That the Universalists of this State ought immediately to adopt measures for the establishment of a seminary of learning which shall be free from the above named objections.
“RESOLVED, That said institution should be located in Galesburg, Knox County, Illinois.”
A genuine love of learning, combined with tenacious loyalty to religious conviction, breathes in these resolutions; for they resulted in the opening of the Illinois Liberal Institute in September 1852, Rev. P.R. Kendall being the first Principal.
That there were room and demand for the new school was evidenced by the attendance which, starting with sixty pupils, rapidly increased, in 1856-67 to two hundred and forty-five. With this growth in number, the ambitions of the management grew also, and in 1855, a new charter was obtained which created the Lombard University. The energy, the planning, the sacrifices that made this enterprise successful were great. In April 1885, the original institute building was burned. The school, without a home and scattered about in various rooms, continued to thrive and increase. The canvass for a permanent endowment, which was begun early in 1854 under the leadership of President Kendall, who was ably seconded by Rev. G.S. Weaver, was pushed on with greater zeal. The largest single contribution was made by Benjamin Lombard, who promoted by a “mingling of civic and denominational pride, with an interest in educational matters directly inherited from his Mayflower ancestry”, gave to this cause property the estimated value of which was $20,000. In his honor the university was named.
With a portion of the funds thus secured the brick structure, which has since been the domicile of the university, was erected. Mr. Kendall remained President nominally until June 1857, although Professor J. V. N. Standish was Acting President from October 1854 to June 1857. He was succeeded in that office by Dr. Otis A. Skinner. On his resignation in 1859, Dr. J.P. Weston was elected to the Presidency. Dr. Weston’s administration, which continued for thirteen years, was signalized by the raising of a permanent fund of nearly $100,000, and by wise and scholarly plans which gave the institution a solid educational basis. After him, Professor William Livingston served as Provisional President for three years; and in 1875, Dr. N. White was installed in the presidential office, which he filled with Christian dignity and a wealth of erudition for seventeen years. Upon his resignation in 1892, he was put in charge of the Ryder Divinity School (which was established in 1881, as a department of the university, and named for Dr. William H. Ryder of Chicago, whose will bequeathed about $46,000 to the institution, of which he had long been a leading trustee), and Dr. J. V. N. Standish was made President. He retired in 1895, and the present incumbent, Dr. C. Ellwood Nash, an alumnus of Lombard, was called to the chair. It should be said of Dr. Standish that, beginning his connection with the school in 1854 he served it with distinguished credit for a period of forty-one years, in almost every capacity. Not less earnest has been the attachment to Lombard University of Dr. Isaac A. Parker, who entered the professorial staff in 1858, and still continues to discharge his duties as head of the department of the classics, with unabated zeal and extraordinary ability. The important services of Professor William Livingston, who from 1855 to 1879 was one of the guiding spirits of the institution, filling several different positions with efficiency, must not pass unmentioned. It may well be believed that the fortunes of the institution have been nobly supported during the forty-seven years of its history, by a host of devoted friends, whom it would be most fitting to honor here by name. But they have their monument and memorial in the things actually achieved, and “their works do follow them”.
As President Kendall’s administration was chiefly distinguished by the strong impulse he gave the University; Dr. Watson’s by the raising of nearly $100,000 for an endowment; and Dr. White’s by the founding of the Ryder Divinity School; so Dr. Standish began the raising of funds for a Woman’s Building, and thus may be said to have opened the way for further improvements. The amount secured by his canvass was nominally about $40,000, which has since been increased to about $51,000. With a portion of this fund has been erected a substantial and commodious Ladies’ Hall, which was opened in September 1896. The Association of Graduates undertook in 1896 to build a Gymnasium, which was completed in September 1897. From its beginning, the University has maintained a steady growth, if not a rapid one. Its property is now valued at about $250,000, of which $100,000 is the estimate for the campus and buildings, and the remainder is the Invested Fund. It was one of the first colleges in the country to open its doors to women on equal terms with men, and continues with unfaltering confidence its co-educational plan. It is a school of progressive ideas and methods, and aims to be thoroughly up-to-date in its dealing with the educational problem. Though the religious conditions, which seemed to make its establishment a necessity, have since been considerably modified, the need of sound scholarship has suffered no abatement, and Lombard University, true to its own ideals, is abler than ever and equally resolute to do its part in the common work of laying a foundation for the future by the generous enlightenment of the rising generation.
GALESBURG PUBLIC SCHOOLS
By F. D. Thomson
For many years, the only public schools in Galesburg were those maintained by the districts. Elementary instruction was, for the most part, obtained at private institutions and at Knox Academy. The school taught by Professor Losey and Miss Gay, at Log City, was the first of any kind. In November or December, 1838, the Academy was opened. It was a one-story building, and stood on the northeast corner of Main and Cherry streets. A second story was soon added, and William Van Meter was employed by a few citizens, at their own expense, to teach here. In 1839 C. S. Colton built a small school house on the northeast corner of the public square, with inclined aisles, after the fashion of modern audience rooms. It was soon moved to the north side of Ferris Street, between Broad and Cherry streets. Eli Farnham was the first teacher. There were two terms, of six months each, in the school year. This was the first public school building, properly so called, and later a building owned by Matthew Chambers, at No. 1 Main Street, on the northeast corner of Henderson, was devoted to the same purpose. The third building of this class was constructed of brick, and stood on Pine Street, just south of Main. The fourth was situated on Brooks Street, near the Monmouth Road. The fifth was just north of the present Seventh Ward school site. This was soon replaced by a second building, erected on the same lot. The sixth was on the north side of Simmons Street, a half block east of Hope Cemetery. The seventh stood on the corner of Kellogg and Losey streets. These were all the school houses, but there were eight districts, each with its separate Board of Directors. There was no co-operation, and the teaching was poor; so poor, in fact, that the best people sent their children to the Academy or to private schools, the best patronized among the latter being that of Miss Kitty Watson. It stood in the middle of Block 12, and the building which it occupied may still be seen.
In 1855 George Churchill returned from Europe, where he had studied the Prussian school system, which he greatly admired. Through the columns of the “Galesburg Democrat” he urged the importance of “graded union schools” for the eight hundred school children then in Galesburg. Two years later, W.S. Baker, who enjoyed a wide reputation as a successful school organizer, was induced in consideration of the payment of one hundred dollars, to aid in organizing the public schools. Mr. Baker made his home with Dr. Churchill, who, in addition to this contribution to the cause, donated one-half of the hundred dollars paid him. But the plan was new and excited much opposition, even among the trustees, some of whom feared that better public schools would ruin the Academy. But the champions of reform won, by force of argument, aided by persistence.
Late in 1858, the eight old districts were consolidated into one, and George Churchill, A.B. Campbell, and J.H. Knapp were elected directors, and given power to grade the schools. For some time, they encountered no little opposition in their efforts to introduce a uniform system of instruction. They rented from C. S. Colton a building on the west side of the public square, just north of Main Street, and also secured the old post office building on Broad Street and the square. Here was the first Grammar School; where instruction was given in the two highest grades of the five which were at first established. Pupils in the three lower grades attended the outlying schools. Mrs. G. A. Tryon, who had taught in graded schools in Ohio, was made the first Principal. She gave up one of the best private schools in the city in order to aid the Directors in their work. In January 1860, Mrs. Tryon was forced by illness to resign, and was succeeded by J.H. Knapp during the remainder of the year. He was followed by R.B Guild, who was Superintendent for two years. J.B. Roberts, appointed in September 1862, remained till M. Andrews was appointed in September 1875. He held the office for ten years, W.L. Steele, the present incumbent, being appointed in September 1885.
In 1858, at a citizen’s meeting held in the First Congregational Church, a committee of fifteen, of which George Churchill was chairman, was appointed to take some action looking toward the establishment of a free graded school system. They engaged Judge Lanphere and O.S. Pitcher to draft an act for the accomplishment of this end. It was passed by the Legislature February 18, 1859, but not accepted by the city until 1861, when a Board of Education, composed of one member from each ward, was elected. Previous to that time, the three Directors had had executive control.
It was during the superintendency of Mr. Guild that the present general system of management was inaugurated, but the schools were slow in reaching their present state of development. The first Superintendent’s report was made for the year ending June 1865. There were then seven grades and a two-year High School course. (At present there are eight grades and a three-year High School course). In this report is a strong plea for a Teachers’ Training School, which followed just twenty-three years later, Miss Lillian Taylor being the instructor. Much good has been done, and more is hoped for, from this systematic training. At present, nearly all the teachers have received a collegiate training; and the exercise of the utmost care in their selection has, more than anything else, improved the schools.
The greatest advance in educational methods has been made in the last ten years. In 1887, manual training was introduced into the curriculum, the shops being located in the basement of the Churchill School, and the director of instruction being Earl Stilson. At present, Mr. G.H. Bridge is the director and the instruction is given in the basement of the High School building. Many of the pupils become skilled mechanics. The study of music was introduced in 1888; of drawing, in 1891; and of vertical writing in 1896. Text-books have grown better from year to year; kindergarten methods have been adopted in all lines of work; and the teacher has become not the terror, but the friend of the pupil.
Prior to 1893, pupils in the five lower grades received instruction in the ward schools, while those in the three higher grades attended a central “Grammar School”. At first this was necessary, in order to bind the separated district schools in one homogeneous system. There has been some disposition, however, to build small school houses in the outlying wards; and this has been fostered by owners of real estate in those sections of the city, who see in their erection the enhancement of the value of their property. In these small schools, there are not a sufficient number of pupils to permit each teacher to instruct in one grade only; two, or even three, being taught in a single room, to manifest disadvantage of the pupils. On the other hand, the schools in the center of the city have become congested. The present plan is to build large ward schools, and in them prepare the pupils for the High School. Only the Hitchcock, the Weston, and the Bateman schools are large enough for this, the first having been enlarged in 1893, the second in 1895, and the third in 1899. From other wards, the pupils come to the Churchill school—the ward school for the First and Second wards—for the three highest grammar grades. The system of instruction in the High School, since the completion of the new building, has been departmental, each teacher devoting himself or herself to a single branch. The result has been more competent teaching and better progress by the pupils. Above photo Galesburg High School 1900
The earlier school houses have been described. The High School was first opened in 1861, in the “New Academy”, where now is the Union Hotel. In 1865 all the buildings on the public square had to be vacated. Both the High and Grammar schools were then removed to the old Baptist Church, at the corner of Broad and Tompkins streets, for which (both site and building) the price paid was $2,000.
