HISTORY of PUTNAM COUNTY from its EARLIEST SETTLEMENT to the YEAR 1876

The following history of Putnam County was prepared by Rev. H. V. Warren of Granville and read by him at the centennial celebration at Hennepin, July 4, 1876.


Reason For Writing				Survey of Hennepin
Authorities					Granville [First Settler]
Illinois in 1825				Magnolia
Survey of the Military Tract			Union Grove
						Senechawine
Organization of Counties			Florid
	Boundaries				
	First County Commisioner		Black Hawk War
	Location of County				Alarm	
	First Election					Call for Volunteers
	Judicial District				Death of Phillips
	First Circuit Court				End of War
	Grand Jurors					
	Petit Jurors				Education	
	First Courthouse				First Lady Teacher
	First Members of the Bar			Granville Academy
	First County Commisioner's Court		Mt. Palatine
	First Tax					Buel Institute
	Division of County into 4 Districts		REsult of Granville Convention
	First Jail					
	First Probate Court			Religion
	Division of County				First Meetings
							First Sermon
Hennepin Prarie
	First Trading House			First Newpaper
	Indian Remains				Patriotism
	Buffalo Herds				Atesian Well
	First Settlers				Pursuits of People
	First Store				Characteristics of the People
				Thanksgiving

REASONS FOR WRITING

Whereas Ulyses S. Grant, President of the U.S. and J.L. Beveridge, Governor of the State of Illinois, having recommended that the people of the several counties and towns of the State and Nation, cause a history of their respective localities to be prepared and read on the 100th ann iversary of our National Independence and the method of observing the day, being in our view, eminently appropriate: Therefore we citizens of Putnam County have procured the preparation of this History of Our County

AUTHORITIES

The sources whence this history is derived: First and chiefly, the testimony of living witnesses who participated in the events described, original records, written narratives submitted to the historian by their authors or custodians and Ford's History of Putnam and Marshall Counties published in 1860 at Lacon, Illinois.

ILLINOIS in 1825

In the year 1825, Illinois contained a population of less than 100,000, located almost wholly in the southern portion. The northern part, embracing from one-half to two-thirds of its area, was a vast wilderness, its only population the roaming Winnebago, Potawatomie and other tribes of Indians, its only arts those of hunting and savage war, its only trade, the barter of hatchets and trinkets for skins by French adventurers.

The lead mines in the extreme northwestern corner had attracted a few miners and Chicago was an insignificant village of less than twenty houses and not over seventy-five inhabitants on what was then known as Chicago Creek.

SURVEY of the MILITARY TRACT

Ten years before this date, 1815, Congress had ordered the survey of the "Military Bounty Land Tract," located between the Illinois and the Mississippi Rivers, extending due North 169 miles from the mouth of the Illinois to its great bend below Peru, then west to the Mississippi.

This tract contained 5,360,000 acres of which 3,500,000 were appropriated to soldiers bounties thereby attracting a rapid immigration to this part of the state.

ORGANIZATION of COUNTIES

As the population increased, county organizations became necessary and were furnished by legislative authority. Twelve counties were formed during the first five years after the admission of the state to the Union in 1818.

On January 13, 1825, an act was passed which provided for the formation of eight counties bearing the names of Schuyler, Adams, Hancock, Warren, Mercer. Henry Knox and Putnam, bright names all in the annals of revolutionary fame.

BOUNDARIES

By this act, the boundaries of Putnam County extended from the northern limit of Peoria County along the Illinois and Kaskaskia Rivers to the Indiana line, Lake Shore and Wisconsin boundary to a point only thirty-five miles from the Mississippi and thence south 105 miles to the Peoria County line, including nearly 11,000 sq. mi., or the greater part of 24 counties as now organized. Chicago was the only village in Putnam County.

In 1830, five years from the passage of this act, Peoria and Putnam Counties contained but 1310 white inhabitants of which number it was estimated that 700 only were within the wide limits of Putnam County.

So great an area with so sparse a population rendered a reorganization necessary, hence at the Legislative Session of 1830-1831. An act was passed whereby Cook and LaSalle Counties and a new Putnam were created.

By this act the boundaries of Putnam were defined as beginning at the Southwest corner of town twelve, range six east, running east, to the Illinois River, thence down the middle of said river to the south line of town twenty-nine north, thence east with said line to the third principal meridian,thence north with said meridian line 42 miles, thence west to a point 6 miles due nonh of the northwest corner of town seventeen of range six east, thence south in a right line to the place of beginning.

These boundaries included nearly all of what are now Bureau, Putnam, Marshall, and Stark Counties comprising 38 full and 13 fractional twp. or 1584 sq. ml.

FIRST COUNTY COMMISSIONERS

By the 1830-1831 act, Joel Wright of Canton, Issac Perkins of Tazewell County, and John Hamin of Peoria were appointed commissioners to select the county seat.

LOCATION of COUNTY

On the sixth of June they reported to the only Commission Court then in session, that they had permanently located the seat of Justice where it now is.

Naming it Hennepin in obedience to instructions thereby linking the name of one of the earliest French explorers with the goodly land whose wilds he was the first to penetrate.


