Black Hawk 1832
Those Who Served
|Adams, Jeremiah||PAY||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Alcorn, William||PVT||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Ames, Smith||PVT||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Andrews, Ira||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Bailey, Caleb||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Bailey, Gilum||SGT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Baker, Sylvenis||PVT||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Battershell, John||CPL||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Blair, Culverson||PVT||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Blanchard, Servilious||QM||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Blythe, John||PVT||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Bradshaw, Elijah||PVT||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Bradshaw, Enoch||PVT||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Brooks, Joab||SGT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Buckalew, Garret||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Buffenbarger, William||PVT||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Burcaloo, John||PVT||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Burch, John W.||2LT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Butler, Derus||PVT||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Cavender, Joseph||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Clark, Abner||PVT||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Cole, David||PVT||O'Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Coleman, Franklin P.||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Cooper, Enoch||SGT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Cooper, William||CPL||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Cross, John||CPL||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Davis, Joshua||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Davis, William||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Decker, Harrison||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Dolbaugh,Isaac||CPL||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Edwards, Thomas||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Foster, John||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Franklin, Frederic||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Fugate, Benjamin||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Gates, William||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Goodin, Robart||2LT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Greer, James||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Grimshaw, Edwin||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Hale, Ozias||CPT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Harpole, Joel||SGT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Harpool, William||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Harpoole, Adam||SGT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Hubbard, Appollus||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Hume, Berry||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Jackson, Francis||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Jeffres, Samuel||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Jones, Cornelius||SGT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Kinman, Hiram||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Kinman, Sims||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Kinman, William||CPL||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Kinney, Tomas||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Kinney, William||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Linch, William||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Main, Solomon||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Mays, Mathew||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|McLain, Absalom||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|McLain, William||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|McLintock, Joseph||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|McMiller, John||SGT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Milhizzer, John||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Miller, Calep||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Miller, George||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Mithcel, William||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Moore, David||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|More, Tomas||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Neeley, Burgess||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Neeley, John||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Neeley, Samuel||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Neeley, Thomas W.||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Nisonger, Resen||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Parkus, Orren||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Petty, Elisha||CPT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Price, Richard||PVT||O' West||Pike Co.||2||1|
|Pryor, James O.||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Pullum, Benjamin||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Riggs, Samuel||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Ross, James||1LT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Seeley, David||1LT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Sheley, Ira||CPL||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Shinn, Benjamin||CPL||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Shinn, John||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Sims, Josiah||SGT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Spears, Haris||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Stigney, Philip H.||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Taylor, John||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Triplet, Nathaniel C.||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Turnbaugh, Isaac||SGT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Turnbaugh, Joseph||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
|Wadsworth, William||PVT||E. Petty||Pike Co,||3||Whiteside|
|Wells, Lucious||PVT||A. Sndyer||Pike Co.||20||Day|
|Whiten, B.||PVT||A. Snyder||Pike Co.||20||Day|
|Woosley, James||CPL||E. Petty||Pike Co.||3||Whiteside|
|Yerley, Ebenezer||PVT||O' Hale||Pike Co.||4||3|
Black Hawk War - History of Pike County by Charles M. Chapman 1880
In the year of 1804 a treaty was concluded between the United States and the chiefs of the Sac and Fox nations. One old chief of the Sacs, however, called Black Hawk, who had fought with great bravery in the services of Great Britain during the war of 1812, had always taken exceptions to this treaty, pronouncing it void. In 1831 he established himself, with a chosen band of warriors, upon the disputed territory, ordering the whites to leave the country at once. The settlers complaining, Gov. Reynolds dispatched Gen. Gaines, with a company of regulars and 1,500 volunteers, to the scene of action. Taking the Indians by surprised, the troops burnt their villages and forced them to conclude a treaty, by which they ceded all lands east of the Mississippi, and agreed to remain on the western side of the river. Necessity forced the proud spirit of Black Hawk into submission, which made him more than ever determined to be avenged upon his enemies. Having rallied around him the warlike braves of the Sac and Fox nations, he crossed the Mississippi in the spring of 1832. Upon hearing of the invasion, Gov. Reynolds hastily collected a body of 1,800 volunteers, placing them under the command of Brig. Gen. Samuel Whiteside.