In 1865, the Churchill School was begun, and finished in 1866, at a cost of $60,000. It was called “Grammar School” until 1896 when the Board of Education changed the name in honor of the man who made graded schools in Galesburg an accomplished fact. It was also used as a High School until 1888, when the new High School building was completed at an outlay of $28,000. Here each teacher has a recitation room, and there is a large study hall for the pupils. The Fourth Ward School, at the corner of Mulberry Street and Allen Avenue, was erected in 1869. About 1882 it was partially burned, and in its rebuilding, was greatly improved, at a cost of $25,000. In 1895 it was entirely remodeled with a view to permitting pupils to be prepared there for the High School. The Third Ward School was built in 1875 at the corner of Cherry and Selden streets; and in 1893 at an expenditure of some $10,000 an addition was made with the same end in view. The Sixth Ward School, at the corner of Clark and Losey streets was erected in 1877, and in 1899, $15,000 was spent in its enlargement, the object being the same. The Seventh Ward School, at the corner of Third and Seminary streets, was built in 1876, and the Fifth Ward School, which stands at the corner of Second and Academy, at about the same time. Owing to the growth of the Third and Fourth wards, Lincoln School was built, on the corner of North and Pearl streets in 1890. All these buildings were two story and basement structures of red brick with light stone trimmings. They had four rooms on each floor, with ample hallways, and cost from $13,000 to $16,000 each. In 1891 the Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Ward schools were named, respectively: Hitchcock, for the gentleman of that name who was Superintendent of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, and who was always much interested in public affairs; Weston, for one of the early Lombard Presidents; Cooke for M.D. Cooke, who for thirteen years was a member of the Board of Education; Bateman for Dr. Newton Bateman; and Douglas in honor of the “Little Giant”. There is a primary school for the children of the First and Second Ward—a small frame building between the Churchill and High schools. All these school houses are heated by steam and have modern improvements in ventilating devices; while those recently erected have the best possible system of lighting.
In the early sixties, there was a separate school for Negroes established, at their own request. They preferred their children not to attend with those of the whites, who were much younger and smaller than theirs in the same grades.
Funds for the support of the schools are derived from the State (from the proceeds of school lands) and from taxation. A comparison of the year just past (1897-98) and the year for which the first report was made (1864-65) follows:
|Tax, Interest, Etc||5,898.66||75,519.01|
|Janitor, Repairs, Etc.||2,696.89||29,110.28|
The school property is now worth about $200,000.
There are in Galesburg three Catholic schools, St. Joseph’s Academy, St. Mary’s Primary, and Corpus Christi Lyceum and University.
St. Joseph’s Academy and Convent at the corner of Knox and Academy streets, was erected in 1878-79 at a cost of about $30,000. In September 1879 it was opened with a staff of ten teachers, and about four hundred pupils of both sexes. It has been conducted from the beginning by the Sisters of Providence, from St. Mary’s of the Woods, Indiana. The Sisters have hitherto been very successful in their work, as is evidenced by the large number of accomplished young ladies who have graduated from the academy. The location of the building is healthy and the surroundings pleasant. The course of study embraces four years.
St. Mary’s Primary School stands on the corner of Fourth and Seminary streets in the Seventh Ward. It is an elementary school for boys and girls from six to twelve years of age, and serves as a preparatory department for St. Joseph’s Academy. The school, with its accompanying playground, was purchased with the view of obviating the danger of accidents occurring to such small children as might be obliged to cross the railroad tracks in going to and from the academy. Besides, the walk would be rather long and the weather often too inclement for the little ones. Two Sisters from the academy attend St. Mary’s daily and the school has proved a great benefit.
Corpus Christi Church erected 1884, value $40,000. Society organized in 1851,
The Corpus Christi Lyceum and University was opened in September 1895 for the education of young men in the higher branches of learning, including a classical and commercial course, as well as a course in music. The building is an ornate and solid structure, and well supplied with all that is necessary to constitute a modern outfit. Since its first opening, in 1895, a notable feature has been added to its status. This occurred in 1897 when the Lyceum was raised to the rank of a university. At present, therefore, this institution comprises two departments, Lyceum and University. The curriculum of the Lyceum department embraces the subjects usually covered by the average High School course. The University course requires four years for its completion, and on graduation the degree of B.A. is conferred.
The Corpus Christi Lyceum and University is conducted by the Fathers of the Order of Charity, who never weary in their endeavors to inculcate sound moral and religious principles. It owes its institution, as also do the other two schools above mentioned, to the unwearied efforts of the Rev. Joseph Costa, the present Rector of Corpus Christi Church, and president of Corpus Christi Lyceum and University. Father Costa has general supervision of all the Catholic schools of the city.
THE KINDERGARTEN NORMAL SCHOOL
The Kindergarten Normal, beautifully situated on Tompkins Street, opposite the City Park, is one of the educational institutions of which Galesburg is justly proud. It embodies the motive, spirit and life of its founder and present principal, Miss M. Evelyn Strong. Before undertaking this work Miss Strong completed a thorough course in kindergarten methods.
In 1879 she opened a private kindergarten in her own home, five pupils having been secured. The growth of the school was slow, the enrollment not exceeding twelve at any time during the first six years.
As the nature and character of the work became understood, it became appreciated and its patronage steadily increased. Teachers soon began to apply for instruction in Froebel’s methods. From this sprang the regular Normal Department, which was formally organized in September 1886, and from which a large class graduates annually. The present enrollment in the various departments, including the weekly classes, exceeds two hundred.
The distinguishing and successful feature of the Normal Department is that teachers are not only trained to be kindergartners, but are also thoroughly prepared to adapt Froebel’s principles to public school work.
The Free Kindergarten of the city is a branch of this school, and in it each student is required to do a part of her practice work.
In 1895 the school was partially destroyed by fire, and in rebuilding was much enlarged and well equipped with all modern improvements.
This institution has a marked influence upon the educational thought of the community. It stands for Christian education, Bible study and that obedience to law which makes the true citizen.
GALESBURG FREE KINDERGARTEN
Upon invitation of Miss M. Evelyn Strong a number of ladies met in September 1890 at the Kindergarten Normal to discuss a plan for benefiting the poor children of Galesburg by affording them, gratuitously, a similar course of instruction. Mrs. Mary Claycomb Grubb was chosen temporary chairman, and a committee on permanent organization was appointed. At a later meeting a constitution and by-laws were adopted, and the following officers elected; President, Mrs. M. C. Grubb; Secretary, Mrs. Helena Crummett Lee; Treasurer, Mrs. J.C. Fahnstock. The organization was named the Galesburg Free Kindergarten Association, its object, as stated in the preamble to its constitution, being “to maintain one or more free kindergartens in Galesburg”.
The kindergarten was opened October 6, 1890 in two rooms in the city office building, with twenty-four scholars and two teachers, Miss Mary Hazzard and Miss Mary Owen. In September 1896, Miss Owen was succeeded by Miss Emma Chase of Binghamton, New York.
Increased city business causing a demand for the rooms occupied by the school in July 1893, the Association bought the Central Hotel from G.N. Hamilton, and the council granted a lease of an adjacent lot owned by the municipality, the hotel being removed thither. The site thus obtained has been the permanent home of the school.
From this small beginning, the result of determination and well directed effort, the work has grown until the Free Kindergarten has become one of the established institutions of Galesburg. Since December 1893, the sessions have been held during the entire day. Since February 1893, the rooms have been opened one evening each week to the parents and friends of the children. Homeless little ones find a shelter here until homes can be found for them. Yet this branch of the work is as yet in its incipiency, owing to a lack of room and means.
In April 1896, the Association was incorporated, the incorporators being Mrs. M.C. Grubb, Mrs. J.E. Chase, and Miss Bell Beatty. Since then the scope of the work has been gradually enlarged, until the original nucleus has become a sort of center for all associated charities, and is the fountain head of rescue and relief work of all kinds in Galesburg.
The daily attendance at the school averages about thirty-five. In 1896 four hundred calls were made by visitors, and about two hundred and fifty families were given substantial aid.
BROWN’S BUSINESS COLLEGE
This institution was originally known as the Western Business College, and was founded in 1860 by H. E. Hayes, who disposed of it in 1865 to J. B. Harsh, of Creston, Iowa. In 1867 W. B. Richards was made writing teacher, and about the same time the school began to grow in attendance and influence. Mr. Richards resigned in 1869 and the following year Professor Poole became proprietor. In 1871 he sold the institution to J. H. Snelling whose interest passed in July 1873 to J. M. Martin and Brother, of Monmouth through whose agency and good management the school at once began to prosper. Ill health compelled the retirement of Mr. J. M. Martin in 1883, and M. H. Barringer became the owner of the college. He established it in large, better quarters, in the Nelson Block, and it continued to flourish. Mr. Barringer however, concluded to embark in other business, and in July 1890, the institution was purchased by Brown’s Business College Company, when it was rechristened under its present name.
The following year an additional room was leased, to accommodate the increased attendance. The present principal, W. F. Caldwell, has been in charge since July 1892. The college now occupies nine large rooms in the Commercial Block, one of the largest and handsomest business buildings in the city. Few, if any, commercial schools in the State have better facilities for the accommodation of students. Six competent instructors are employed, and the attendance is steadily increasing. Nearly two hundred students were enrolled last year. The methods of instruction and the text books used are the very latest employed in the best commercial schools. The graduates are unusually successful. They are employed by the leading business firms of Galesburg and surrounding towns, while not a few find positions of responsibility and profit in Chicago and other large cities, and many are conducting successful business enterprises of their own. G. W. Brown, the manager of this school and the President of Brown’s Business College Company, probably enjoys as wide and as favorable a reputation as a commercial teacher as any man in the country.