FIRST ELECTION

The first election, as provided for by the act of legislature, was held at the house of William Haws, near Magnolia, on the first Monday in March ensuing for three County Commissioners, a Sheriff and Coroner. The day was so inclement and the state of the roads so bad as to permit the casting of but a single vote.

Thomas Hartzell and Thomas Gallaher served as Judges of the election and James W. Willis as Clerk.

The election resulted in the choice of Thomas Gallaher, George Ish, and John M. Gay, County Commissioners, Ira Ladd,Sheriff, and Aaron Pain, Coroner. James Willis was appointed County Treasurer in June giving a bond for $1,000. Hooper Warren held the office of Clerk of Circiut Court, Recorder and Clerk of the County Court. He was also Justice of Peace. Bradstreet M.Hays was the first Surveyor, appointed and Nathanial Chamberlain the first School Commissioner.

JUDICIAL DISTRICT

Putnam County had been assigned to the fifth judicial district which extended from the mouth of the Illinois to Chicago and Galena. Hon. Richard M. Young, was then upon the bench in this circuit and Thomas Ford was State's Attorney.

FIRST CIRCUIT COURT

The first Circuit Court in Putnam was held at the house of Thomas Gallaher, on the bank of the Illinois River, about one-fourth of a mile above Thomas Hartzell's Trading House, north of Hennepin in May 1831. The place of convening was an old blacksmith's shop that had
been used as a stable, which was cleansed and fitted up for the occasion.

GRAND JURORS

The grand jurors for the term were David Dimmick, Elijah Epperson, Henry Thomas, Leonard Roth, Jesse Williams, Isreal Archer, James Warnock, John L. Ramsey, William Haws. John Strawn, Samuel Laughlin (foreman), David Boyle, Stephen Willis, Jeremiah Strawn, Abraham Stratten, Nelson Shepherd, Thomas Wajer, George Willis, John Knox, ?? Humphrey, Jesse Roberts, ?? Gaylord, of whom one still lives, Nelson Shepherd.

PETIT JURORS

The Petit Jurors were Sylvester Brigham, William Boyd, Hugh Warnock, William Ham, Lewis Knox, Samuel Patterson, Joseph Ash, James Laughlin, Christopher Wagnor, Joseph Wallace, John Whitaker, William Cowen, William Wright, Asahel Hannum, Anthony Turk, John Burrow, John Myers, Ezekiel Thomas, Eli Redmon, Mason Wilson, Smiley Shepherd Justin Ament, William Morris, one of whom, Smiley Shepherd still lives.

At this term of Circuit Court, the grand jury held its sessions upon a log under the shade of a tree. The only indictments found, were against certain parties charged with bigamy, "A Grave Offense," a chronicler remarks, "in the eyes of the jury composed almost wholly of bachelors." One of whom declared "A man ought to be indicted for having two wives when most of them had not been able to get one."

No business came before the court at that term. It lasted but one day and adjourned to the September term, which was held in a house owned by George B. Willis, opposite the mouth of Bureau Creek.

FIRST COURTHOUSE

The first courthouse was a large building of wood erected in 1833 which continued in use until 1838, when the present building was constructed at an outlay of fourteen thousand dollars, its cost being greatly enhanced by the monetary convulsions of that day.

FIRST MEMBERS of the BAR

In connection with the early legal proceedings of this county, the old settlers remember Judge David Davis, now of the Supreme Court of the U.S., who often rode on horseback from Bloomington, to attend court at Hennepin, receiving as his fee the sum of five dollars. Judge B. Caton also come from Chicago on a Indian Pony, and Judge B. R. Sheldon, now  one of the judges of the Supreme Court of Illinois, and Thomas Atwater were among those who in like manner participated in the first administration of Justice and Law.

FIRST COUNTY COMMISSIONER'S COURT

The first county commissioner's court was held in the house of Thomas Hartzell on the 9th of April,1831. At the June term viewers were appointed to mark a road from Hennepin to the county line of Tazewell in the direction of what is now Washington in that County.

FIRST TAX

A tax of 1/2 per cent was levied on all personal property for the current year for county expenses. The first tax of one citizen was 37 cents-- his last in 1875 was over $300. Either taxation has increased enormously or he is richer that he was, perhaps both are true.

DIVISION of the COUNTY into FOUR PRECINCTS

At this term of Court, the County was divided into four precincts for the election of County officers viz: Sandy Precinct, Hennepin Precinct, Spoon River Precinct, and Bureau Precinct.

The following is an abstract of the votes for representative to the Congress of the U.S. given in the several precincts in Putnam County, Illihois on Monday, the first day of August, 1831, as returned to the Clerk of the County Commissioners Court by the Judges and Clerks of Election in the respective precincts.

In Hennepin precinct, Joseph Duncan had 18 votes, Sydney Breese 14 votes, Edward Coles-6 votes. In Sandy precinct, Ex. Gov. Coles-26 votes, Joseph Duncan-13 votes, Sydney Breese-2 votes.

In Bureau precinct Joseph Duncan-10 votes, Edward Pool-6 votes. James Turney-2 votes, Sidney Breese-1 vote.

In Spoon River Precinct, Joseph Duncan-10, Sidney Breese- 4.

