Clatsop County Oregon Biographies

 

 



" A wide-awake, hard working and skillful farmer, William Hartill occupied a place of importance among the more intelligent and prosperous agriculturists of Clatsop county, his well appointed farm lying  about twelve miles south of Astoria, on the Lewis & Clark river. An able business man, noted for his integrity and upright dealings, he is held in high regard throughout the community, respected and esteemed by all.  A native of England, he was born September 5,1853, in Grantham, Lincolinshire, a son of William Hartill, Sr.
      William Hartill, Sr., was born in Stafford shire, England, in 1820, and is now a resident of Yorkshire, England, making his home with one of his daughters. He learned the trade of nail maker when young, and following it during his active career. His wife, whose maiden name was Caroline Falkner was born in Grantham, Lincolinshire, England, moved to Boston, Lincolinshire, after her marriage, going from there to Yorkshire, where she died at the age of fifty seven years.   Of their ten children, but three are now living, namely: Mary Jane, wife of Joseph Baldwin of Yorkshire, England; Helen, wife of John Long, also of Yorkshire; and William, the subject of this brief personal notice.
     The fourth child in order of birth of his parents, William Hartill acquired a common school education in his native town,. and as a youth worked for a short time in a woolen mill.  At the age of eighteen years he started in life for himself.  Crossing the broad Atlantic in a Boston-bound steamer, he subsequently located in Pennsylvania, near Pittsburgh, where he lived four years, being first employed on a farm and later in the coal mines.  Crossing the country by rail to the Pacific coast in 1875, he was engaged in coal mining in California for three years.  Coming to Clatsop County in 1878, Mr. Hartill located near Seaside, on the Neanicum river and three years later in 1880, bought his present farm of one hundred and sixty-one acres, on the Lewis & Clark river, south of Astoria, about twelve miles.  He has since labored with unremitting industry, adding the greater number of the improvements that have been made, having now one of the most attractive and desirable farming estates of the neighborhood.  He makes a specialty of dairying and cheese manufacturing, keeping about thirty-five cows and has built up a thriving and extensive business in this line.
     June 20, 1874, in Pittsburgh, PA., Mr. Hartill married Abigail Roberts who was born March 4, 1855, in Caerphilly, Wales, and came with her parents to Pennsylvania in 1873.  Seven children were born to their union, namely: Mary Ellen, wife of Benjamin S. Olson, of Bucoda, Wash.; George Robert, deceased; Caroline, Wife of John Tyberg, whose farm adjoins that of Mr. Hartill; William Charles;  George Edward; Philip, deceased; and Floratine A.  A stanch Republican in his political affiliations, Mr. Hartill evinces a warm interest in local affairs, and has served acceptably as school director, and as road supervisor.   Fraternally he is a member of Clamix Lodge No. 475, W.O.W., of Astoria, and Mrs. Hartill belongs to the circle."
     This article above is taken from the "Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon".  This was published in 1904 and was typed exactly as written.
 
 
" William Charles Hartill at the age of eighteen, departed Liverpool England  and arrived in Boston Massachusetts on April 11,1871, sailing on the H.M.S. Parthia. Owned by
 the Cunard Shipping Line."  Taken from Ancestry.com,Boston Passenger List,1820-1943.