SOCIETIES AND ORGANIZATIONS.
By George M. Strain.
One of the important phases of the life of a modern city is, to be found in the organizations which flourish therein. In Galesburg, this phase has been strongly developed within recent years. The older fraternal societies have long existed there, but the past decade has brought about a large growth of smaller and newer orders, whose purpose is either wholly fraternal or benevolent, or an admixture of the two aims. The clubs for study and improvement hold an important place, also, in the city life. In this sketch, it will be the aim to enumerate every society or organization of a fraternal, beneficiary, or social character, except those connected exclusively with institutions of learning. Many difficulties in securing the desired data have been encountered, and in some cases the loss of society records has prevented the recording of interesting facts. So far as ascertainable, there is given below the principal historical facts of each society. In the labor unions, the present membership is not given altogether in accord with the reports received from the organizations themselves for the reason that it was feared that the plain statement of such facts might be used to their disadvantage.
A list of places of meeting of the prominent organizations precedes the list of societies, and may be found in the next succeeding paragraphs.
American Hall, 347 East Main street.
Ancient Order of United Workmen's Hall, 14 East Main street.
Castle Hall, Ezel, K. of P., 10 East Main street.
Catholic Total Abstinence Society Rooms, 330 East Main street.
Masonic Hall, third floor Matthew's Block, 221 East Main street.
Pythian Temple, College City, K. of P., Dean's Block, 55 North Cherry street.
Odd Fellows Hall, Young Men's Christian Association Building, North Prairie street.
Skandia, I. O. G. T., or Vittium's Hall, 216 East Main street.
Svea, I.O.G.T., or Swanson's Hall, 237 East Main street.
Trades Assembly Hall, 118 B East Main street.
A list of the various organizations, classified according to their character and aim, follows next.
FRATERNAL AND BENEVOLENT.
ANCIENT ORDER OF PYRAMIDS.
— Galesburg Council No. 136. Organized January 20, 1898, with twenty-five members. Present membership, seventy-three. Meets first and third Thursdays, in American Hall. First officers: N. P., Charles M. Hunt; Priest, Roy Page; Priestess, Mrs. M. Young; M., M. C. Case; H. F. H. Wells; S., G. R. Dimmitt; Treasurer, H. H. Griffith, Jr.; Medical Examiner, Dr. G. A. Longbrake. Present officers: N. P., Charles M. Hunt; Priest, M. N. Longbrake; Priestess, Mrs. C. W. Milikan; M., Mrs. Hattie M. Sweeney; H., P. H. Mattimore; S., Mrs. M. Young; Treasurer, W. A. Peterson; Medical Examiner, Dr. G. A. Longbrake.
ANCIENT ORDER OF UNITED WORKMEN.
— All lodges meet in A.O.U.W. Hall, No. 14 East Main street. College City Lodge No. 214. Organized April 29, 1882, with eighty charter members. Present membership, two hundred. Meets Tuesday evenings. First officers: P. M. W., Mike Mount; M. W., R. Page; F., W.O. Lovejoy; 0., E. S. Kimball; Recording Secretary, A. H. Blick; Financial Secretary, H. W. Carpenter; Receiver, J. F. Boydstrom. Present officers: P. M. W., George E. Luster; M. W., T. C. Bowes; F., John Doran; O., T. E. Huston; Recorder, E. B. Rhodes; Financial Secretary, F. S. Bartlett; Receiver, J. Blanding; Medical Examiner, George E. Luster, M. D. Vasa Lodge, No. 210. Organized March 10, 1882, with twenty-five charter members. Present membership, thirty-five. Meets second and fourth Wednesdays in A.O.U.W. Hall. First officers; P. M. W., J. A. Engstrum; M. W., S. J. Johnson; O., J. A. Chalstrand; Recorder, J. A. Johnston; Financial Secretary. J. A. Johnson.
Present officers: P. M. W., S. J. Johnson; M. W., Frank Sandberg; F., Swan Nelson; O., S. J. Stromstedt; Recorder. N. M. Borg; Receiver, P. J. Friedlund; Financial Secretary, A. F. Starr.
DEGREE OF HONOR. AUXILIARY TO A.O.U.W.
— McLean Lodge No. 12. Organized April 27, 1887, with twenty charter members. Present membership, sixty-eight. Meets first and second Wednesdays in A.O.U.W. Hall. First officers: P. C. of H., Mrs. J. H. Saddler; C. of H., Mrs. J. Hopkins: S. of H., Mrs. W. O. Salisbury; C. of C, Mrs. J. C. Brownson; Recorder, Miss Allie Bone; Receiver, Mrs. Carrie E. Wood.
Present officers: P. C. of H., Mrs. Isam Biggs; C. of H., Mrs. Lela Smith; L. of H., Mrs. E. Wilds; C. of C, Mrs. A. B. Willetts; Recorder. Mrs. Ella C. Fee; Financier, Mrs. Elizabeth Doran; Receiver, Mrs. S. J. Carroll.
SUPREME COURT OF HONOR.
— District Court of Honor No. 171. Organized September 21, 1896, with thirty-five charter members. Present membership, one hundred and fifty-two. Meets fourth Fridays in A.O.U.W. Hall. First officers: W. C., I. L. Pullsbury; W. V. C, Eva C. Mcintosh; W. T., W. D. McConnell; W. R., George A. Brooks; Medical Directors, C. W. Mcintosh, E. G. Morey. Present officers: W. C., L. M. Bisbee; W. V. C, Minnie Blythe; W. P. C, I. L. Pullsbury: W. T., C. T. Larson; W.R., J. E. .McKamey; Medical Directors. P. E. Torey, R. C. Matheny.
— College City Home Tribunal No. 12. Organized September 27. 1897, with forty charter members. Present membership, ninety. Meets first and third Mondays in A.O.U.W. Hall. First officers: P. C. T., C. R. Bottsford; C. T., M. J. Blanding; V. C. T., Mrs. O. N. Marshall; Secretary, A. H. Blick; Treasurer, P. T. Olson. Present officers: P. C. T., M. P. Blanding; C. T., W. A. Marshall; V. C. T., Mrs. L. M. Arnold; Secretary, A. H. Blick; Treasurer, Seth H. Felt.
HOME FORUM BENEFIT ORDER.
— Opportunity Forum No. 22. Organized January 2, 1893, with thirty-eight charter members. Present membership, two hundred and thirty-eight. Meets second and fourth Fridays in Pythian Temple on North Cherry street. First officers: President, Paul Willett; Vice President, Belle Quinlan; Secretary. Frances A. Gebhart; Treasurer. M. L. Gebhart.
Present officers: President, T. L. McGirr; First Vice President; Jennie Searle; Second Vice President, Alma Tomlinson; Secretary, Winnie Flynn; Treasurer, M. L. Gebhart.
INDEPENDENT ORDER OF FORRESTERS.
— Court Knox No. 1482. Organized February 22,1894, with sixteen charter members. Present membership, forty-six. Meets second and fourth Monday evenings in Svea Hall. First officers: C. R., J. B. Harvey; C. R., J. M. Fletcher; P. C. R., B. E. Jones; V. C. R., William G. Nicholson; Court Physician. John B. Harvey; R. S., W. E. Doyle; F. S., E. L. Vivion; Treasurer, Julius Schultz. Present officers: C. R., E. L. Vivion; P. C. R., E. Woods; C. R., E. H. Blaich; V. C. R., E. Hertrum; Court Physician. William Maley; R. S., William F. Olson; F. S., A. D. Swanson; Treasurer, F. E. Johnson.
Court Svea No. 3124; merged into Court Knox No. 1482.
INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS.
— Third floor of Young Men's Christian Association Building, where all meetings are held. The various lodges are named below:
Colfax Encampment No. 28. Instituted at Knoxville, January 9, 1855, as Rounsvill Encampment No. 28, with seven charter members. Moved to Galesburg in 1862, and that year ceased working. Resuscitated November 19, 1867. Name changed to Colfax Encampment in July, 1808. Present membership, forty-eight. Meets second and fourth Fridays. First local officers: C. P., Newton Briggs; H. P., Thomas L. Clark; S. W., George H. Smith; Scribe, Thomas M. Bell; Treasurer, P. P. Hempstreet; J. W., M. J. Clark. Present officers: C. P., J. O. Frost; H. P., Claus Hagrelius; S. W., S. P. Swanson; Scribe, N. T. Allen; Treasurer, J. F. Anderson; J. W., E. A. Woods.
Galesburg Lodge No. 140. Organized March 16, 1854, with five charter members. Present membership, fifty. Meets Monday evenings. Charter members, E. F. Wicker, W. D. Holcomb, S. G. Cowan, Robert McCormick, B. H. Harrington. The early records were destroyed by fire. Present officers: N. G., E. W. Welch; V. G., G. D. Tuttle; Secretary, J. A. Mallick; Treasurer, W. L. Boutelle.
First Scandinavian Lodge No. 446.
Organized January 26, 1871, with fourteen charter members. Present membership, fifty-six. Meets Tuesday evenings. Its early records were destroyed by fire. Present officers: N. G., S. P. Swanson; V. G., John J. Dahlberg; Recording Secretary, F. O. Swanson; Financial Secretary, C. A. Swanson; Treasurer, P. N. Granville.
Veritas Lodge No. 478.
Organized February 14, 1872, with sixteen charter members. Present membership, one hundred and thirty. Meets every Thursday evening. First officers: N. G., Newton Briggs; V. S., A. J. Shaw; Secretary, Adam Dick; Treasurer, D. C. Raymond. Present officers: N. G., A. J. Cline; V. S., J. F. Bannon; Secretary, E. T. Maury; Treasurer, Hiram Mars.
DEGREE OF REBEKAH (AUXILIARY TO ODD FELLOWS).