FIRST JAIL

In December, 1831, two of the Commissioners were authorized to contract for the building of a jail 12 ft. sq. and seven feet high in the clear, with a window a foot square to be constructed, walls, upper and lower floors, wholly of hewn logs. The first prisoner in this structure made his escape, he being assisted by friends outside who removed one of the Jogs. This log jail, which cost $80 gave place in 1833 to a larger one cost ing $334 which was pulled down when the present building was erected.

FIRST PROBATE COURT

The first Probate Court was held in August, 1831. Colby T. Stevenson being Probate Judge. The next term was held in March, 1833, John P. Blake filling the position of Probate Judge in which office he continued several years.

DIVISION of COUNTY

As the population of Putnam increased and new centers of influence were formed, movements were made toward a division of the county. In the winter of 1836-1837, Bureau was set off and in January, 1839, Marshall was carried from our southern half, while in March of the latter year, Stark was formed of the part remaining west of Marshall, thus reducing Putnam from one of the largest to one of the smallest Counties of the State with an area of 4 townships and some fractions embracing 160 sq. mi. This is the Putnam County of today, comprising the townships of Hennepin, Granville, Magnolia and Senachwine as organized under the township law in 1855.

HENNEPIN PRARIE

On the eastern side of the great bend in the Illinois, where it changes from a Western to a Southern course, lies a beautiful expanse of rolling land, several miles in extent, bounded on the west by the river and on the east by the thickly wooded bluff, and now known as Hennepin Prairie.  At a point on this Prarie, opposite the upper end of the island in the river, was erected the first building in this region by other than Indian hands.

FIRST TRADING HOUSE

It was a Trading House built in 1817, and first occupied by one Beaubein, a Frenchman in the employ of the American Fur Company.

In the year 1818 Gordon S. Hubbard, then 16 years of age, was employed by this trader as his clerk. Beaubein, being unable to read or write, besides suffering further incapacity from age and sickness. Mr. Hubbard still lives his residence being at Chicago and gives by letter many interesting particulars of the time and place. He says:' 'Thomas Hartzell, who was a Pennsylvanian by birth, was at that time trading in the river below, in opposition to the American Fur Company. In 1824 or 1825 he succeeded Beaubein in the employment of the Company. There was a house just below, across the ravine, built by Antonie Bourbouvis, also an opposition trader, but who like Hartzell went into the employ of the American Fur Company under a yearly salary. My trading post, after leaving Beaubein, was at the mouth of Crooked Creek, till 1826, when I located on the Iroquois River still in the employ of the Company and so continued till 1830, when I bought them out.

This last time I visited the place where the old trading house stood, the chimney was almost wholly of clay, upon a frame-work of wood being supported by stakes stuck firmly in the ground, the whole daubed in side and out with clay mortar. The hearth was of dry clay pounded hard. It was the custom to keep rousin~ fires and this soon baked and hardened the chimney and gave it durability. The roof was made of puncheons. The cracks well daubed with clay and then long grass laid on top and kept in place by logs of small size. The sides ofthe house con sisted of logs laid one on top of another, about seven feet high, the ends of the logs kept in place by a post sunk in the ground. The ends were sap ling logs set in the ground upright to the roof. A rough door at one end and a window composed of one sheet of fools cap paper, well greased, completed the building. It was warm and comfortable and under its roof, many an Indian was hospitably entertained."

A.T Purviance Esq. to whom the letter so widely quoted is addressed has identified the site of this historical structure at a point a short dis tance north of his residence, and marked the spot with a boulder bearing the inscription.

INDIAN REMAINS

Evidence of former Indian occupation still remains in the corn holes. or pits for the storing of grain. which are visible in 1876, while a point on the river bank,(the present site of Leech's Warehouse,) is identified as an Indian burying ground.

BUFFALO HERDS

Thirty years before this, the buffalo was very abundant on both sides of the Illinois. Passing boats on the river were often delayed for hours by vast herds crossing from side to side. among which it was dangerous to venture. Indian tradition accounts for their disappearance in conse quence of snow to an extra ordinary depth. Deprived of sustenance, the herds perished. The fact that the first settlers found patches of prairie white with buffalo bones, and also the bones of deer and elk, tends to corroborate the tradition.

The tradition receives further confirmation from notices of damage sustained at the French settlement at St. Louis, from unpreedented floods caused by the sudden melting of the vast body of snow. According to Indian authority, the bottoms, from bluff to bluff, were one broad ex panse of water. Since the occupation of the country by white men, no Buffalo have been seen east of the Illinois.

FIRST SETTLERS

In addition to the traders mentioned, permanent settlers had located in the vicinity of Hennepin as early as 1828, in which year Smiley Shepherd arrived, and a year later brought his wife Mrs. Catherine Shepherd, who was the first white woman to set foot on Hennepin Prairie, which she did, June 1829.  Their son, Augustus Shepherd, was born February 7, 1830, being the first white child born in Hennepin Township.  Patterson and Nathan Skeel were also among the first on the ground.  The following summer, that of 1830, witnessed the appearance of six steamboats on the Illinois.