Submitted by JackHarti @ aol.com
HON. FRANK CROSBY REED

The joint Senator from Clatsop, Columbia and Tillamook counties, was born in Woolwich, Maine, March 8, 1847, his early life being spent upon a farm, his only facilities for securing an education being such as were afforded by the common country schools of that early day and one term in the high school at Litchfield. He early imagined that he would adopt a seafaring life, but a trip from Boston to New Orleans and return satisfied him, and he abandoned the sea and commenced learning the carpenter's trade, and from 1867 to the spring of 1875 he applied himself to his trade, sandwiched with a job occasionally of fishing or log driving. In 1875 he was married to Miss Hattie E. Webb, at Woolwich, Maine, and soon afterwards started for Oregon, reaching Portland in April of that year. Spent the following summer among the canneries and took up their residence at Astoria in 1876. He secured an interest in the Fishermen's Cooperative Cannery, and in the fall of that year acted as their superintendent of construction. In 1877, when the fishing season set in, he was employed by the company as superintendent of the cannery, and held that position for three years. He had the misfortune to lose his wife in January, 1880. He was a candidate for joint Representative from Clatsop and Tillamook, but was defeated in the convention. After a short visit to the East in the spring of 1881, he built a new cannery under the firm name of C. Timmons & Co. Mr. Reed is a member of the A. F. and A. M., I. O. O. F., A. O. U. W. and K. of P., having attained places of distinction in each. He is a staunch Republican, an earnest worker in the legislative halls and alive to the interests of his constituents. He is a pleasant gentleman in social life and enjoys the confidence and esteem of all who know him.

Pen Pictures of Representative Men of Oregon
Frank E. Hodgkin & J. J. Galvin
Farmer and Dairyman Publishing House
1882
Transcribed by Ann Planca

HON. C. W. FULTON

An esteemed citizen of Astoria, and one of the most prominent young attorneys in the State, made his appearance on this mundane sphere August 24, 1853, at Linn, Ohio, where he remained until 1855, when with his parents he removed to Harrison county, Iowa, where his early boyhood was spent on a farm. In May, 1870, they moved to Pawnee County, Nebraska. His father served as Second Lieutenant in Co. A, Twenty-First Iowa Regiment. The subject of our sketch received a liberal education, attending the common schools in Iowa during the winter months of his residence there and the High School at Pawnee City for a couple of years. In 1873 he commenced the study of law in the office of Hon. A. H. Babcock, of Pawnee City, Nebraska, and was admitted to the bar in 1875. He started for Oregon the same year and landed in Portland nearly broke. Nothing daunted, however, he went to Albany, where he heard of a vacancy in a school near Waterloo, about eighteen miles distant. Mr. Fulton walked there, secured the school, walked back to Albany, passed his examination, secured his certificate and taught for one term at $40 per month and board around. He then went to Astoria and commenced the practice of law, where he has since resided, and has succeeded in building up a lucrative business. In 1878 he was elected State Senator and served his constituents and the State at large faithfully in that capacity for the term of four years. He is rather above average height, spare built, smooth face with the exception of a mustache, light hair and whiskers and a pleasant eye. He stands well in business, legal and social circles and has hosts of friends throughout the State. He is married and is said make a model husband.

Pen Pictures of Representative Men of Oregon
Frank E. Hodgkin & J. J. Galvin
Farmer and Dairyman Publishing House
1882
Transcribed by Ann Planca

HON. D. C. IRELAND

"In prosperity prepare for a change, in adversity hope for one." This is a favorite adage with him whose name heads this sketch, and we never see or hear it without having pleasant thoughts of him. He is a warm friend to those whom he likes, and will, as the saying is, "do to tie to." He was born in Rutland, Vermont, July 4, 1836, and with his parents moved to Indiana in the year 1840. They lived there a number of years and then moved to Michigan, Mr. Ireland commenced learning the printer's trade in the office of a newspaper published at Mishawaka, by Hon. Schuyler Colfax, afterwards Vice-President of the United States. He established the "Free Press" in that city in 1855, and shortly afterwards moved to Minnesota. In 1860 he was sent to Red River of the North by Burbank & Co., of St. Paul, Minn., with the machinery for the first steamboat ever built on that stream. In 1861 he was Clerk of the Semple Commission, appointed by Congress to settle troubles growing out of liquor selling and timber stealing on the various Indian reservations in Minnesota. From Minnesota he moved to Oregon an established the "Enterprise" at Oregon City in 1866, and for some time was the city editor of the “Daily Oregonian." In 1870 he was the local editor of the "Daily Bulletin," and remained on that paper until 1872, when he went to Astoria and started the "Daily Astorian," which he managed very successfully until 1881. He was for three years Mayor of that city, and made a host of warm, personal friends during his official career. He was elected one of the delegates to the National Republican Convention, which met at Chicago in 1880, and is at present the member from this State of the National Republican Committee. He disposed of his interest in the "Astorian" in 1881, and moved to Portland, where he is now engaged in the management of one of the best conducted job printing offices in this city, under the firm name of D. C. Ireland & Co. Mr. Ireland is an active, energetic business man, and is fast building up a trade that promises success and competency within a few years. As a writer, Mr. Ireland is forcible and accurate; as a reporter, he is considered one of the best in the State, “brevities " being his specialty, and as a printer, he is thoroughly competent. He is strong in his friendship and bitter in his animosities. Fearful lest some of our lady readers may become too much interested in him, we might add that he is a married man and the father of several bouncing girls and boys.