— Vesta Lodge No. 29. Organized January 28, 1891, with eleven charter members. Present membership, one hundred and twenty-seven. Meets first and third Friday evenings. First officers: N. G., A. J. Ostrander; V. G., Mrs. Sarah Green; Secretary, Mrs. Emma Hayden; Treasurer, Mrs. T. B. Walsh. Present officers: N. G., Mrs. Nellie Hill; V. G., Mrs. Geneva Tuttle; Secretary, Miss Nellie Roadstrum; Recording Secretary, Miss Inez Risley; Treasurer, Mrs. Mamie Fuller. Loyal Lodge No. 386. Organized April 6, 1895, with thirty-three charter members. Present membership, ninety-two. Meets second and fourth Saturday evenings. First officers: N. G., Sarah Green; V. G., Margaret Pease; Secretary, Luella Rusk; Financial Secretary, Dessie Allen; Treasurer, Clara Walsh. Present officers: N. G., Abbie Fay; V. G., Daisy Tapp; Secretary, Luella Rusk; Financial Secretary, Gertie Cortright; Treasurer, Nellie Boutelle.
GRAND UNITED ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS (Colored).
— Little Bee Lodge No. 2511. Organized May 8, 1884, with thirty-two members. Present membership, twenty-seven. Meets second and fourth Thursdays. Present officers: P. N. G., J. W. Britten; N. G., J. Simms; E. S., W. D. Smith; T., C. McGruder; N. F., F. Shoots; P. N. F., J. H. Washington; Adv., H. Wells.
KNIGHTS OF THE GLOBE.
— Mizpah Garrison No. 159. Organized February 22, 1898, with sixty charter members. Present membership, sixty-three. Meets first and third Tuesdays in Pythian Temple, North Cherry street. First officers: S. J., James O'Brien; J. W., A. Bartlett; President, A. J. Cline; Vice President, F. W. Calkins; Commander, Fred Peterson; Lieutenant Commander, William Wagoner; Ensign, W. H. Olson; P. M., A. Sutphen; Adjutant, J. F. Gretta. Present officers: S. J., F. W. Calkins; J., J. F. Gretta; President, James F. Derry; Vice President, Fred Peterson; Commander, C. G. Wollet; Lieutenant Commander, J. M. Edwards; Ensign, R. B. Parker; P. M., F. W. West; Adjutant, E. A. Tate.
KNIGHTS OF THE MACCABEES.
— Galesburg Tent No. 150. Organized December 26, 1894, with forty charter members. Present membership, forty-four. Meets first and third Wednesdays in American Hall. First officers: P. C, G. S. Chalmers; C, C. T. Salisbury; Sergeant, T. A. Orr; Record-keeper, R. N. Shaw; F. K., George N. Hamilton; Chap., W. W. Smith. Present officers: P. C, T. C. Bowes; C. W., W. Smith; L. C, C. C. Sandberg; Rec. and Fin. K., G. S. Chalmers; Sergeant, Elmer Warfel; Physician, Dr. G. S. Chalmers.
LADIES OF THE MACCABEES (AUXILIARY TO KNIGHTS OF THE MACCABEES).
— Galesburg Hive No. 118. Organized January 22, 1897, with twenty-four charter members. Present membership, forty-three. Meets first and third Wednesdays in American Hall. First officers: P. L. C, E. W. Schaffer; L. C, E. E. Goettler; L. L. C, M. G. Hinman; L. R. K., H. L. Doll; L. F. K., A. A. Gray; L. Physician, E. Hertig.
Present officers: P. L. C, M. G. Hinman; L. C, F. D. Warnock; L. L. C, L A. Welch; L. R. K., H. L. Doll; L. F. K., H. E. Bates; L. Physician. A. A. Gray.
KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS.
— Myrtle Lodge No. 100. Organized April 12, 1882, with thirty-three charter members. Present membership, one hundred and sixteen. Meets Wednesday evenings in Pythian Temple, North Cherry street.
First officers: P. C, B. Lindburg; C. C, J. O. Frost: V. C. H. McHann: P., C. M. C. Burns; K. of R.&S., N. E. Johnson; M. of Ex., E. L. Thorsen; M. of F., C. L. Hedell. Present officers: C. C, David Dyke; V. C. Emll Dyke: P., J. A. White; M. of Ex., J. O. Frost: M. of F., N. P. Swenson; K. of R. & S., C. O. Peterson. Ezel Lodge No. 127. Organized August 8, 1884, with twenty-seven charter members. Present membership, fifty. Meets Thursdays, in Ezel Castle Hall, No. 12 Main street. First officers: P. C., S. D. Cole: C. C., C. L. Hubbell; V. C., B. J. Huff; P., E. O. Clark; M. of Ex., A. G. Humphrey; K. of R. & S., D. S. Hecker. Present officers: C. C. Henry Swanson; V. C, E. J. Ebby: P., E. C. Dewein: M. of Ex., E. E. Chambers: M. of F., W. I. Phelps; K. of R. & S., D. S. Markley. College City Lodge No. 433. Organized April 26, 1888, with sixty-seven charter members. Present membership, two hundred and four. Meets Monday nights in Pythian Temple, North Cherry street.
C. C., P. M. Booth; V. C., W. G. Edens; P., S. A. Wagoner; M. of Ex., Henry Gensert; M. of F., J. W. White; K. of R. & S., F. A. Dean. Present officers: C. C., H. A. Norton; V. C., J. A. McKinney; P., W. H. Foster; M. of Ex., N. Mallick; M. of F., H. S. McCabe; K. of R. & S., R. W. Sweeney.
DRAMATIC ORDER KNIGHTS OF KHORAS-SAN (SUPPLEMENTARY TO KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS).
— Nabathaean Temple No. 5. Organized February 19, 1896, with sixty-one charter members. Present membership, one hundred and seventy-five. Meets second Monday evenings, in Pythian Temple, North Cherry street. First officers: V. S., Charles J. Kelley; R. V., H. E. Parker, Jr.: G. E., L. R. Maddox: Mahedi, W. A. Anderson; Menial, James C. O'Brien: Secretary. F. A. Dean; Treasurer, F. R. Gadd. Present officers: V. S., W. P. Brown: R. V., M. J. Dougherty; G. E., James A. McKinney; Mahedi, H. A. Norton; Menial, H. L. Ingersol; Secretary and Treasurer, N. Mallick.
RATHBONE SISTERS (AUXILIARY TO KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS).
— Marguerite Temple No. 7. Organized April 15, 1892, with thirty-three Knights and twenty-three Sisters. Present membership, twenty-seven Knights and thirty-six Sisters. Meets first and third Thursdays in Pythian Temple, North Cherry street. First officers: P. C. Lulu Longbrake; M. E. C. Belle Quinlan; E. S., Irene Mathews; E. J., Mattie Boyd; M. of T., Roma Snowball; M. of R. & C, Francis Gebhart; M. of F., Minnie Steinritz. Present officers: P. C. Laura Witham; M. E. C, Phoebe Campbell; E. S., Eva Messplay; E. J., May Dewein; M. of T., Rosa Johnston; M. of R. & C, Grace Downing; M. of F., Bertha French.
— The spacious quarters of the order are on the third floor of the Matthew's block, where all meetings are held. Galesburg Commandery No. 8. Knights Templar, organized in November, 1861, with ten charter members. Present membership, one hundred and seventy-five. Meets second and fourth Mondays. First officers: E. C. J. A. Thompson; G., G. C. Lanphere; C. G., J. W. Spaulding; P., A. G. Hibbard; Treasurer. Sydney Myers; Recorder, A. C. Danaker. Present officers: E. C. H. W. Holmes; G., C. W. Postelwait; C. G.,C. C. Craig; P., C. Burkhardt; Treasurer, J. L. Burkhalter; Recorder. J. H. Calkins. Galesburg Council No. 14. Royal and Select Masters. Charter granted to Monmouth. December 5, 1864. and transferred to Galesburg February 15, 1892. Eighteen charter members. Present membership, thirty-eight. First officers: T. I. M., W. R. Hoyle; Deputy. H. L. Wilbur; P. C. of W., R. C. Haines; M. Ex., J. H. Calkins; Recorder. H. W. Carpenter. Present officers: T. I. M., W. R. Hoyle; P. C. of W., E. H. Merrill; C. of the C, A. Jacob; C. of the G., L. Dyke; Treasurer, J. F. Anderson; Secretary. H. W. Carpenter.
Galesburg Chapter No. 46. Royal Arch Masons. Organized October 2, 1858, with ten charter members. Present membership, one hundred and seventeen. Meets first Wednesday. First officers: H. P., J. W. Spaulding; K., George C. Lanphere; Scribe, Caleb Finch; Treasurer. R. H. Whiting; Secretary. A. C. Danaker. Present officers: H. P., H. W. Holmes; K., John N. Stater; Scribe. J. H. Calkins; Treasurer. J. F. Anderson: Secretary, W. O. Lovejoy. Alpha Lodge No. 155. A. F. and A. M. Reorganized October 3. 1854. Present membership, one hundred and sixty. Meets first and third Fridays. First officers: W. M., J. W. Spaulding; S. W., S. Dolbear; J. W., J. P. Fuller. Present officers: W. M., C. T. Holmes; S. W., C. E. Gottschalk; J. W., C. B. Johnson; Treasurer, P. N. Granville: Secretary, C. E. Dudley.
Vesper Lodge No. 584, A. F. and A. M. Organized October 17, 1868, with thirteen charter members. Present membership, one hundred and seventy-four. Meets second and fourth Thursdays. First officers: W. M., R. Blearson; S. W., J. M. Morse: J. W., D. Greenleaf ; Treasurer. C. E. Baldwin; Secretary. J. McFarland.
Present officers: W. M., D. E. Woodford; S. W., G. W. Tapp; J. W., E. E. Chambers; Treasurer, J. F. Anderson; Secretary, E. B. Rhodes.
ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR (AUXILIARY TO THE MASONS).