FIRST STORE

In 1831, James and Williamson Durley rented a cabin of George Willis on the Illinois River, one mile above Hennepin, and opened a store, the first business house to suceed the system of barter carried on by the American Fur Company, and other adventurers, whose transactions were wholly with the Indian tribes.

SURVEY of HENNEPIN

It appears from the records that Hennepin was surveyed in the fall of 1831, twelve blocks being laid off, while portions were reserved for the public buildings and a center square. Lots were offered for sale in September of the same year, the first of Front Street being bid off by James and Williamson Durley at $60, the highest lot sold, where they built and opened their store in November of that year. William M. Stewart and James Dunlavy built the first house in Hennepin.

Other buildings went up, mostly of logs, and generally small, and the county seat of Putnam was fairly begun. The population of Hennepin in 1875 was 2,144.

GRANVILLE, [FIRST SETTLER]

Granville was so called from the town of that name in Massachusetts, from which its first settler, Mr. Thomas Ware, came. The survey of the place was made in April 1836, Felix Margrave being the proprietor. Lots were sold, and the same year Mr. Ware and Jas. Laughlin built the first house in the town. James and Hugh Warnock, Roswell Blanchard, a Mr. Christwell, and George Ish, were the earliest settlers in this vicinity, the latter having located in 1829.


The situation of Granville was very attractive, being on the rolling prairie land, bordering the belt of timber that skirts the Illinois on the north and west of the town, and the vast expanse that stretches way to the east and south beyond the reach of sight. Being a magnificent farming region, the land was soon occupied, and the village enjoyed a healthy growth. Provision was made for education, and churches were founded


On the 17th of March 1859, the town was incorporated, its limits, originally forty acres, being at the same time extended so as to include an entire section. Population in 1875, 1668.

MAGNOLIA

Magnolia, called after the well known tree of that name, was explored as early as 1826, by William Haws, James W. Willis, and Stephen D. Willis, who made claims in that locality. It was at the house of Mr. Haws that the Commissioners met to locate the county seat of Putnam County. John Knox and Aaron Payne were the earliest settlers, the former locating at Magnolia in 1827, making that place the first settled in the present Putnam County. The rich rolling farming lands were soon taken up and the population of village and county around rapidly increased. Schools and churchs were founded. In 1859, the village was incorporated,population in 1875,1667.

UNION GROVE

Union Grove possessed rare attractions to the seeker of a western home An outlook over green swells and gentle depressions, more beautiful that the prairie's dead level, shaded by charming groves of oak, bounded by thick timber on the west and the boundless grassy plain on the east, could not fail to win recognition as a spot of rare promise.  Stephen D. Willis and Thomas Gallaher were its first settlers and here the first church in this region was formed which became the religious center of the surrounding settlement.

SENACHAWINE

Senachawine received its name from an Indian chief whose home and hunting grounds were in that township, on a stream also bearing his name. He was buried on a hilly point that goes out into the valley com manding a view of the scene of his earthly career. The town originated from a station on the Peoria and Bureau Valley Railroad. Upon the opening of that road the place was laid out, stores, shops and dwellings were erected, schools and churches followed, and it bids fair to become an important point, it being the only railroad station at this date in the limits of Putnam County. John and Curtis Williams and James R Taliferro were the first settlers. Population in 1875, 801.

FLORID

The town of Florid originated through the agency of Wm. Stewart and Aron Thompson, in 1835. In its early history, its future appeared promising, but it has since fallen into decay. Several shops, stores, churches, a school house and post office, grouped among a cluster of dwellings, the whole surrounded by invit ing farms is all that comprises the Florid of today.

BLACK HAWK WAR

These early settlements met with a serious check, and were subjected to great inconvenience and loss by the war. The lands on Rock River and elsewhere had been ceded to the general government by treaty in 1804, at St. Louis, a treaty twice ratified subsequently. Black Hawk, a brave and powerful chief, was dissatisfied, charging that the treaty was a fraud, and in the spring of 1831 crossed the Mississippi to repossess and maintain his hold on his old hunting grounds. In the following year, 1832, the conflict came on. The settlers were driven away, their stock was killed and stolen and their improvements were destroyed.

ALARM

The alarm spread, homes were abandonded, the plow was left in the furrow, all kinds of property was foresaken, the people fleeing from the murderous rifle and tomahawk. All the inhabitants on the west side of the Illinois crossed over to the east side where they fixed the frontier and made a stand.

CALL for VOLUNTEERS

Runners were sent in all directions calling for volunteers for the defense, Hennepin was the place of rendezvous for the Putnam County Rangers, where fifteen hundred men were organized and from which point they took field.

To provide for the defense of the non-combatants, block houses were built of thick timbers provided with loop holes through which to fire on an attacking enemy, and into these defenses the women and children were gathered. One was erected on the east side of Front Street in Hennepin, the timbers of Hartzell's trading house being used in its construction.

Fort Cribs was near Florid on the farm now owned and occupied by Mr. Shering. (Sec. 19,32 north, 1 west.) Some of its old timbers still remain in the barn which occupies its site. It took its name from the corn cribs which it enclosed.