Pen Pictures of Representative Men of Oregon
Frank E. Hodgkin & J. J. Galvin
Farmer and Dairyman Publishing House
1882
Transcribed by Ann Planca

HON. FRANK J. TAYLOR

Of Astoria, is one of those genial, whole-souled chaps whom it does one good to meet and who infuses new Life into you with the simple shake of the hand. His affability and goo I nature make him a general favorite and his friends are legion. His parents came to Oregon "the plains across" in 1845, and settled first at Oregon City and afterwards moved to Clatsop plains, where Frank put in an appearance on the 11th day of May, 1851. He received a common school education, and developing a natural taste for law he corn commenced reading in the office of Hall, Thayer & Williams, in Portland, along in 1871 and 1872. He afterwards attended law school at Albany University, Albany, N. Y., and graduated, being admitted to the bar of that State in 1873. He returned to Oregon and opened an office at Astoria, where he has practiced law most of the time since. He was elected and held the office of Recorder and Police Judge of Astoria from August 1, 1875, to June 1, 1878, and at present is serving as Councilman in the Common Council of that city. In 1880 he was nominated and elected member of the House of Representatives from Clatsop and Tillamook counties, and served his constituents faithfully during that session. He was an active worker and proved an important factor in that body. He was a member of several important committees and frequently took an active part in debates. Mr. Taylor is considered a fine-looking man. He is rather tall and slim, stands erect, his face being smooth-shaved, with the exception of a mustache of dark brown. His head is well-shaped, with eyes well set back and fairly glistening with good humor. He is unmarried, “‘tis true, and pity ‘'tis true.” He is popular and makes friends everywhere.

Pen Pictures of Representative Men of Oregon
Frank E. Hodgkin & J. J. Galvin
Farmer and Dairyman Publishing House
1882
Transcribed by Ann Planca

CAPTAIN J. D. MERRYMAN

An honored citizen of Astoria and a prominent representative of Clatsop County, was born at St. Clairsville, Ohio, in 1838, and received the benefits of an early common school education. At fifteen years of age he accepted a clerkship in a general merchandising establishment at Woodsfield, Ohio, where he remained until the war broke out, when he enlisted in the Twenty- fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry and was elected Second Lieutenant of Company B, and was afterwards appointed First Lieutenant and Captain. He was discharged from the service December 29, 1862, on the surgeon's certificate of disability, having been twice severely wounded. He came to Oregon in 1863 and was engaged in selling goods at Hillsboro until 1868, when he was elected County Clerk of Washington County and was re-elected in 1870. In May, 1873, he was appointed Deputy Collector of Custom at Astoria, and served as such until June, 1881, when he was appointed Collector of the port in place of Hon. W. D. Hare, whose term of office had expired. Capt. Merryman is a gentleman of marked executive ability and as a public officer has given universal satisfaction. He was married in May, 1873, to Miss Rebecca Eagleton, of Hillsboro. Men of Capt. Merryman's stamp are a credit to any community.