— Violet Chapter No. 235. Organized October 5, 1893, with sixteen charter members. Present membership, ninety. Meets second and fourth Tuesday evenings. First officers: W. M., M. Strickler; W. P., J. C. Fletcher; A. M., S. M. Dove; Secretary, W. A. Eraser; Treasurer, R. R. Strickler. Present officers: W. M., Nellie Boston; W. P., R. R. Strickler; A. M., Sarah Davidson; Secretary, Estelle Anderson; Treasurer, M. Treadwell. Patron Chapter No. 18. Organized September 12, 1893, with fourteen charter members. Present membership, thirty. Meets first and third Tuesdays. First officers: W. M., M. F. Washington; W. P. J. W. Davis; A. M., M. Davis; Treasurer, L. Henderson; Secretary, M. McCook. Present officers: W. M., Mrs. Fannie Washington; W. P., Mrs. Carrie McKinsey; A. M., Mrs. Rachel Milburn; Treasurer, Mrs. Annie Searles; Secretary, Mrs. Josie Mason.
MINER OF HONOR LODGE.
— Galesburg Shaft No. 7. Organized June 7, 1898, with thirty charter members. Present membership, forty. Meets second and fourth Mondays, at residences of members. First and present officers: President, G. F. Conley; V. P., C. W. Fee; Clerk, Dr. J. F. Corbin; Treasurer, Mrs. C. W. Fee; Medical Examiner, Dr. J. F. Corbin.
MODERN WOODMEN OF AMERICA.
— Oakleaf Camp No. 92. Organized April 27, 1885, with thirty-five charter members. Present membership, one hundred and twenty-four. Meets first and third Mondays in A. O. U. W. Hall. First officers: V. C. David Spence; W. A., J. A. Westfall; E. B., A. D. Aiken; Clerk, M. C. Loomis; Physician, D. W. Aldrich. Present officers: V. C, J. R. Cunningham; W. A., E. C. Dewein; Banker, G. D. Tuttle; Clerk, M. L. Gebhart.
Galesburg Camp No. 667. Organized August 10, 1888, with twenty-eight charter members. Present membership, three hundred and twelve. Meets second and fourth Thursdays in K. of P. Hall, North Cherry street. First officers: V. C, A. H. Blick; W. A., W. B. Loomis; E. B., C. E. Bancroft; Clerk, H. A. Dobson; Physician, J. F. Percy and R. I. Law. Present officers: V. C, E. P. Holcomb; W. A., W. A. Gebhart; Clerk, O. W. Walkup; E. B., John P. Evans; Physicians, E. V. D. Morris and O. I. Searles.
KNOX COUNTY ASSOCIATION OF MODERN WOODMEN.
— Organized April 18, 1895, with delegates from six camps. Present membership, eighteen camps, representing 1,892 members. Meets second Tuesday in February, in Galesburg. First officers: President, J. Faumliner, Abingdon; V. P., John McCrea, Victoria; Secretary, J. F. Temple, Galesburg; Treasurer, M. E. Smith, East Galesburg. Present officers: President, W. D. Patty, Oneida; V. P., J. P. Evans, Galesburg; Secretary, J. P. Temple, Galesburg; Treasurer, H. Hohendorf.
ROYAL NEIGHBORS OF AMERICA (AUXILIARY TO MODERN WOODMEN).
— Woodbine Camp No. 445. Organized August 22. 1896, with twenty-nine charter members. Present mem-bership, sixty-five. Meets second and fourth Monday evenings in American Hall. First officers: O., Mrs. Harriet Hippert; V. O., Mrs. Leila Temple; Secretary, Mrs. Ina Barton; Re-ceiver, Rachel Dewein; Physician, Dr. E. V. D. Morris. Present officers: O., Mrs. Grace Evans; P. C, Mrs. Lulu Holcomb; V. C, Mrs. Harriet Sweeney; Recorder, Mrs. Hattie Mair; Receiver, Mrs. Harriet Anderson.
MYSTIC WORKERS OF THE WORLD.
— Organized May 27, 1897, with forty-five charter members. Present membership, seventy-five. Meets first and third Monday evenings in Swanson's Hall. First officers: M., J. A. Westfall; V. M., S. W. Martin: Secretary, W. B. Coffman; Banker, Ephraim Sharps; Physicians, Drs. O. I. Searles, George Chalmers and E. V. D. Morris; Attorney, George N. Hamilton. Present officers: W. M., Dr. O. I. Searles; W. V. M., Mrs. E. I. Harris; W. S., Dr. A. Watson; W. B., Dr. George S. Chalmers; W. Physicians, Drs. O. I. Searles and George S. Chalmers; W. Attorney, W. T. Smith.
— Galesburg Council No. 680. Organized March 7, 1894, with twenty-five charter members. Present membership, fifty-two. Meets first Mondays over Carey's book store. First officers: Ex. P., A. T. Wing; P., H. E. Parker, Jr.; V. P., C. C. Flynn; S., W. A. Peterson; R. S., E. J. Dickson; F. S., B. S. Carpenter; Treasurer, R. M. Kimber; Medical Examiner, Dr. J. L. Shepard. Present officers: Ex. P., J. W. White; P., A. T. Wing; V. P., A. C. Anders; S., W. A. Peterson; R. S., C. M. Hunt; F. S., T. S. Brown; Treasurer, R. M. Kimber; Medical Examiner, Dr. J. L. Shepard.
— College City Council No. 1000. Organized February 7, 1889, with nineteen members. Present membership, forty-eight. Meets in Castle Hall, K. of P., 12 East Main street, second and fourth Mondays. First officers: R., F. F. Cooke; V. R., G. J. Sauter; P. R., G. P. Rosenau; Or., J. W. Boltz; Secretary, George E. Norine: Treasurer, S. Frohlich. Present officers: R., John W. Barry; V. R., J. F. McCarthy; P. R., C. H. Geisler; Or., George Geuss, Jr.; Secretary, O. W. Walkup; Treasurer, John McLernon; Medical Examiners, Drs. F. P. Tyler and L. R. Ryan.
— Galesburg Circle No. 160. Organized May 8, 1899, with fifty charter members. Present officers: W.R., Mrs. Fannie A. Blazer; P. W.R., C.W. Carr; W.A., N.O. Johnson; Secretary, J. E. Maley; Treasurer, R.C. Matheny; Medical Examiners, Drs. O.I. Searles, John Corbin and R. C. Matheny.
TRIBE OF BEN HUR.
— Galesburg Court No. 50. Organized February 8, 1897, with thirty-one charter members. Present membership twenty-five. Meets second Mondays. First officers: P. C. Joseph Benedict; C, J.F. Hamilton; T., Rev. G.B. Stocking; S., Gust Peterson; Medical Examiner. Dr. J.B. Harvey. Officers last elected: C, E.W. Searle; T., Mrs. E.W. Searle; S., J.F. Hamilton; Medical Examiner, Dr. Gray Taggart (deceased).
SELECT KNIGHTS OF AMERICA.
— Garfield Legion No. 77. Organized May 30, 1894, with eighteen charter members. Present membership, fifty-five. Meets at No. 12 Main street Friday evenings. First officers: P. C, E. B. Rhodes; C, T. C. Bowes: V. C, John Doran; L. C, W. S. Duval; Recorder and Receiving Treasurer, Otto L. Fooken; Treasurer, V. B. Giddings. Present officers: P. C, C. E. Lundberg; C. T. C. Bowes; V. C, C. A. Rosenberg; L. C, A. W. Engstrand; Recorder, B. Jordan; Recording Treasurer, G. A. Johnson; Treasurer, W. S. Duval.
— Organized September 21, 1894, with fourteen members. Present membership, twenty-two. Meets in A.O.U.W. Hall, No. 12 Main street, first and third Mondays. First officers: W. P., Mrs. L. Doran; W. P. P., Mrs. P. Duval: W. V. P., Mrs. N. Tyler: Jr. V. P., Mrs. Katie Parker; W. Secretary, Mrs. Dora Mott; W. Treasurer, Mrs. F. L. Parker. Present officers: W. P., Mrs. Fannie Carmody; W.P.P., Mrs. F. L. Parker; W. V. P., Miss Tillie Anderson; W. Jr. V. P., Mrs. T. C. Bowes; W. Secretary, Miss Julia Johnson; W. Treasurer, Mrs. Polly Duval.
CATHOLIC TOTAL ABSTINENCE SOCIETY.
— Organized September 24, 1894, with twenty-eight charter members. Present mombership, forty-eight. Meets second Sunday and fourth Monday, in C.T.A.S. Hall. First officers: President, W. F. Stanton; Vice President, J. W. Flynn; Corresponding Secretary, J. E. Naley; Financial Secretary, E. F. Tobin; Treasurer, M. D. Franley. Present officers: President, W. P. Brown; Vice President, Hugh Mattimore; Corresponding Secretary, H. W. Norton; Financial Secretary, E. F. Tobin; Treasurer, Thomas Keefe.
LADIES' AUXILIARY; LADIES' TEMPERANCE AID SOCIETY.
— Organized January 6, 1895, with twenty charter members. Present membership, forty. Meets first Mondays in C.T.A.S. Hall. First officers: President. Mrs. A. T. Chittenden; Vice President, Mrs. M. Graham; Treasurer, Miss Lizzie Slattery; Secretary, Miss Lizzie O'Connell. Present officers: President, Miss Kittle Maloney; Vice President, Mrs. O. L. Brockway; Treasurer, Mrs. J. D. Donahue: Secretary. Miss A. Botsford.
INDEPENDENT ORDER OF GOOD TEMPLARS.
— Svea Lodge No. 315. Organized January 17, 1878. with twenty-seven charter members. Present membership, seventy-five. Meets Friday evenings, in Swanson Hall. First officers: C. T., D. L. Peterson; V. T., Emily C. Peterson; Secretary, C. H. Peterson; Treasurer, Minnie O. Peterson. Present officers: C. T., James Smith; V. T., Myrtella A. Smith; P. C. T., Annie Gordon; Secretary, Charles Charleston; Treasurer. Amanda Holmes.