The army marched to the Mississippi, and having reduced to ashes the Indian village known as "Prophet's Town," proceeded for several miles up the river to Dixon, to join the regular forces under Gen, Atkinson. They found at Dixon two companies of volunteers, who, sighing for glory, were dispatched to reconnoiter the enemy. They advanced under the command of Maj. Stillman, to a creek afterwards called "Stillman's run;" and while encamping there saw a party of mounted Indians at the distance of a mile. Several of Stillman's party mounted their horses and charged the Indians, killing three of them; but, attached by the main body under Black Hawk, they were routed, and by their precipitate flight spread such a panic through the camp that the whole company ran off to Dixon as fast as their legs could carry them. On their arrival it was found that there had been eleven killed. The party came straggling into camp all night long, four or five at a time, each squad positive that all who were left behind were massacred. It is said that a big, tall Kentuckian, with a loud voice, who was a colonel of the militia but a private with Stillman, upon his arrival in camp gave to Gen. Whiteside and the wondering multitude the following glowing and bombastic account of the battle: "Sirs," said he, "our detachment was encamped among some scattering timber on the north side of Old Man's creek, with the prairie form the north gently sloping down to our encampment. It was just after twilight, in the gloaming of the evening, when we discovered Black Hawk's army coming down upon us in solid column; they displayed in the form of a crescent upon the brow of the prairie, and such accuracy and precision of military movements were never witnessed by man; they were equal to the best troops of Wellington in Spain. I have said that the Indians came down in solid columns, and displayed in the form of a crescent; and what was most wonderful, there were large squares of cavalry resting upon the points of the curve, which squares were supported again by other columns fifteen deep, extending back through the woods and over a swamp three-quarters of a mile, which again rested on the main body of Black Hawk's army bivouacked upon the banks of the Kishwakee. It was a terrible and a glorious sight to see the tawny warriors as they rode along our flanks attempting to outflank us, with the glittering moonbeams glistening from their polished blades and burnished spears. It was a sight well calculated to strike consternation in the stoutest and boldest heart; and accordingly our men soon began to break in small squads, for tall timber. In a very little time the rout became general, the Indians were soon upon our flanks and threatened the destruction of our entire detachment. About this time Maj. Stillman, Col. Stephenson, Maj. Perkins, Capt. Adams, Mr. Hackelton, and myself, with some others, threw ourselves into the rear to rally the fugitives and protect the retreat. But in a short time all my companions fell bravely fighting hand-to-hand with the savage enemy, and I alone was left upon the field of battle. About this time I discovered not far to the left a corps of horseman which seemed to be in tolerable order. I immediately deployed to the left, when, leaning down and placing my body in a recumbent posture upon the mane of my horse so as to bring the heads of the horsemen between my eye and the horizon, I discovered by the light of the moon that they were gentlemen who did not wear hats, by which token I knew they were no friends of mine. I therefore made a retrograde movement and recovered my position, where I remained some time meditating what further I could do in the service of my country, when a random ball came whistling by my ear and plainly whispered to me, 'Stranger, you have no further business here.' Upon hearing this I followed the example of my companions in arms, and broke for tall timber, and the way I ran was not a little." For a long time afterward Maj. Stillman and his men were subjects of ridicule and merriment, which was as undeserving as their expedition was disastrous. Stillman's defeat spread consternation throughout the State and nation. The number of Indians was greatly exaggerated, and the name Black Hawk carried with it associations of great military talent, savage cunning and cruelty.
Assult on Apple River Fort
A regiment sent to spy out the country between Galena and Rock Island was surprised by a party of seventy Indians, and was on the point of being thrown into disorder when Gen. Whiteside, then serving as a private, shouted out that he would shoot the first man who should turn his back to the enemy. Order being restored, the battle began. At its very outset Gen. Whiteside shot the leader of the Indians, who thereupon commenced a hasty retreat. In June, 1832, Black Hawk, with a band of 150 warriors, attached the Apple River Fort, near Galena, defended by 25 men. This fort, a mere palisade of logs, was created to afford protection to the miners. For fifteen consecutive hours the garrison had to sustain the assault of the savage enemy; but knowing very well that no quarter would be given them, they fought with such fury and desperation that the Indians, after losing many of their best warriors, were compelled to retreat. Another party of eleven Indians murdered two men near Fort Hamilton. They were afterwards overtaken by a company of twenty men and every one of them was killed.