Pen Pictures of Representative Men of Oregon
Frank E. Hodgkin & J. J. Galvin
Farmer and Dairyman Publishing House
1882
Transcribed by Ann Planca

MRS. CAROLINE AUGUSTA KAMM. The history of Oregon were indeed incomplete without due mention of the family to which Mrs. Caroline Augusta Kamm, wife of one of Oregon's noblest and most resourceful pioneers, belongs, or of the place which she herself has occupied these many years in the hearts of her many friends, Mrs. Kamm was born at Lapwai, Oregon territory, now Idaho, October 16, 1840, and is the oldest daughter born to William H. and Mary A. (Dix) Gray, pioneers respectively of 1836 and 1838.
    The Gray family is one of the very earliest to settle in Oregon, and their impress upon the institutions which served as a nucleus for later large achievements was marked in the extreme. William Henry Gray was born in Fairfield, N. Y., September 8, 1810, and in 1836 was selected by the American Board of Missions as secular agent in Oregon. On the trip across the plains he joined Whitman and Spaulding and their wives at Liberty Landing, Mo., and the subsequent trials of this courageous little band have been already often recorded. They succeeded in reaching Walla Walla, Wash., September 2, 1836, and having partially accomplished his mission in the west, Mr. Gray undertook again the perilous trip over the plains, that he might marry Mary A. Dix, who was born in Champlain County, N. Y. January 2, 1810. The marriage ceremony took place February 25, 1838, Mrs. Gray being the daughter of a Revolutionary soldier, who had decided to devote her life to missionary work. In 1838 this courageous couple set forth upon their life mission in the west, taking with them three other missionaries and their wives, and locating at Fort Lapwai, Idaho, The zeal of the missionaries is understood when it is known that two weeks after their arrival Mrs. Gray had started a school for Indians under a pine tree in the wilderness, and had a membership of from fifty to one hundred. Nor were her efforts confined to teaching the children, for during leisure hours she instructed the mothers in keeping their homes clean, in the art of making bread, and also taught them to cut and make the clothes for their families. The following March her pine tree school was exchanged for more satisfactory quarters in a little log building without any floor and with puncheon seats, and this advance in accommodations was the signal for renewed effort to give the Indians in Idaho the benefits of an uplifting civilization. In 1838 both Dr. Gray and his wife received certificates from Rev. Dr. Greene of New York as missionaries of the American Board of Foreign Missions, both of which now hang in the historical rooms together with their passports.
    In July, 1842, Mr. Gray resigned from the Board of Foreign Missions, and during the summer of the same year made a trip to the Willamette Valley where he became trustee and contractor, and built the old Oregon Institute, since known as the Willamette University. In 1843 he was the leading spirit in the formation of the provincial government, and in 1845 he was elected a member of the legislature from Clackamas County. From 1842 until 1844 he lived with him family in Salem, and from then until 1846 made his home in Oregon City. He then removed to the Clatsop Plains, where, aided by his wife and three others, he organized the first Presbyterian Church in Oregon. During the latter years of their lives Mr. and Mrs. Gray lived principally in Astoria, and her death occurred in Clatsop county in 1881, while that of her husband occurred at the home of Mr. Kamm in Portland November 14, 1889.
    Mr. Gray was a man of diversified gifts, and besides being a practicing physician for many years, was a writer of no mean merit. Of his History of Oregon, written in 1870, Rev. Geary, D. D., when asked for his opinion, said emphatically: “True, every word of it, but you told too much." To Dr. Gray is due the distinction of performing the first operation of trephining of the skull on the Pacific coast, and the Indian boy who was thus benefited by his skill spread his good fortune up and down through the forests. In the order of their birth the children born to this noble pioneer couple are as follows: Capt. J. H. D. Gray, who died in Astoria October 26, 1902, and was ex-state senator and ex-county judge of Clatsop County; Caroline A., Mrs. Kamm; Mary S., the deceased wife of Mr. Tarbell of Tacoma, Wash.; Sarah F., now Mrs. .Abernethy of Coos county, Ore.; Capt. William Polk; Capt. A. W., of Portland; and Capt. James T., also of Portland.
    Mrs. Kamm is a very popular and well informed woman, and is full of generous impulses and unbounded sympathy. Her name is at the head of many charities, although unostentatiously she gives much towards the alleviation of human suffering. In her travels through the country with her husband she has accumulated a horde of interesting information, and is particularly enlightening about the early times in which her parents took so prominent a part.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Ann Planca