Fidelity Lodge No. 103. Organized December 4. 1879, with thirty-four charter members. Present membership, forty-five. Meets Thursday evenings, in Skandia Hall. First officers: C. T., L. F. Tate: P. C. T., Dr. Tate; V. T., Mrs. George Alden; Secretary, Charles Gray; Treasurer. L. A. Greenwood. C. T., Miss Bertha Wachs; P. C. T., Theodore Johnson; V. T., Mrs. R. T. Williams; Secretary, Miss Mamie Nelson; Treasurer, R. T. Williams. Skandia Lodge No. 817. Organized January 6, 1896, with forty-four charter members. Present membership, one hundred and seventy. Meets Wednesday evenings in Skandia or Vittlum's Hall. First officers: L. D,. E. P. Nelson; C. T., Olof Nelson; P. C. T., Fred Borg; V. T., Miss Minnie Briggs; Secretary, Claus Johnson; Treasurer, C. J. Erickson. Present officers: L. D., E. P. Nelson; C. T., Martin Herslow; P. C. T., Claus Johnson; V. T., Christine Anderson; Secretary, Charles Hawkinson; Treasurer, Oscar Rydell.
TEMPLE OF HONOR AND TEMPERANCE.
— Galesburg Temple No. 7. Organized January 28, 1881, with twenty-five charter members. Present membership, forty-three. Meets first and third Saturday nights in Svea Hall. First officers: W. C. T., O. B. Folger; W. V. T., W. F. Bailey; W. R., James Hamblin; Treasurer, T. B. Van Schaack. Present officers; W. C. T., T. B. Van Schaack; W. V. T., Mrs. R. J. Doudna; W. R., J. L. Wilcox; W. F. R., Miss Lizzie Ortan; W. T. R., Miss Bessie Chambers.
GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC
— James T. Shields Post No. 45, Department of Illinois. Organized August 8, 1877, with twenty-nine members. Present membership, one hundred and fifty. Meets second and fourth Thursdays in American Hall. First officers; C, Rowley Page; S. V. C, James Holt; J. V. C, D. W. Bradshaw; Q. M., Charles B. Hyde; Secretary, L. S. Lambert; Adjutant, S. F. Flint. Present officers: C, I. C. Preston; S. V. C, Robert E. Ervin; J. V. C, E. I. Harris; Q. M., Miron Rhodes; Surgeon, L. S. Lambert; Adjutant, L. C. Way.
WOMAN'S RELIEF CORPS (AUXILIARY TO G. A. R.).
— James T. Shields Post No. 121. Organized August 16, 1888, with twenty-three charter members. Present membership, forty-four. Meets second and fourth Thursday afternoons in American Hall. First officers: President, Mrs. Emily R. McCullough; Secretary, Mrs. Ella Brandshaw; Treasurer, Mrs. Sarah Green. Present officers: President, Mrs. Mary Effner; S. V. P., Mrs. Jennie Martin; J. V. P., Mrs. Marietta Ervin; Secretary, Mrs. Stella Dudley; Treasurer, Mrs. Fannie Blazer.
ORDER UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS.
— John A. Logan Council No. 10. Organized June 6, 1892, with twenty-eight members. Present membership, seventy-five. Meets Friday evenings in American Mechanics Hall, 347 East Main street. Purpose: Patriotic, beneficial and fraternal. First officers: C, W. E. Byers; V. C, J. H. Matthews; Recording Secretary, Ernest Bainter; Treasurer, M. W. Boone. Present officers: C, R. M. Marsh; V. C, W. I. Phelps; Recording Secretary, J. H. Bowles; Treasurer, Samuel Cherry.
AUXILIARY, DAUGHTERS OF LIBERTY.
— Quaker Lady Council No. 1. Organized June, 1895, with forty-four members. Present membership, fifty-one. Meets Friday afternoons, in American Hall. First officers: C, Mrs. Nellie Compton; A. C, J. H. Culver; V. C, Mrs. F. M. Campbell; A. V. C, Charles Zetty; Recording Secretary, Mrs. W. E. Byers; Treasurer, Mrs. E. S. Regnier. Present officers: C, Mrs. Stauffer; V. C, Mrs. Will Walters; Secretary, Mrs. H. A. Compton; Treasurer, Mrs. J. H. Culver.
UNION VETERANS' UNION.
— Phillip Sidney Post No. 10. Organized January, 1898, with forty-five charter members. Present membership, seventy-seven. Meets first and third Thursdays, in Memorial Hall, County Court House. First officers: Colonel, W. F. Bailey; Lieutenant Colonel, W. E. Ward; Major, H. A. Allen; Surgeon, W. F. Tait; Quartermaster, E. C. Ferry; Adjutant, J. P. Hamblin. Present officers: Colonel, W. E. Ward; Lieutenant Colonel, I. C. Preston; Major, H. A. Allen; Surgeon, W.F. Tait; Quartermaster, E. C. Ferry; Adjutant, C. W. Fee.
AUXILIARY, WOMAN'S UNION VETERANS' UNION.
— This post existed a short time, but there have been no meetings since the Spring of 1898.
LABOR UNIONS. TRADES AND LABOR ASSEMBLY.
— Organized July 8, 1892, with about thirty-two members. Present membership, about eighty. Each local labor union is entitled to five delegates in the assembly, one delegate being elected every six months for a term of thirty months. Meets second and fourth Thursday evenings, in Assembly Hall, corner of Main street and Boone's avenue, where most of the unions hold their meetings also. First officers: President, A. M. Everly, Cigarmakers, No. 200; Vice President, J. Forsyth, Tailors, No. 169; Recording and Corresponding Secretary, George Gallerno, Typographical, No. 288; Financial Secretary, W. E. Harry, Bricklayers, No. 12; Treasurer, D. Nolan, Tailors, No. 169. Present officers; President, H. Holborn, Bricklayers, No. 12; Vice President, J. C. Tate, Carpenters, No. 360; Recording and Corresponding Secretary, Ed-ward A. Tate, Typographical, No. 288; Financial Secretary, A. Gustafson, Painters, No. 29; Treas-urer, D. Nolan, Tailors, No. 169. The com-mittee chairmen are: On Complaints and Abuses, W. E. Cleveland, Broommakers, No. 15; Legislative and Co-operative Industries, D. Nolan; Tailors, No. 169; Labels, H. F. Beetham, Painters, No. 29; Printing. N. J. Sjodin. Tailors. No. 169.
LADIES' AUXILIARY TO TRADES AND LABOR ASSEMBLY.
— Organized in February, 1897, with thirty-six charter members. Meets first and third Tuesdays in Trades Assembly Hall. First officers: President, Mrs. H. C. Thompson; Vice President. Mrs. E. Ayton; Secretary. Mrs. L. B. Johnson; Treasurer, Mrs. M. J. Donnelly. Present officers: Vice President and Acting President, Mrs. M. J. Donnelly; Secretary, Mrs. W. H. Baker; Treasurer, Mrs. M. J. Donnelly.
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR.
— Federal Union No. 7155. Organized October 3, 1898, with seven charter members. Meets first and third Wednesday of each month in Trades Assembly Hall. First officers: President. W. R. Boyer; Vice President. W. P. Brown; Secretary, W. E. Cleveland; Financial Secretary, O. W. Hudson; Treasurer, W. E. Turney. Present officers: President. W. R. Boyer; Vice President, William McNamara; Secretary, W. E. Cleveland; Financial Secretary, George Leidy; Treasurer, Harry Holborn.
BOILERMAKERS' UNION NO. 59.
— Organized February 18, 1892. Ratified national consolidation with Iron Shipbuilders, and branch number changed to 87, October 19, 1893. Charter members, sixteen. First officers: President, C. J. Kelly; Secretary, J. S. McCarthy; Treasurer, P. J. Tobin. This union has been inactive during the past year.
BRICKLAYERS' AND MASONS' INTERNATIONAL UNION OF AMERICA.
— Union No. 12. Organized December 14, 1891. Meets second and fourth Fridays in Trades Assembly Hall. First officers: President, Arthur Andrews; Vice President, M. E. Sweeney; Recording and Corresponding Secretary, A. W. Truedson; Financial Secretary, Milton Bushong; Treasurer, E. J. Zetterholm. Present officers: President, Harry Holborn; Recording and Corresponding Secretary, Harris Hallsten; Financial Secretary, Gus Rundquist.
BROTHERHOOD OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS.
— Division No. 63. Organized January 17, 1865, with twelve charter members. Meets first and third Sundays in Trades Assembly Hall. First officers: C. E., Samuel Hollett; F. E., Stephen Randall; S. E., Barney Wagoner; F. A. E., J. A. Slocum; S. A. E., J. R. Burtch; T. A. E., Ephram Jenny. Present officers: C. E., Henry Reem; F. E., C. C. Boyer; S. E., Robert Allen; T. E., Martin Squires; F. A. E., F. E. Broolis; S. A. E., E. D. Woods.
BROTHERHOOD OF PAINTERS AND DECORATORS OF AMERICA.
— Union No. 29. Organized December 28, 1891, with thirty members. Meets first and third Mondays, in Trades Assembly Hall. First officers: President, C. Peterman; Recording Secretary, H. R. Lindoft; Financial Secretary, O. Durant. Present officers: President, Adolph Gustafson; Vice President, Peter Lavine; Recording and Corresponding Secretary, H. W. Lohmar; Financial Secretary, Joseph Jacobson.
BROTHERHOOD OF RAILWAY TRAINMEN NO. 24.
— Organized August 11, 1884, with twenty charter members. Meets second and fourth Sundays in A.O.U.W. Hall. First officers: Master, C. E. Judge; Vice Master, L. M. Waggoner; Secretary, Ed. F. O'Shea; Financier, P. Tarpy; Conductor, A. B. Tolbert. Present officers: Past Master, H. I. Clark; Master George C. Robbins; Vice Master, B. F. Shadley; Financier E. L. Robinson; Secretary, J. A. Hardine.
LADIES' AUXILIARY SINCERITY LODGE NO. 6.
— Organized January 19, 1891, with twenty-five charter members. Meets second and fourth Wednesdays. First officers: M., Mrs. J. Boyles; V. M., Mrs. L. W. Rogers; Treasurer, Edith Meredith; Secretary, Emma Lanphere. Present officers: M., Mrs. Sue E. Van Arsdale; V. M., Mrs. Alice Shadley; Treasurer, Mrs. Hattie Robinson; Secretary, Mrs. Jessie M. Burke.