Warnocks Block House was on land now owned by James Moore (E. ¼ N.E. ¼ Sec. 8) near Granville. At Caledonia also, and other places, houses were fortified for the protection of groups of families more remote from the thicker settlements.

SHAB-BA-NEE

In these times of alarm and danger Shab-ba-nee, a friendly Indian Chief secured the lasting gratitude of the white settlers by giving timely warning of the approach of war parties on their errand of death. Some of the settlers were over board and incredulous, and were almost driven from their exposed position by this faithful man. May the name of Shab-ba-nee be held in greatful rememberence.

DEATH of PHILLIPS

A party of men going from Hennepin to Dover, 16 miles distant, to secure their cattle were followed and watched all night by Indians, and in the morning one man named Phillips was shot as he came out of the cabin in which they had passed the night. The Indians then fled, a boy named Dimmick rode to Hennepin and gave the alarm. It was the day of the disbanding of the rangers, many of whom were there. About thirty of them, as many as could be gotten over the river in time, responded and hastened to Dover where they found the body of Phillips lying as he fell, and his companions still in the cabin. The Indians were followed but not overtaken. The company returned to Hennepin, bearing the remains of the unfortunate man, and Thomas Hartzell, J. S. Simpson, H. K. Zenor,and Williamson Durley, selected a burying place and assisted in burying the only man who fell by Indian hands within the limits of Putnam County, and the first to fill a grave in the burying ground of Hennepin.

END of WAR

Black Hawk met his final overthrow in July, 1832, and from that time the Indian war cry disturbed no more the growing settlements of the frontier. The people returned to their deserted homes, the weapons of war were laid aside for the implements of peaceful industry, and the work of subduing the wilderness went on.

EDUCATION

In the earliest days the people of Putnam were so widely separated that the maintainance of schools was difficult, yet education received early attention. In the winter of 1830-1, George H. Shaw taught a school in a log house in the timber near Magnolia. The accommodations were very rude. The fireplace occupied one entire end of the room. Writing desks were made by placing puncheons on pins driven into the wall. Windows were of cloth or oiled paper. "The teacher made his own fires, swept his house, pounded corn for his own bread and taught all day."

As no school laws existed the getting up of a school was wholly voluntary, a man who desired to teach went around with a subscription paper to get signed, each one agreeing to pay a certain sum for each scholar sent for the specified time, and the test of the man's fitness to teach was his ability to write his own subscription paper.

FIRST LADY TEACHER

In the year of 1830 Mrs. Ramsey taught in the log church at Union Grove, she being the first lady teacher employed in Putnam county.

GRANVILLE ACADEMY

At Granville, in the year 1836, steps were taken towards establishing an Academy. A building costing two thousand dollars, the money being obtained by voluntary subscription, was erected in that and the following year. Rev. Otis Fisher was the first teacher, which position he occupied five years. In consequence of a lack of support this institution was soon made a public school, still retaining its high reputation.

In its earliest days students were attracted from the towns on Rock and Fox Rivers from Lacon and Chicago to enjoy its advantages. Among those who pursued their studies here may be named L. L. Beveridge, Governor of Illinois, Revs. Daniel Whitaker and Thomas Allen, both missionaries to Burma; Rev. Charles Button, chaplain of a regiment of Illinois volunteers and Judge John Burnes and Berton C. Cook.

MT. PALATINE

Mt. Palatine gave early promise of being a center of learning. Eighty acres of land were given by Christopher Winters, in 1839, to found an Academy. Upon a part of this land the village of Mt. Palatine was located. Lots were so sold and the town had a promising growth.

A building costing three thousand dollars was erected in 1845-6, and the school, an enterprise of the Bapitist Denomination, opened in December of the latter year. In the winter of 1850-1 a charter granting collegiate privileges, was obtained, at which time the institution took the name ofjudson College. It soon met with difficulties, a fate common to new enterprises, particularly at the west, and was sold to satisfy pecuniary demands. From that time it has been owned by the Catholics.

A people so imbued with educational aspirations, would be sure to take advantage of any privileges or powers which the law might give them for the furtherance of their desires. Hence the general school law of the state was quickly applied to the educational problem in Putnam county, and as a result of its workings the county Superintendent reports for the year 1875, the enrollment of 1796 children between the ages of 7 and 21. Of these 1424 are reported at attendants at school. The county contains 34 school districts and the same number of school houses and schools, of which three are graded. The average wages paid to teachers per month was $43.80 the number of months taught in each district 6 3/4;. The total school fund derived from taxation and all other sources was $22,265.79, and the expenditures$17,339.26.

BUEL INSTITUTE

For the purpose of fostering Agriculture, Buel Institute was organized in 1846, thirty years ago. This is the oldest Agricultural organization in the state that has continued its operations from the date of its origin, of ten holding annual fairs in various localities. A permanent location was secured at Hennepin in 1867, by the purchase of nineteen acres of land situated on the bank of the Illinois, extending to the water's edge, and beautifully shaded by a young growth of forest trees, most admirably adapted in every way to the desired purpose. These grounds have been fitted up in the most attractive manner, every year adding some new im provement and furnishing annually fine exhibitions of the products of our firms and homes. The present value of these grounds is $3,000.