HON. CHARLES W. FULTON. The junior United States senator from Oregon is Hon. Charles W. Fulton, a statesman of eminent ability, one of the foremost attorneys of Clatsop County, and a man of exceptional talent and high character. A resident of Astoria, he is prominent in legal, political, fraternal and social circles, and is deservedly popular and esteemed as a citizen. A son of Jacob Fulton, he was born August 24, 1853, in Lima, Allen County, Ohio the same county in which his paternal grandfather, Loami Fulton, was born.
    A native of Allen County, Ohio, Jacob Fulton was reared on a farm, and when young, learned the trade of a carpenter and builder. He subsequently removed with his family to Harrison County, Iowa, locating on a farm in Magnolia. During the Civil war, he served as second lieutenant of Company A, Twenty-ninth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, being in the Department of the Tennessee until forced to resign on account of ill health, in 1864. Removing to Pawnee City, Neb., in 1870, he was successfully engaged in mercantile pursuits until his death. He married Eliza McAllister, who was born in Pennsylvania, of Scotch-Irish ancestry, and was left an orphan in early childhood, she survived her husband, and still resides in Pawnee City, Neb. Of the eight children that blessed their union, one daughter and five sons grew to years of maturity. Four of the sons became residents of Astoria, namely: Charles W., the special subject of this brief biographical review; George C, an attorney, in partnership with his brother Charles; Dr. J. A., a well known physician; and Dr. A. L., a prominent physician, who died at his home in Astoria in 1900.
    Obtaining his elementary education in the district schools of Magnolia, Iowa, whither his parents removed when he was a child of two years, Charles W. Fulton afterwards completed the full course in the Pawnee City Academy. Ambitious to enter the legal profession, he accomplished his desire by virtue of hard work, studying law under Judge A. H. Babcock now of Beatrice, Neb., in the meantime teaching school winters in order to assist in defraying his expenses. Being admitted to the bar in April, 1875, Mr. Fulton immediately came to Oregon, and the following three months taught school in Waterloo, Linn County. Going in July of that year to Astoria, he found that the entire population of Clatsop County was but seventeen hundred souls, and that Judge Bowlby, Judge Elliott, Gen. O. F. Bell, J. Taylor and W. L. McEwan were the only attorneys in the city of Astoria, and of this Judge Bowlby and Mr. Taylor are the sole survivors. Opining a law office, Mr. Fulton at once began the practice of his profession, which he has continued until the present time. He has met with most excellent success, having so much business to attend to that in 1884 he admitted his brother, George C. Fulton, to an equal partnership, and both are kept busily employed in looking after the interests of their large clientele.
    One of the leading Republicans of the state, Mr. Fulton has ever been influential and active in local and national affairs and since 1884 has done much campaign work at every state election. As state elector in 1888, he was selected to carry the vote for President Harrison to Washington in February, 1880, having previously served as chairman of the Oregon delegation to the convention which nominated him to the presidency, and in 1892 lie was a delegate to the national convention held in Minneapolis, Minn. For two terms he served as city attorney for Astoria. In 1878 he was elected state senator, and served two years. Again elected to the state senate in 1890, he served from 1891 until 1893, in the meantime helping to reelect Senator Mitchell as United States senator, and serving in 1893 as president of the senate. In 1898 Mr. Fulton was elected state senator, and served in the special session of that year and in the sessions from 1899 until 1901, in the latter year being again president of the senate. In 1902 he was re-elected state senator, and in the biennial session of 1903 was elected United States senator, and took the oath of office March 5, 1903, at a special session of the United States senate.
    Mr. Fulton married, in Astoria, Miss Ada Hobson, who was born at Clatsop Plains, a daughter of John Hobson, who came to Clatsop County with the first wagon train of emigrants to cross the plains, arriving in 1843. Mr. and Mrs. Fulton have one child, Frederick C. Fulton.
Fraternally Mr. Fulton is a member and past exalted ruler of the Benevolent and Protective
Order of Elks, and of the Ancient Order of United Workmen.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Ann Planca