CIGARMAKERS' INTERNATIONAL UNION OF AMERICA.
— Union No. 200. Organized March 22, 1883, with seven charter members. Meets first and third Friday evenings in Trades Assembly Hall. First officers: President, V. Weiss; Vice President, Ed. Tomlin; Recording and Corresponding Secretary, J. A. Williams; Financial Secretary, C. Zeist. Present officers: President, B. D. Sofield; Financial and Corresponding Secretary, W. T. Gray.
GALESBURG WORKINGMEN'S NON-PARTISAN LEAGUE.
— Organized in April 1899. Membership consists of union laborers and their friends. It is a political union. Officers: President, H. C. Smalley; Secretary, Edward A. Tate.
INTERNATIONAL BROOMMAKERS' UNION.
— Broommakers' Union No. 15. Organized August 14, 1895, with seventeen members. Meets second and fourth Monday evenings in Trades Assembly Hall. First officers: President, Samuel Cherry; Vice President, Oscar Swanson; Secretary, W. R. Boyer; Treasurer, E. A. Swanson. Present officers: President, Samuel Cherry; Recording and Corresponding Secretary, Arthur Johnson.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MACHINISTS.
— Galesburg Lodge No. 213. Organized October 16, 1891, with eighteen members. Meets third Tuesday evening, in Svea Hall. First officers: P. M. M., Charles Erickson; M. M., D. S. Markley; Recording Secretary, John Hammerstrom; Treasurer, G. L. Anderson. Present officers: P. M. M., M. E. Holmes; M. M., August Johnson; Financial Secretary, Andrew Lanstroum; Recording Secretary, Emil Edoff ; Treasurer, John Johnson.
INTERNATIONAL UNION OF JOURNEYMEN HORSESHOERS OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA.
— Journeymen's Union No. 61. Organized February 7, 1898, with eleven charter members. Meets first and third Fridays in Trades Assembly Hall. Officers: President, Charles Gray; Secretary and Treasurer, Frank Herman. This union has not been working for several months.
JOURNEYMEN TAILORS' UNION OF AMERICA.
— Local Union No. 169. Organized April 1, 1891, with thirty-six members. Meets in Trades Assembly Hall third Thursday evening. First officers: President, James McKornak; Vice President, Albert Joneson; Treasurer, C. J. Isaacson; Recording Secretary, D. Nolan. Present officers: President, August Johnson; Vice President, N. J. Sjordin; Recording Secretary, C. J. Isaacson; Financial Secretary, Charles Peterson; Treasurer, Victor Wahlholm.
ORDER OF RAILWAY CONDUCTORS.
— Galesburg Division No. 83. Organized July 25, 1883, with forty-six members. Meets second and fourth Sundays in Swanson's Hall. First officers: C. C, E. H. Belknap; A. C. C, W. O. Salisbury; S. & T., W. S. Dewey. Present officers: C. C, Charles Fuhrman; A. C. C, Henry W. Dozah; Secretary and Treasurer, C. E. Smith; Correspondent, E. S. Kimball.
— Galesburg Division No. 15. Organized January 14, 1892, with twenty-five charter members. First officers: President, Mrs. O. N. Marshall; Vice President, Mrs. J. H. Weidanhamer; Secretary and Treasurer, Mrs. C. E. Smith. Present officers: President, Mrs. M. O. Waggoner; Vice President, Mrs. W. H. Bowling; Secretary and Treasurer, Mrs. T. Waters.
RETAIL CLERK'S NATIONAL PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION.
— Local No. 202. Organized September 23, 1897, with forty charter members. Meets second and fourth Mondays in Trades Assembly Hall. First officers: President, N. P. Swenson; Financial Secretary, W. T. Hinman; Recording Secretary, Kathryn O'Connor, Treasurer, Addie Lundberg. Present officers: President, E. E. Velander; Financial Secretary, F. A. Brown; Recording Secretary, George Sanderson; Treasurer, Edward McKamy.
TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION NO. 288.
— Organized March 16, 1891, with seventeen charter members. Meets first Thursday evening in Trades Assembly Hall. First officers: President, O. W. Walkup ; Vice President, J. V. Beatty; Financial Secretary, J. A. Walters; Recording Secretary, C. F. Calson; Treasurer, B. H. Swan. Present officers: President, A. A. McKeighan; Vice President, George G. Ewing; Financial Secretary and Treasurer, O. W. Walkup; Recording Secretary, C. A. Roberts.
UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF CARPENTERS AND JOINERS OF AMERICA.
— Carpenters' Union No. 36. Organized January 3, 1890, with twenty-one charter members. Meets first and third Tuesdays in Trades Assembly Hall. First officers: President, J. O. Renier; Vice President, E. T. Cooper; Secretary, L. P. Jones; Treasurer, Chris Geisler. Present officers: President, William Holmberg; Vice President, Edward Lofgren; Recording Secretary, John Miller; Financial Secretary, C. J. Johnson; Treasurer, John E. Newstrom.
WOMEN'S CLUBS. CLIO CLUB.
— Organized in September, 1894, with limited membership of fourteen. Purpose, mental improvement, thorough study of history, and charitable work. First officers: President, Mrs. A. E. Larkin; Vice President, Mrs. A. J. Perry; Secretary and Treasurer, Mrs. George Galarno. Present officers: President, Mrs. A. J. Perry; Vice President, Mrs. W. F. Bentley; Secretary and Treasurer, Mrs. L. R. Ryan.
EUTERPEAN (sic) CLUB.
— Organized February 25, 1891, with twenty-five charter members. Present membership, twenty-five. Purpose, cultivation and promotion of musical interest among members. First officers: President, Miss Mae Price; Vice President, Mrs. B. F. Reinmund; Treasurer, Mrs. May Matthews Dick; Secretary, Mrs. Will Phillips. Present officers: President, Mrs. C. C. Craig; Vice President, Mrs. H. A. Norton; Secretary, Miss Ada Comstock; Treasurer. Mrs. James R. Howe.
— Organized January 23, 1892, with twelve members. Present membership, sixteen. Purpose, Intellectual improvement and cultivation of free interchange of thought. First officers: President, Mrs, E. Q. Adams: Vice President, Mrs. Francis Carey; Secretary, Mrs. H. L. May; Treasurer, Mrs. J. T. McKnight. Present officers: President, Mrs. C. A. Webster; Vice President, Mrs. J. C. Fahnestock; Secretary, Mrs. C. E. Nash; Treasurer, P. F. Brown.
— Organized November 8, 1890, with twenty charter members. Present membership, twenty-five. Purpose, to study literature and history. First officers: President, Louise Tryon; Vice President, Gertrude Chapin. Present officers: President, Gertrude Chapin; Vice President, Harriet Adams; Secretary, Mrs. J. P. Gushing; Treasurer, Mrs. J. F. Percy.
— Organized February 11, 1893. Present membership, twenty-three. Purpose, mutual counsel and improvement, general education, charitable and literary work, making a specialty of the study of the American poets. First officers: President, Mrs. S. M. Henderson; Secretary, Mrs. W. N. Young. Present officers: President. Mrs. Alida E. Boydstun; Vice President. Harriet E. Bates; Secretary and Treasurer, Mrs. Alma Bronson; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Lillie J. Jackson.
— Organized in July, 1894, with twenty members. Present membership, twenty-five. Purpose, to study history, art and literature. First officers: President, Alice Stewart; Vice President Mrs. Fannie Watson Plain; Secretary, Grace Lass; Treasurer, Bertha Davis. Present officers: President, Mrs. Ann Matthews Beadle; Vice President. Martha Scott; Recording Secretary, Blanche Smith; Corresponding Secretary, Janet Creig; Treasurer, Mrs. Fannie Watson Plain.
— Organized in September, 1897, with eight members as a neighborhood meeting, without officers. Purpose, mutual sympathy and counsel, and the instruction of the members in the general principles of child training and domestic science, and the united effort toward disseminating these principles throughout the city. Present membership, twenty-five. Present officers: President, Mrs. H. E. Bates; Vice President, Mrs. Frank Fowler; Secretary and Treasurer, Mrs. P. G. Wright.
— Organized in October, 1895. Charter membership limited to sixteen. Present membership, twenty-two. Purpose, to study travel, history and art. First officers: President. Mrs. H. M. Chase; Vice President, Mrs. E. E. Gunnell; Secretary, Mrs. G. L. Price; Treasurer, Miss Bertha Davis. Present officers: President, Mrs. H. T. Fowler; Vice President, Mrs. A. C. Roberts; Secretary, Mrs. A. R. Weeks; Treasurer, Miss Julia Carr.
ANCIENT ORDER OF HIBERNIANS.
— Organized September 22, 1881, with twenty-one charter members. Present membership sixty-four. Meets first Tuesday and third Sunday in Svea Hall. First officers: County Delegate. William Twohig; President, J. J. O'Connor; Vice President, T. F. Clark; Financial Secretary, P. J. Brown; Corresponding Secretary, M. G. Kennedy; Treasurer, John Moore. Present officers: County President, J. W. Barry; County Vice President, J. H. Graham; President. M. G. Kennedy; Vice President, J. W. Graham; Financial Secretary, W. E. Hannan; Corresponding and Recording Secretary, C. A. Roberts; Treasurer, John McLernon.
LADIES' AUXILIARY TO A.O.H.
— Disbanded during past year.
BUSINESS MEN'S ASSOCIATION OF GALESBURG.
— Organized August 31, 1897, on a basis of two hundred members. Purpose, to afford business men an opportunity to concentrate their efforts and influence in forwarding such movements as shall tend toward the advancement and prosperity of the city. First officers: President, P. F. Brown; Vice President, Solomon Frohlich; Treasurer, John G. Vivion; Secretary, Phillip S. Post. Present officers: President, E. P. Williams; Vice Presi-dent, Solomon Frohlich; Treasurer, John G. Vivion; Secretary, H. A. Smith.
GALESBURG BUSINESS MEN'S CLUB.