Rock River Expedition
A new regiment, under the command of Gen. Atkinson, assembled on the banks of the Illinois in the latter part of June. Maj. Dement, with a small party, was sent out to reconnoiter the movements of a large body of Indians, whose endeavors to surround him made it advisable for him to retire. Upon hearing of this engagement, Gen. Atkinson sent a detachment to intercept the Indians, while he with the main body of his army, moved north to meet the Indians under Black Hawk. They moved slowly and cautiously through the country, passed through Turtle village, and marched up along Rock river. On their arrival news was brought of the discovery of the main trail of Indians. Considerable search was made, but they were unable to discover any vestige of Indians save two who had shot two soldiers the day previous. Hearing that Black Hawk was encamped on the Rock river, at the Manitou village, they resolved at once to advance upon the enemy; but in the execution of their design they met with opposition from their officers and men. The officers of Gen. Henry handed to him a written protest; but he, a man equal to any emergency, ordered the officers to be arrested and escorted to Gen. Atkinson. Within a few minutes after the stern order was given, the officers all collected around the General's quarters, many of them with tears in their eyes, pledging themselves that if forgiven they would return to duty and never do the like again. The General rescinded the order, and they at once resumed duty.
The Battle of Bad-Axe
Gen. Henry marched on the 15th of July in pursuit of the Indians, reaching Rock river after three day's journey, where he learned Black Hawk was encamped further up the river. On July 19th the troops were ordered to commence their march. After having made fifty miles, they were overtaken by a terrible thunderstorm which lasted all night. Nothing cooled, however, in their courage and zeal, they marched again fifty miles the next day, encamping near the place where the Indians had encamped the night before. Hurrying along as fast as they could, the infantry keeping up an equal pace with the mounted force, the troops on the morning of the 21st crossed the river connecting two of the four lakes, by which the Indians had been endeavoring to escape. They found, on their way, the ground strewn with kettles and articles of baggage, which the haste of their retreat had obliged the Indians to throw away. The troops, inspired with new ardor, advanced so rapidly that at noon they fell in with the rear guard of the Indians. Those who closely pursued them were saluted with a sudden fire of musketry by a body of Indians who had concealed themselves in the high grass of the prairie. A most desperate charge was made upon the Indians, who, unable to resist, retreated obliquely, in order to out-flank the volunteers on the right; but the latter charged the Indians in their ambush, and expelled them from their thickets at the point of the bayonet, and dispersed them. Night set in and the battle ended, having cost the Indians 68 of their bravest men, while the loss of the Illinoisans amounted to but one killed and 8 wounded. Soon after this battle Gens. Atkinson and Henry joined their forces and pursued the Indians. Gen. Henry struck the main trail, left his horses behind, formed an advance guard of eight men, and marched forward upon their trail. When these eight men came within sight of the river, they were suddenly fired upon and five of them killed, the remaining three maintaining their ground till Gen. Henry came up. Then the Indians, charged upon with the bayonet, fell back upon their main force. The battle now became general; the Indians fought with desperate valor, but were furiously assailed by the volunteers with their bayonets, cutting many of the Indians to pieces and driving the rest into the river. Those who escaped from being drowned took refuge on an island. On hearing the frequent discharge of musketry, indicating a general engagement, Gen. Atkinson abandoned the pursuit of the twenty Indians under Black Hawk himself, and hurried to the scene of action, where he arrived too late to take part in the battle. He immediately forded the river with his troops, the water reaching up to their necks, and landed on the island where the Indians had secreted themselves. The soldiers rushed upon the Indians, killed several of them, took others prisoner, and chased the rest into the river, where they were either drowned or shot before reaching the opposite shore. Thus ended the battle, the Indians losing 300, besides 50 prisoners; the whites but 17 killed and 12 wounded.