MARSHALL J. KINNEY, the fourth son of R. C. Kinney, was an infant when the family came to Oregon in 1847. He was educated in the public schools of the state and in the McMinnville Academy. After the completion of his education he entered into the employ of his father, where he soon mastered the details of the business. In 1868 he went to San Francisco to take charge of a branch office there. Though barely twenty-one years of age the business, running into many hundreds of thousands of dollars per annum, and extending across both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, was conducted with such good judgment as to command the confidence of his business associates of all classes in San Francisco, as well as the entire approval of his father in Oregon.
    The death of his father, in 1875, and of his older brother soon after, and the consequent sale of the Salem mills, recalled him to Oregon, where, in 1876, he became interested in the salmon packing business in Astoria. Through his enterprise there was built up what was at the time the largest salmon cannery in the world. Not satisfied with the methods of canning then in vogue, he introduced improved machinery and methods, and in this way brought the business up to a high plane of activity and success. About seventy-five thousand cases were packed annually, and the Kinney brand of salmon became known in every part of the world. In addition to his Astoria business, he established canneries at Chilcoot and Cape Fox, in Alaska, and started the cannery at Fairhaven, Wash., of which he is still president.
    In addition to his canning interests, which continue to be large and valuable, for twenty years or more Mr. Kinney has engaged in the lumber manufacturing business with his brother, William, president of the Clatsop Mills Company. The mills have a large capacity, manufacturing lumber from the timber fields of Oregon. The company owns valuable tracts on the Columbia River and in the coast counties, which are especially adapted to the purpose of the concern. In 1899 Mr. Kinney removed his office to Portland, where he has since made his home and his business headquarters.
    Mr. Kinney is a life member of the Occidental Lodge of Masons in San Francisco. Among the other organizations with which he is connected are the Oregon Pioneer Association, the Oregon Historical Society, and others of a similar nature. In San Francisco he married Margaret Morgan, who was born in that city and died there, leaving a daughter. Harriet M. His second marriage united him with Narcissa White of Pennsylvania, who gained a national reputation through her distinguished services in the cause of temperance. (An account of the life of Mrs. Kinney will be found in the following sketch).