The leading minds in this organization, set in operation the train of causes which produced the system of Agricultural colleges throughout the United States.  By investigation of Ralph Ware, Leonard Bullock, and others, Prof. J. B. Turner delivered an address at Granville, in November 1851, in the interest of Agriculture and labor, a convention for the consideration of those matters being then and there assembled.

Sixteen years later, at the inauguration of John M. Gregory, Regent of Illinois Industrial University, Champaign,  March 11, 1868, Dr. Newton Bateman twice referred to that convention using in the latter instance this language. "I observe that the first tangible result of the wide spread and extraordinary agitation of the subject of industrial university education, which began with the Granville convention of 1851, and soon pervaded the whole state - was a memorial to the General Assembly of Illinois, praying that body to invoke the powerful aid and resources of the National Government itself in furtherance of the object." (First an rep. of the Ills. Indus. Univ. 1868. Page 158-9.)

RESULT OF THE GRANVILLE CONVENTION

It will be seen therefor that the seed-thought of these great agricultur al institutions germinated in Granville, in the minds of the founders of Buel Institute, and the great thought which then sprang to life is des ined to a wider realm than ever our own broad land, for at this writing commissioners, having examined the Agricultural instiution at Amherst, Mass. are on their way to Japan for the purpose of introducing the same system into that distant empire.

We cannot fail to notice the early efforts of the founders of civilization in our bounds to secure the well being of society by means of a knowledge of and obedience to the word of God. As early as 1829, forty-seven years ago, the Putnam County Bible Society was formed at the log church, at Union Grove, from which date it has continued in active service. At a meeting held January 24, 1830, the bounds of the Society were thus defined: "on the east the Grand Prairie, on the north the Big Vermillion, on the west the Illinois river, on the south the northern limits of Tazewell county." At the same meeting it was resolved "to supply the destitute within our bounds (with Bibles) as soon as practicable.'' A depository of Bibles was established, the field divided into smaller districts, and the proposed work done.

One of the most energetic and perserving of these men was Stephen Willis, who alone canvassed Putnam county on horseback, with saddle bags filled with Bibles and Testaments. After some years, failing health induced him to remove to Oregon, where he still lives.Many times since the field has been canvassed, and the needy supplied, those who are able to pay, buying Bibles and those who are not receiving them without money and without pnce.

An aggregate of over six thousand dollars has been raised for this work, one-half of which has been donated to the American Bible Society, New York, for the general work in our own and other lands, and the remainder has been expended on the home field.  From the first the Bible was read in all out public schools, and appealed to as the standard of religious truth and moral duty.

RELIGION

The religious character of the people of Putnam county has been marked from the beginning. Mr. William Haws states that as early as 1823, a Mr. Walker established a mission among the Indians at Ottawa, the influence of which long remained among the natives. It may have been a result of his efforts that SHICK-SHACK became a Christian. This Indian Chief lived near the mouth of Clear Creek, in Putnam county, and gave evidence of a ready susceptibility to Christian culture. He engaged a white settler to break up his ground for cultivation, in advance of the rude style of savage life. Though unable to read, he had a good knowl edge of the Bible, obtained by listening to its reading in the cabins of the white men. He often visited the Indian villages in order to communicate to his red brethern the gospel truths which he had received. On the Vermillion, the scene of frequent visits, he reported "plenty good Indian''. He suddenly left his early home, following the retreating tribes and was no more seen in his accustomed hunts. He was highly esteemed by his white neighbors.

It is a gratifying thought that the relation of the pioneers to the Red Men was not wholly that of antagonism. Occasionally the unity of human brotherhood found expression in a fellowship in Christ to which the barbarian was as senstitive as the more favored white man.

FIRST MEETINGS

As regards religion among the new settlers, Smiley Shepherd says: "Religious meetings have been held regularly since I have been in the country, that is since 1828."  

Alexander Holbrook, who came in 1827 says: "We went to meeting and had good meetings, which we all enjoyed because there was union and we loved one another."

FIRST SERMON

The first sermon preached in Magnolia, and probably in the county, was by Father Walker, in September 1820, Jesse Hale was the first Methodist Episcopal preacher to preach in Hennepin, he having addressed the people there in the winter of 1832-3. Elias Thompson is also remembered as a pioneer exhorter.

As population increased churches were formed according to the needs or preferences of the people. The Presbyterian church of Union Grove was formed in 1830, the Methodist Episcopal church of Hennepin in 1833, the Baptist church of Caledonia in 1836, the Baptist Church of Granville in 1837, the Friends Meeting of McNabb in 1837, the Presbyterian Church of Granville in 1839, the Catholic Church of Hennepin in 1851, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Clear Creek in 1854, the Protestant Methodist Church (German) of Granville in 1867. Congregational Church of Mt. Palatine 1869. Congregational Church of Hennepin in 1874.

There is also a Christian and a Methodist Church at Senachwine, two churches at Florid, and a Catholic Church at Hennepin, formed in 1851. The Society of Friends held their first meeting in the year 1837 and in year 1841 established a monthly meeting, making sixteen church organ izations in the county, at this date.