Incidents of the Battle
Many painful incidents occurred during this battle. A Sac woman, the sister of a warrior of some notoriety, found herself in the thickest of the fight, but at length succeeded in reaching the river, when, keeping her infant child safe in its blankets by means of her teeth, she plunged into the water, seized the tail of a horse with her hands whose rider was swimming the stream, and was drawn safely across. A young squaw during the battle was standing in the grass a short distance from the American line, holding her child - a little girl of four years - in her arms. In this position a ball struck the right arm of the child, shattering the bone, and passed into the breast of the young mother, instantly killing her. She fell upon the child and confined it to the ground till the Indians were driven from that part of the field. Gen. Anderson, of the United States army, hearing its cries, went to the spot, took it from under the dead body and carried it to the surgeon to have its would dressed. The arm was amputated, and during the operation the half-starved child did not cry, but sat quietly eating a hard piece of biscuit. It was sent to Prairie du Chien, where it entirely recovered.
Black Hawk Captured
Black Hawk, with his twenty braves, retreated up the Wisconsin river. The Winnebagoes, desirous of securing the friendship of the whites, went in pursuit and captured and delivered them to Gen. Street, the United States Indian agent. Among the prisoners were the son of Black Hawk and the prophet of the tribe. These with Black Hawk were taken to Washington, D.C., and soon consigned as prisoners at Fortress Monroe. At the interview Black Hawk had with the President, he closed his speech delivered on the occasion in the following words: 'We did not expect to conquer the whites. They have too many houses, to many men. I took up the hatchet, for my part, to revenge injuries which my people could no longer endure. He I borne them longer without striking, my people would have said, Black Hawk is a woman; he is too old to be chief; he is no Sac. These reflections caused me to raise the war-whoop. I say no more. It is known to you. Keokuk once was here; you took him by the hand, when he wished to return to his home, you were willing. Black Hawk expects, like Keokuk, he shall be permitted to return too."
Sketch of Black Hawk
Black Hawk, or Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, was born in the principal Sac village, near the junction of Rock river with the Mississippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa. Black Hawk early distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of fifteen was permitted to pain, and was ranked among the braves. About the year 1783 he went on an expedition against enemies of his nation, the Osages, one of whom he killed and scalped; and for this deed of Indian bravery he was permitted to join in the scalp dance. Three or four years afterward he, at the head of two hundred braves, went on another expedition against the Osages, to avenge the murder of some women and children belonging to his own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce battle ensued in which the latter tribe lost one-half their number. The Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the Cherokees for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them near the present city of St. Louis his father was slain, and Black Hawk, taking possession of the "Medicine Bag," at once announced himself chief of the Sat nation. He had now conquered the Cherokee and about the year 1800, at the head of five hundred Sacs and Foxes and a hundred Iowas, he waged war against the Osage nation, and subdued it. For two years he battled successfully with other Indian tribes, all of which he conquered.
The year following the treaty at St. Louis, in 1804, the United States Government erected a fort near the head of Des Moines Rapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, who at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the west side of the Mississippi, above the mouth of the Des Moines. The fort was garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. The difficulties with the British Government arose about this time, and the war of 1812 followed. That government, extending aid to the Western Indians, induced them to remain hostile to the Americans. In August 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing on his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn massacre had a few days before been perpetrated. Of his connection with the British but little is known.
In the early part of 1815, the Indians west of the Mississippi were notified that peace had been declared between the United States and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Black Hawk did not sign any treaty, however, until May of the following year. From the time of signing this treaty, in 1816, until the breaking out of the Black Hawk war, he and his band passed their time in the common pursuits of Indian life.
Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and Fox Indians were urged to move to the west of the Mississippi. All were agreed, save the bank known as the British Band, of which Black Hawk was the leader. He strongly objected to the removal, and was induced to comply only after being threatened by the Government. This action, and various others on the part of the white settlers, provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture of his native village, now occupied by the whites. The war followed. He and his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and had his wishes been complied with at the beginning of the struggle, much bloodshed would have been prevented.