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Ann Planca


NARCISSA WHITE KINNEY. If we were asked to characterize Narcissa White Kinney we would write: The grand law of her being was to conclude whatsoever she undertook. No matter what its difficulties nor how small it’s worth, she held to it until she had mastered every detail, finished it, and made the result of it her own. Carefully she studied the matter in hand and with indomitable energy, perseverance and skill carried forward to completion the ideas she evolved and finally crystallized into living practical issues. Hence, whatever she did bore the ineffaceable impress of her personality.
    Mrs. Kinney came of good stock. She was Scotch Irish by inheritance and for grit and grace there seems to be no better combination. Her ancestors on both sides hail from "bonnie Scotland," but stopped on their way to America, for several generations, in the North of Ireland. Her mother's maiden name was Wallace, and family records show that she was a direct descendant of Adam Wallace, who was burned at the stake in Scotland for his religion. The thrilling account of his steadfast faith and triumphant death has been handed down to us through the sombre records of "Fox's Book of Martyrs." At his death his two sons, David and Moses Wallace, fled to the North of Ireland, whence Narcissa's grandfather, Hugh Wallace, immigrated to America in 1796 and located in the western part of Pennsylvania. Her father's ancestor, Walter White, suffered martyrdom for his religion during the reign of Queen Mary, and four of her far away grandfathers two on each side of the house fought side by side at the battle of the Boyne.
    Mrs. Kinney's father, George W. White, was a Christian gentleman of high moral character much respected by all who knew him. He was an intelligent man, a deep thinker, well posted in the literature of the day, in history, and especially in the sacred scriptures. He realized the advantages to be derived from a liberal education and labored hard to give his children the very best attainable in that early day. He spent the greater part of his life on a part of the old homestead taken up by his father. At seventy years of age he was suddenly killed in a railroad accident which occurred near his home in 1883.
    The mother, Susanna Kerr Wallace, was born in Ireland and came to America with the family when eighteen years of age. She was a woman of strong personality, very energetic and full of resources, deeply pious, and carried her religion into her everyday life in such a way as early to impress her children with their need of spiritual guidance. She was the mother of eight children, one boy and seven girls, all of whom honored their father and their mother in their lives. The youngest daughter, Maria, from early girlhood longed to become a missionary to the foreign field, and finally gained the consent of her parents to study medicine and so prepare herself for the work of a medical missionary. After graduating from a medical school in New York City, she took up work in the .slums of the city for one year as a preparation for the foreign field. In 1886 she sailed for India under the board of the United Presbyterian Church, and on reaching her destination began work in Sialkote. In a few years she formulated plans, raised funds, and founded a medical hospital there, which has proven an inestimable blessing to the afflicted and diseased women and children in that benighted land, and is considered by the church as a powerful factor in civilizing and Christianizing those depraved and ignorant heathen. After eight years of arduous labor. Dr. White returned to America broken in health, with but little hope of ever being able to return; but after several years her health was restored, and in 1902 she again sailed for India to devote the remaining years of her life to her chosen work.
    Narcissa White, the subject of this sketch, was born in Grove City, Pa., in 1854. She was the sixth daughter, the younger of the family Init one. She received her primary education in the Grove City public schools, and was later graduated from the State Normal School of Pennsylvania, with high honors, distinguishing herself as a writer and speaker and showing such marked ability as a teacher that she was immediately elected principal of the training school in Edinboro, Pa. She labored here for some time and was sent out through the state to organize county institutes, where she gave instruction in chart work and elocution. So energetically did she prosecute her work that her health gave way and she was laid aside for two years.
    During these years the great temperance crusade was in progress, and its outgrowth, the Woman's Christian Temperance Union which has now become such a powerful organization was in its incipiency, but was claiming public attention. Miss White, among others, became interested in the movement, and after studying carefully its aims and methods, became profoundly impressed with the need and importance of its work and felt it her duty to work under the auspices of that organization. With her, a duty known was a duty performed. She at once joined the white ribbon ranks, was elected president of the Grove City Union, and in a short time county president, then state superintendent of scientific temperance instruction, and in that position did an immense amount of work. She visited county institutes and gave instruction in the scientific teaching of the effects of alcoholics and narcotics upon the human system, in such a logical way as to elicit warm commendations from educators generally. All this work was gradually preparing her for the larger field she was soon to occupy. In 1880 she was called to the platform exclusively. She was made a national lecturer and organizer, and in that capacity visited every state and territory in the Union, also Canada and British Columbia.