FIRST NEWSPAPER

The first newspaper published in Putnam county was "The Hennepin Journal," by Dr. Wilson Everett, from 1837 to 1839. "The Genius of Universal Emancipation" was published at the same place by Warren and Eastman, edited by Benjamin Lundy in 1842. This was followed by "The Hennepin Herald," Philip Lynch, from 1845 to 1848. Then came "The Hennepin Tribune," Burney and Duncan, from 1856 to 1859. "The Putnam County Standard," J. F. Grable, Dr. Thomas Stanton editor, 1860. "The Putnam Standard," W.H.G. Burney, 1861, and by Jerry S. Grable in 1863, and "The Putnam Record" by I. H. Cook, 1868, which still lives to record the proceedings of this day, having shown a vitality far more tenacious than any of its predecessors.

Besides these home enterprises, the plan that finally resulted in the starting at Chicago ''The Herald of the Prairie," afterward ''Prairie Herald," later and better known as the "Western Citizen," was first discussed and settled by Zabina Eastman, Hooper Warren, and James G. Dunlavy, in the log cabin of the latter at Union Grove. This was before 1844. It appears from the facts here gathered that from 1837 to 1876 inclusive a paper has been sustained eighteen out of thirty-nine years.

The changes that have come over Putnam in that time, the cruel despoiling of her territory which she has suffered, and the springing up of rival centers of influence, have been disastrous to newspaper men. It is not easy to estimate the amount of faith, energy, labor, study and capital expended on these ventures which we may judge paid so poorly on the investment. Patriotic home feeling ought to give such a support to a county paper as to enable it not only to survive, but be a vigorous gatherer, recorder and preserver of the facts that express our historic life.

PATRIOTISM

The Patriotism of our county has never been appealed to without meeting a worthy response. Many of the pioneers were men who had participated in the dangers and privations of the war of 1812. In the Black Hawk troubles they rushed to the defense almost to a man. In the great rebellion that shook the nation in the closing years of the century, with convulsions as terrible as those through which it passed at the be ginning, the records show that seven hundred and seven men responded to their country's call. The population of Putnam county in 1860 was five thousand, five hundred and seventy-nine, showing that one man to every 788 of the population entered the field. A portion of these veterans re-enlisted and so twice counted, but they are offset by an equal number who joined regiments recruited in other counties, to which counties they were credited. The tattered remains of the flag carried to the field by Co. E 4th Illinois Cavalry, now hangs in the Court House - the only flag brought home by the Regiment.

ARTESIAN WELL

The artesian well, an enterprise not yet appreciated as its importance demands, but surely destined to a better recognition, deserves mention here. While the work was prosecuted by the corporation of Hennepin at a cost of $2500, its existence is mainly due to the persistent energy of Jefferson Durley, who, more than any other man foresaw its value and believed in its practicability. The work was begun in September 1875 and finished after three months labor, it being interrupted by delays and accidents incident to such undertakings. The drill passed through the following strata: soil three feet, conglomerate 70 feet, fine sand 42 feet, coarse gravel 1 foot, blue clay 62 feet, soapstone 185 feet, limestone 440 feet, total 800 feet.

Specimens of these strata have been carefully preserved in the order in which they were taken from the well, with their respective thicknesses marked, by A. T. Purviance, Esq. at his office in the Court House, where they will be an interesting study to the geologist. At a depth of 230 feet water flowed at the rate of 5 gallons per minute, at 555 feet the flow in creased to 15 gallons per minute, at 765 feet the flow was 30 gallons, and at 800 it rushed up at the rate of 80 gallons showing as yet no sign of variation. The water rose 65 feet in a pipe affixed perpendicularly to the tubing, and ran over. It is slightly impregnated with lime and mineral substances and is considered by some medicinal in effect.

PURSUITS OF PEOPLE

The people of Putnam county have been almost exclusively devoted to agricultural pursuits from the beginning, few manufacturers having obtained foothold among them except such as local wants require. Shops for blacksmithing, wagon and harness making. carpenter, joiner and cabinet work, coppering, tin and sheet iron work, shoe making and tailoring, manned by skillful workmen, are conveniently distributed throughout the county. Nurseries of fruit bearing and ornamental shrubs and trees are carried on at Florid. Flouring mills exist in sufficient capa city for the demand. The staple productions of the country are from the farm, consisting of horse, cattle,sheep, hogs, and grain.

Since the first planting of corn by William Haws at Magnolia, in the year 1826, 26163 acres of land have been brought under cultivation. Of this area 3086 acres were last year in wheat, 7047 acres in corn, 6496 acres in oats, 7656 acres in meadow, and 1877 acres in other farm products. In addition to this 1175 acres were in orcharding, leaving 28932 acres still occupied by timber. Of very many of our farm houses it may be said: Homes of greater comfort or containing more bountiful supplies of all the products of a prolific soil and genial climate need not be desired. The tendency toward order, neatness, and ornamentation noticeable among our farmers, augurs well for the future of intelligent, happy and prosperous people.

These are such historic notes as we have been able to gather concern ing the formative period of our existence. The men who were the actors, their plans and purposes respecting themselves and their posterity, the scene of their activities and the circumstances of their day must ever been interesting study to those who come after us, and all the more as these events recede in the distant visits of time.