By order of the President, Black Hawk and his companies, who were in confinement at Fortress Monroe, were set free on the 4th day of June, 1833. Before leaving the Fort Black Hawk made the following farewell speech to the commander, which is not only eloquent but shows that within his chest of steel there beat a heart keenly alive to the emotions of gratitude:
"Brother, I have come on my own part, and in behalf of my companions, to bid you farewell. Our great father has at length been pleased to permit us to return to our hunting grounds. We have buried the tomahawk, and the sound of the rifle hereafter will only bring death to the deer and the buffalo. Brothers, you have treated the red men kindly. Your squaws have made them presents, and you have given them plenty to eat and drink. The memory of your friendship will remain till the Great Spirit says it is time for Black Hawk to sing his death song. Brother, your houses are as numerous as the leaves on the trees, and your young warriors like the sands upon the shore of the big lake that rolls before us. The red man has but few houses and few warriors, but the rend man has a heart which throbs as warmly as the heart of his white brother. The Great Spirit has given us our hunting grounds, and the skin of the deer which we kill there is his favorite, for its color is white, and this is the emblem of peace. This hunting dress and these feathers of the eagle are white. Accept them, my brother. I have given one like this to the White Otter. Accept it as a memorial of Black Hawk. When he is far away this will serve to remind you of him. May the Great Spirit bless you and your children. Farewell."
After their release from prison they were conducted, in charge of Major Garland, through some of the principal cities, that they might witness the power of the United States and learn their own inability to cope with them in war. Great multitudes flocked to see them wherever they were taken, and the attention paid them rendered their progress through the country a triumphal procession, instead of the transportation of prisoners by an officer. At Rock Island the prisoners were given their liberty, amid great and impressive ceremony. In 1838 Black Hawk built him a dwelling near Des Moines, Iowa, and furnished it after the manner of the whites, and engaged in agricultural pursuits and hunting and fishing. Here, with his wife, to whom he was greatly attached, he passed the few remaining days of his life. To his credit, it may be said, that Black Hawk remained true to his wife, and served her with a devotion uncommon among Indians, living with her upward of forty years.
Black Hawk's Death and Burial
At all times when Black Hawk visited the whites he was received with marked attention. He was an honored guest at the old settler's reunion in Lee county, Illinois, at some of their meetings and received many tokens of esteem. In September, 1838, while on his way to Rock Island to receive his annuity from the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted in a fatal attack of bilious fever, and terminated his life October 3, After his death, he was dressed in the uniform presented to him by the President while in Washington. He was buried in a grave six feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. The body was placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture upon a seat constructed for the purpose. On his left side the cane given him by Henry Clay was placed upright, with his right hand resting upon it. Thus, after a long, adventurous and shifting life, Black Hawk was gathered to his fathers.
Chapter X - Black Hawk War
In November, 1830, 50 or 60 of the Sac and Fox tribes of Indians came down on a hunting excursion and camped on Bay creek. These tribes at that time were living on Rock river in the northern part of the State, and wished once more to visit the scenes of their former hunting- ground. Some little trouble occurred between these Indians and the whites on account of the disappearance of hogs in the neighborhood. The settlers turned out and caught some of the red men, tied them up and administered to them severe flagellations with withes, and they immediately left the country, never, with one or two exceptions, to return in a body to Pike county. This episode comes as near to anything of a warlike nature, especially a hostile collision with the Indians, as any that we have any record of occurring in Pike county. In the fall of 1831 Black Hawk and his tribes appeared on Rock river, where they committed several petty depredations. The settlers of Rock River and vicinity petitioned Gov. Reynolds for aid, stating that "Last fall the Black Hawk band of Indians almost destroyed all of our crops, and made several attacks on the owners when they attempted to prevent their depredations, and wounded one man by actually stabbing him in several places. This spring they acted in a more outrageous and menacing manner." This petition represented that there were 600 or 700 Indians among them: it was signed by 35 or 40 persons. Another petition sets forth that "The Indians pasture their horses in our wheat-fields, shoot our cows and cattle and threaten to burn our houses over our heads if we do not leave." Other statements place the Indians at not more than 300. According to these petitions, Gov. Reynolds in May, 1831, called for 700 mounted men. Beardstown was the designated place of rendezvous, and such were the sympathy and courage of the settlers that the number offering themselves was nearly three times the number called out. They left Rushville for Rock Island June 15, 1831; and on the 30th of the same month, in a council held for the purpose, Black Hawk and 27 chiefs and warriors on one part, and Gen. Edmund P. Gaines, of the U. S. army, and John Reynolds, Governor of Illinois, on the other part, signed a treaty of peace and friendship. This capitulation bound the Indians to go and remain west of the Mississippi river. In April, 1832, in direct violation of the treaty above referred to, Black Hawk, with some 500 followers, appeared again upon the scene of action, and fear and excitement spread through the length and breadth of the State. To again drive them from the State, Gov. Reynolds called on the Militia April 16, 1832.