— Organized March 17, 1885. Leases fourth and fifth floors of Fraternity Block. Purpose, social intercourse and recreation. First officers: President, T. J. Hale; Vice President, Clark E. Carr; Secretary. J. K. Mitchell; Treasurer. G. P. Hoover. Present officers: President, J, K. Mitchell; Vice President, J. F. Anderson; Secretary. J. O. Frost; Treasurer. W. W. Washburn; Steward. F. D. Bellows.
GALESBURG MONITOR UNION.
— Organized November 30, 1896, with ten charter members. Present membership, three hundred and forty-eight. Meets Tuesdays in American Hall. Purpose, to Americanize, educate, elevate, and advance the best interests of the Swedish element of the American people. First officers: Monitor, Albert Johnson; Vice Monitor, O. P. Wenquist; Secretary, A. B. Pierson; Treasurer, Frank Sandberg. Present officers: M., A. B. Pierson; V. M., Dr. M. W. Olson; Recording Secretary, Pontus Nelson; financial Secretary, S. P. Weinberg; Treasurer, Frank Sandberg; P. M., F. Edward Anderson.
GALESBURG MUSICAL UNION.
— Organized January 9, 1899. Purpose, the study of classical musical productions and the presentation of the same. Present membership — active, seventy-five; honorary, one hundred and ten. First officers: President, H. E. Arnold; Vice President, L. H. Jelliff; Treasurer, Mrs. L. H. Jelliff; Secretary, L. R. Maddox. Present officers: President, H. E. Kellogg; Vice President, Mrs. G. H. Perrin; Treasurer, W. A. Armstrong, Sec-retary, L. R. Maddox.
KNOX COUNTY BAR ASSOCIATION.
— Organized July 27, 1897, with forty-two charter members. Present membership, forty-seven. Purpose, to promote fellowship among members and to facilitate the administration of justice. Meets Monday preceding first day of each term of Circuit Court. First officers: President, A. M. Brown; Vice President, C. S. Harris; Secretary and Treasurer, W. T. Smith; Historian, J. B. Boggs. Present officers: President, C. S. Harris; Vice President, E. J. King; Secretary and Treasurer, W. T. Smith; Historian, J. B. Boggs.
THE RETAIL MERCHANTS' ASSOCIATION OF GALESBURG.
— Organized in June, 1891, with twenty-two charter members. Present membership, one hundred and twenty-four. Meets fourth Thursday in Association rooms, 118 East Main street. Purpose, to foster and maintain a permanent social feeling between the retail merchants of Galesburg, to correct trade evils, and to publish annually a rating book, giving every one their honest commercial standing. First officers: President, C. E. Lanstrum; First Vice President, Robert McKay; Second Vice President, A. J. Cameron; Secretary, J. W. Hammond; Treasurer, John Oberg. Present officers: President, C. E. Lanstrum; First Vice President, G. B. Churchill; Second Vice President, J. P. Anderson; Secretary, R. G. Roadstrum; Treasurer, J. W. Hammond.
THE SOANGETAHA CLUB.
— Organized July 8, 1895, with eight charter members. Present membership, one hundred and ninety. Purpose, mental and social enjoyment. Organization has a club house at Lake George, east of city. First officers: President, E. S. Gunnell; Secretary and Treasurer, R. J. Howard; Directors, A. E. Jacobi, J. G. Beadle and H. C. Spear. Present officers: President, L. W. Sanborn; Secretary and Treasurer, R. J. Howard; Directors, W. E. Phillips, H. M. Chase and Wilfred Arnold.
WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION.
By Mrs. B. F. Arnold.
The Woman's Christian Temperance Union, of Galesburg, was organized in the First Congregational Church, March 6, 1874. A series of enthusiastic temperance meetings, under the direction of Dr. Henry A. Reynolds, had been held and a Red Ribbon Club of men and a Women's Union Temperance Society had been formed. This society afterwards voted to become an auxiliary to the State Women's Christian Temperance Union. At the present time it is an incorporated society, under that name. The following persons were first elected officers: President, Mrs. M. Wait; Vice President, Mrs. J. H. Sherman; Recording Secretary, Mrs. H. S. Hurd; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. J. H. Little; Treasurer, Mrs. Job Swift.
The first practical work of the society was the circulation of a petition to the Common Council praying for the closing of saloons on election day, April 6, 1874. An anti-license petition was also circulated, which received hundreds of signatures. A committee of ladies was appointed to attend the polls on election day. The temperance ticket was triumphant and the Mayor, Hon. G. W. Brown, supported by the council, refused to grant saloon licenses. According to statistics furnished by the freight department of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Company, the shipments of liquor in the months of May and June, 1874, fell off, as compared with those of 1873, by one hundred and fifty-two barrels of beer and forty-one barrels of whiskey, while those of alcohol were only half as great.
Weekly Gospel temperance meetings were held, and a juvenile temperance society organized by Miss Mary Allen West, under the name of the Band of Hope.
On March 9, 1875, it was voted to establish temperance coffee rooms, the first being located in the Allen building and formally opened to the public by a supper and reception on May 10. The use of this room for twenty-five years was given to the society in March, 1878, by the owner. Mr. Sheldon Allen, in consideration of the payment of a nominal rental of twenty-five cents a year in addition to all taxes and assessments.
Mrs. Wait served the society as its President for four years, and was succeeded, in 1878, by Mrs. M. L. Hyde.
The personnel of the society at its beginning was strong, and its impress was felt in every line of work in which it engaged. No local history could fully or truthfully represent the sentiment of the times, which failed to mention the names of some of those whose character was so strongly impressed upon the temperance movement of the years succeeding the crusade. Energy and wisdom — tempered by God's grace and a consecrated purpose to help make the world better — mark the records of those times.
Mrs. Wait, the first President, was a singularly Godly woman, whose sudden death left the city full of mourners, and who had provoked no word of adverse criticism.
Miss West, of whom it was said "the State has produced no other woman who has rendered it such signal service," served the city during the Civil War as President of the Soldiers' Aid Society. She was the first teacher of the first school for colored children in Galesburg, and the County Superintendent of Public Schools for several years. The State claimed her as President of the W.C.T.U. until she was elected editress of the "Union Signal," which position she filled until she was sent as a temperance missionary to Japan. The Lord called her from an earthly to a heavenly service from the home of a loved friend and pupil, in December, 1892. Her favorite motto of "Grace, Grit and Gumption" expressed the governing principle of her life, and her influence and example still inspire her sisters to faithful effort.
Many others — capable, efficient, zealous toilers — have carried the work forward, and last year the Galesburg Union, in point of membership, was the banner Union in the Tenth Congressional District.
The especial lines of work which have been carried on in recent years are the teaching of the Sunday School lesson and the holding of a Gospel service every Sunday in the county jail. A column of temperance items has been furnished weekly to one or both of the city's daily papers. An employment bureau has been in operation for several years, and many girls have been furnished with work, and not a few homes with efficient help. A room is furnished in the Free Kindergarten building, where needy women and girls can secure a night's lodging. A Woman's Exchange was carried on until there seemed no longer any need for an enterprise of that character. Money is raised and given for any object which promotes the cause of temperance.
A monthly mothers' meeting is held, attended mainly by women whose children are pupils at the Free Kindergarten, and a social evening, with devotional exercises and refreshments, help to give to their daily lives a fresh impulse and a regeneration of hope.
The rooms of the organization, on Prairie street, are open headquarters for the dissemination of all kinds of temperance Information, and for the general advancement of the cause. A lady is always in charge, to welcome strangers and offer them rest and refreshment. Many are the sin-stricken, troubled ones who seek this haven, confident of sympathy and help.
Although located in a city where saloons are licensed by law, the trust bequeathed to the society has been sacredly kept, and it may be said, without fear of successful contradiction that the interests of temperance are preserved before the public, that the community is better, the true development of the city advanced, the best interests of the youth preserved, and Christianity itself rendered more efficient, because of the influence radiating from the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
HOSPITAL AND SANITARIUM.
The medical institutions of the City of Galesburg are two in number, the Galesburg Hospital and the Sanitarium.
The former is controlled by an association of subscribing members, which was formed at a public meeting held on the evening of April 24, 1891, pursuant to a call. The next evening a committee, appointed for that purpose, named the following directors: Forrest F. Cooke, presiding officer of the Assembly, ex-officio, J. T. McKnight, Loren Stevens, Asa A. Matteson, Mrs. C. C. Merrill, Max J. Mack, E. A. Bancroft, Mrs. Samuel McCullough, Nels Nelson, James O'Connor, Mrs. E. C. Stone, John Lass, Robert Chappell, Fred R. Jelliff, Mrs. Swan Anderson and Mrs. J. M. Barden. During the next month the Board organized with these officers: J. T. McKnight. President: Mrs. E. C. Stone, Vice President; Loren Stevens, Treasurer; Miss Mary Scott, Secretary. On July 4, 1893, the commodious and beautiful building situated on Seminary street, just north of Losey, was thrown open to the public and the following day the hospital was opened for the reception of patients. The structure, with the equipment, cost about twenty-five thousand dollars, and nearly all the rooms were furnished and maintained by churches or other organizations. Membership in the Hospital Association is secured only by subscription. A Board of Trustees, elected by the association at the annual meeting, held in May, manages the affairs of the institution, which is now regarded as absolutely necessary to the city's well being. The present officers are: Loren Stevens, President; A. J. Perry, Vice President; Alfred Olson, Treasurer; Miss Mary Scott, Secretary.
It was originally known as the "Cottage Hospital." In 1898 the name "Galesburg Hospital" was substituted. The city appropriates the sum of one hundred dollars monthly towards its support.
The Sanitarium is located at 325 Division street. Its director and proprietor is Dr. A. G. Humphrey, who began his work here in 1861, on a very modest scale. Returning to the city in 1866, after an absence of two years, he established his present sanitarium on a farm on the Knoxville road. In 1891, he erected and equipped the building which he now occupies. The Hygeio-Therapeutic system is practiced. The house is fitted with all modern conveniences and has accommodations for about twenty patients.
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