We pass no sentence of approval or disapproval upon their doings, and pronounce no eulogies upon their names or characters at this early date. We simply set down the things that were done, our object being to preserve the germs of a christian civilization as here planted, and observed in their first upspringing for use in times when the beginnings of things shall more than now engage the attention of the student, the statesman, the philosopher and the christian.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PEOPLE

A people characterized by an adventurous enterprise that chose its field of action on the uncertain frontier, a spirit of endurance that could court the self-denials of pioneer life, at the same time not contented with barberism but a spring to the ripe attainments of ancient communities; these qualities, joined with patriotism and valor in danger's hour, with patient labor in developing the resources of nature; with social instincts taking shape in well organized society founded upon intelligence and morality; the whole molded and directed by a religious life drawn from and conformed to the word of God; surely concerning such a people we need have no solicitude. The considerate judgment of the future in their case we can safely trust.

May coming years witness the development of industrial, intellectual and religious life from these beginnings, on a scale in worthy keeping with the inexhaustible resources of this favored land, the boundless realms of knowledge so free of access and the purity and granduer of character attainable by men transformed and guided by the word and spirit of God.

THANKSGIVING

We placed on record our devout thankfulness for our God, our fathers God, the God of the Bible for the manifold and bounding blessings we enjoy today; for a fertile land, fruitful in all that necessity can demand or luxury enjoy; for a climate stimulating and healthful to all who obey its behests; for a government the freest on earth, with the lightest burdens of society, peaceful, law-abiding, and secure; for intelligence diffused through schools, open to the humblest child; for religious freedom, per mitting every faith unconstrained development, and we rejoice to utter it, a good hope in the stability and perpetuity of our institutions, sub stantially as planted by the fathers, until coming centennials shall usher in a day of rejoicing over results before which the glories of the present shall be only as day-break compared with noon-day.

Standing as we are now, on the dividing line which separates a century past from a century to come of our nation's history, we are impelled by our own profoundest convictions to repeat as our own the words of President Grant to the youth of our land this centennial year. To all who inherit us we say: "Hold fast to the Bible as to the sheet anchor of your liberties; write its precepts in your heart and practice them in your lives. To the influence of this book we are indebted for all the progress we have made in true civilization and to this we must look as our guide in the future." Righteousness exalteth a nation but sin is a reproach to any people."

To the living care and tender mercy of our God we commit ourselves, our children and all who. succeed us to the end.

Done by: H. Vallette Warren,
at the solicitation of the
Putnam County Centennial Committee,
July 4, 1876 and of the
Independence of the United States of America
the One Hundredth


SURNAME INDEX

Rev. Thomas Allen	Justin Ament		Isreal Archer		

Joseph Ash		Thomas Atwater		??Beaubein

Gov. L.L. Beveridge	John P. Blake		Roswell Blanchard

Antonie Bourbouvis	William Boyd		David Boyle

Sidney Breeze		Sylvester Brigham	Leonard Bullock

W.H.G. Burney		Judge John Burns	John Burrow

Rev. Charles Button	Judge B. Caton		Mr. Christwell

Edward Coles		Berton C. Cook		I.H. Cook

William Cowen		Judge David Davis	David Dimmick

Joseph Duncan		James Dunlavy		James Durley

Williamson Durley	Zabina Eastman		Elijah Epperson

Dr. Wilson Everett	Rev. Otis Fisher	Thomas Ford

Thomas Gallaher		John M. Gay		J.F. Grable

Jerry S. Grable		Jesse Hale		William Ham

John Hamin		Asahel Hannum		Thomas Hartzell

William Haws		Bradstreet M. Hays	Alexander Holbrook

Gordon S. Hubbard	George Ish		John Knox

Lewis Knox		James Laughlin		Ira Ladd

Benjamin Lundy		Philip Lynch		Felix Margrave

James Moore		William Morris		John Myers

Aaron Pain		Aaron Payne		Samuel Patterson

Sha-Ba-Nee		Isaac Perkins		??Phillips

Edward Pool		A.T. Purviance		Mrs. Ramsey

Eli Redmon		Jesse Roberts		Leonard Roth

George H. Shaw		Judge B.R.Sheldon	Augustus Shepherd

Mrs. Catherine Shepherd	Nelson Shepherd		Smiley Shepherd

Mr. Shering		Shick-Shack		J.S. Simpson

Nathan Skeel		Colby T. Stevenson	William M. Stewart

Dr. Thomas Stanton	Abraham Stratten	Jeremiah Strawn

James R. Taliferro	Ezekiel Thomas		Henry Thomas

Aaron Thompson		Elias Thompson		Anthony Turk

James Turney		Christopher Wagnor	Thomas Wajer

Father Walker		Mr. Walker		Joseph Wallace

Ralph Ware		Thomas Ware		Hugh Warnock

James Warnock		Hooper Warren		H. Vallette Warren

Rev. Daniel Whitaker	John Whitaker		Curtis Williams

Jesse Williams		John Williams		George Willis

George B. Willis	James Willis		James W. Willis

Stephen Willis		Stephen D. Willis	Mason Wilson

Christopher Winters	Joel Wright		William Wright

Richard M. Young	H.K.Zenor

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