Troops Raised in Pike County
No sooner had volunteers been called for than every county and settlement throughout this portion of the State promptly responded. Nowhere, however, was such alacrity shown in answering the call as in Pike county. The hearts of the sturdy pioneers were easily touched by the stories of depredations by the Indians. These stories were doubtless greatly exaggerated, yet the frontiersmen who knew the subtlety and treachery of the red men well knew they could not be trusted; and almost any crime was expected of them. Col. Wm. Ross, then Captain of the Pike County Militia Company, received word from the Governor on Friday, the 20th, and he immediately issued the following: "Company Orders - The volunteer company of Pike county will meet at Atlas, on Monday, the 23d inst., ready to take up their march by sun-rise, except such part of the company as are living on the east side of said county, which part will meet the company at the house of William Henman, about four miles this side of Phillip's Ferry, on the same day, all with a good horse, and rifle, powder-horn, half pound of powder, and one hundred balls, with three days' provisions. The commanding officer of said company flatters himself that every man will be prompt to his duty.
[Signed] "W. Ross, Capt. 1st Rifles, Pike Co. April, 1832."
The Captain then called upon Benj. Barney at his blacksmith shop and told him of the nature of the order he had received, and for him to forthwith mount a horse and start out to notify the settlers to assemble immediately. Mr. Barney was engaged at his forge at the time, making a plow; but he straightway laid down hammer and tongs, untied his leathern apron, left his fire to smolder and die, and started immediately upon his mission. He first went to a man at the mouth of Blue creek; from thence he made a circuit of the county, appealing to all to assemble at Atlas without delay. He tells us that almost all of them left their work and started immediately.
The men having assembled at Atlas, the martial band began to discourse lively music to stir the patriotism of the militia-men to a high pitch so that they would enlist for the service. The music did not seem to "enthuse" them with as great a desire to enlist as their leaders had anticipated. Something more potent must be had: so two buckets of whisky were summoned to their aid; the men were formed in two lines facing each other, and wide enough apart to admit of two men walking up and down the line between them. Capt. Ross and Lieut. Seeley started down the line, each with a bucket of liquor; two boys followed with water, and then came the music. It was understood that those who would fall in after the music would enlist for service. By the time the third round was made 100 men were in line, which was even more than the quota of this county under that call. Wm. Ross was elected Captain and Benj. Barney, 1st Lieutenant. The company adjourned to meet at Griggsville on the following day at 10 o'clock a.m. The men went to their homes in various parts of the county to notify their families of their enlistment and to make slight preparations for their journey. We are told that with four or five exceptions, and those lived along the Illinois river, every man was at Griggsville by sunrise on the day appointed.
The company then started for Beardstown, the place of rendezvous for the troops in this part of the State The Illinois river was very high and much difficulty was experienced in crossing it. The ferry would carry but six horses at a time; and while waiting for transportation the horses stood in mud up to their knees. It was a gloomy time and they had no liquor with which to cheer up the new volunteers. Capt. Ross was among the first to cross over, while Lieut. Barney remained with the men upon the western bank. Great dissatisfaction was being manifested by the men under Lieut. Barney, who were waiting in the mud and water to cross the river, all of whom did not get over until 11 o'clock that night. Lieut. Barney sent word to Capt. Ross to forward him a jug of whisky. This was done; a fire was built, striking it by the flint locks of their guns; the whisky was distributed, and once more the troops were in good spirits and ready for any hardship.
The Pike county troops arrived at Beardstown the next day, being the first company to reach that point. The Governor and some of the leading officers were already there. It was found that the Pike county company was too large; it accordingly was divided and formed into two companies. Lieut. Barney was chosen Captain of one of these, and Joseph Petty, Captain of the other. James Ross was elected 1st Lieutenant of Capt. Petty's company, and a Mr. Allen, of Capt. Barney's company. Capt. Ross was chosen Colonel and aid of the commanding General. It was he who appointed Abraham Lincoln, our martyr President, to the Captaincy of one of the Sangamon county companies in this war.
The troops marched from Beardstown to Rock Island, where they were mustered into the United States service by Gen. Zachary Taylor. At Fort Armstrong, which was at that point, there were then only about 50 United States troops. The Pike county volunteers, with others, then marched up toward Dixon on Rock river, the course the Indians had taken. They followed them for some days, but did not overtake them or encounter them in any engagement. During the entire campaign the Pike county troops did not meet the foe in battle array; not a leaden ball was shot at any of these men during the 50 days they were out. During this time they ran short of provisions, and sent to Chicago, but in that present great city, where millions of hogs are slaughtered annually and the greatest grain market in the world exists, they could not get a barrel of pork or of flour. The Pike county volunteers then went to Ottawa and shared with some troops at that point. They obtained rations enough there to last them about three days, when they marched on down the river to the rapids, where there was a boat filled with United States provisions. There they drew rations for their homeward march. Capt. Barney drew seven days' rations for his men, but Capt. Petty thought they would get home in three or four days, so only drew four days' rations, much to the regret of the hungry stomachs of his men, as it took them longer to get home than he had anticipated. The privates of this call received $8 a month, and were paid off that fall by United States agents, who came to Atlas.
While in the northern part of the State four regiments of troops camped together, among whom were the men from this county. They formed a hollow square, upon the inside of which were the officers' tents. The horses, about 1,000 in number, were guarded in a corral outside of the square. In the dead hour of night, when not a light remained burning, and the slow tread of the faithful sentinel was the only sound that broke the silence, the horses became frightened and stampeded. In the wildest rage they dashed forward, whither they knew not; they headed toward the camp of slumbering soldiers, and in all the mad fury of frightened brutes they dashed forward over cannon, tents and men, wounding several of the latter quite severely. The troops heard their coming and supposed each wild steed was ridden by a wilder and less humane red-skin; the treacherous and subtle foe was momentarily expected and the frightened men thought they were now coming down upon them. They had all heard of the night attack upon the rangers at the famous battle of Tippecanoe, and feared a repetition of that night's bloody work. Capt. Barney, with quickness of thought and military skill, in a loud voice gave orders for his men to form at the rear of their tents. He hallooed lustily, and when he went up and down the line feeling his way he found every man in his place. The commanding officers hearing the Captain's orders and knowing there would be safety with his company if anywhere, ran to him. Fortunately the horses were riderless, which was soon discovered, and then the frightened men began joking. Col. De Witt joked Capt. Barney considerably about his hallooing so loud, when Gen. Taylor spoke up and said he was glad the Captain was so prompt to give orders for his men to form, as it showed a soldierly disposition; besides, it let him know where he might go for safety. A third company subsequently went from Pike county under Capt. Hale and Lieut. David Seeley: about 50 men composed this company of mounted riflemen. They enlisted for three months and participated in the famous battle of Bad-Ax. The people of this county were not disturbed by the Indians at this time, but so timid were they that they were easily frightened. The following incident is related by Samuel Clark, of Kinderhook township. In 1832, during the Black Hawk war, a man while passing a neighbor's house heard the cries of a child who was in the house. He supposed the Indians were within committing their foul deeds, and accordingly raised the alarm that the Indians were there murdering all the members of the family, and everybody who came that way. This created the greatest consternation in the settlement, for the people had heard of the bloody deeds committed upon the settlers in the northern part of the State. The settlers fled for safety. Some went to the fort, others ran hither and thither they knew not where. One very large fleshy woman mounted a horse and rode in the direction of the fort at full speed. She came to a ditch about ten feet wide and as many feet deep; the horse halted, but she urged him to jump, which he did at great peril, but fortunately landed safely on the opposite side. After the people had become quite exhausted with running they learned that no Indians were near, but that the yells came from the child because his father was chastising it.