    During these years Narcissa White had developed wonderfully. Naturally she possessed a keen, logical mind, a most persuasive manner, a quick, sparkling wit and a charming personality. Her face was handsome and expressive, one that would attract attention among the crowds. She had a lofty, graceful bearing and a fine physique. Her address was dignified, without a suggestion of haughtiness. She was gracious to everyone, yet without a trace of superiority. Her success as a platform orator was remarkable. She had developed into one of the most brilliant speakers in the entire coterie engaged in reform and educational work and was sought far and near and everywhere hailed with delight. Her presence was magnetic; her voice, which she had carefully cultivated, was clear and penetrating, so flexible and sympathetic that she swayed her audience at her will. She brought to the platform such intense enthusiasm that it was contagious, and impelled her hearers to give assent to her earnest pleadings.
    As a champion of truth and righteousness and in shaping and carrying forward the great reforms of her day, she had no mean part. Her great heart was stirred to its very depths by the wrongs inflicted upon defenseless women and children by the liquor traffic, and her deep sense of right and justice was outraged by the protection the traffic received from our national and civic government, so she threw her whole soul into the battle for prohibition and her strong personality and burning eloquence left their impress upon every community she visited in our great commonwealth.
    Miss White twice visited the Pacific coast in the interest of temperance and did most effective work in Oregon and Washington, particularly in securing temperance legislation. During these tours she met and formed the acquaintance of Marshall J. Kinney, at that time the proprietor of several of the largest fish canneries on the Columbia River. Mr. Kinney's family was among the pioneers of Oregon, known all over the coast. The father and five stalwart sons have been identified with many of the large industries which have attracted immigration to the northwest. In 1888 Miss White left the lecture field to become the wife of Mr. Kinney, and came to Astoria, "the city by the sea," to make her home. Here she soon found many avenues for work, and her fertile brain, ever active, among other things developed plans for elevating and Christianizing the hundreds of fishermen in the employ of her husband. Mr. Kinney, being in full sympathy with all her work, gave her free rein, and she opened a mission and taught those ignorant men and women many of them Russian Finns new ideas of life. She opened to them the Scriptures and led many of them to the feet of the Master.
    Mrs. Kinney was a devoted Christian, reared in the United Presbyterian Church, and after her removal to Oregon a member of the Presbyterian Church. She was identified with all the activities of the church, and was especially interested in the foreign mission work in India, where her sister labored. In her will she left her wedding ring, a valuable diamond, to the India mission. It was to be sold and the money used for furthering the work there.
    Mrs. Kinney was also a philanthropist. She planned largely to promote education in Oregon by assisting in establishing libraries, organizing Chautauqua’s and summer schools, and repeatedly lectured before such assemblies and before the state universities and colleges. She was also the center of a large social circle of cultured and refined people. Her sparkling wit, quick repartee and winning manner made her a general favorite at all social gathering.
    In 1894 she was elected president of the Oregon W. C. T. U., which position she held until about one year before her death, when her failing health compelled her to resign. She was a most efficient president, a model presiding officer, and possessed great executive ability. She was a careful financier, and had the faculty of imparting to her followers a measure of her own earnestness and enthusiasm. By her unselfish devotion to the cause she represented she inspired all with whom she labored to do their very best. She knew no such word as failure, so her administration was one of progression and wide influence.
    In the autumn of 1899 Mr. and Mrs. Kinney left Astoria and went to Portland to reside. She was not robust, but was not an invalid by any means and in her new home was entering into such work as presented itself. She was apparently as well as usual when, without warning, she was stricken and yielded up her life forty-eight hours after she was taken ill. It seemed a strange dispensation of Providence that had called her away in the midst of her usefulness and at the very zenith of her mental power. These things we cannot fathom and may not question.

We will not say, "God's ordinance
Of death is blown in every wind;"
For that is not a common chance

That takes away a noble mind.

We know only that God called her, and she obeyed. We know, too, that her consecrated life single hearted, generous, pure and noble has left an influence which will rest like a benediction upon her adopted state and upon all who came in touch with her, and that it will go on and on, spreading and growing and blessing even generations yet to come.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Ann Planca

HESS, CHARLES M.

Charles M. Hess, who owns, with his father, a flouring mill with a capacity of seventy barrels a day, located in the city of Goldendale is a native of Oregon, born in Astoria on the 12th of December, 1874, the son of John M. and Minnie (Beebe) Hess. His father, who was born in Fulton county, Illinois, October 5, 1848, and was educated in the public schools of Iowa, removed to Oregon with his parents at the age of nineteen. He remained at home until twenty-five years old, during this time learning the cooper’s trade from his father, grandfather of our subject. Marrying then, he took up a homestead of eighty acres, on which he lived for seven years ensuing. Coming to Goldendale in the fall of 1883, he entered the drug business there, and he continued in the same for five years, but in 1888 he bought the mill he now has. It has, however, been improved so thoroughly since, that it would hardly be recognized as the same plant. In the year 1896 he installed the gravity system which now furnishes the city with water, and during the ensuing seven years he operated it successfully, selling out at the expiration of that time to the city. He has one of the finest residences in Goldendale. His wife, a native of New York state, born May 3, 1854, was educated in the schools of Iowa. She married at the age of nineteen and she and Mr. Hess have had five children, of whom our subject is the oldest. Having accompanied his parents to Washington, when less than ten years old, Charles M. completed his school training in Goldendale. At the early age of fifteen he began learning, in his father’s mill, the trade of a miller, a task which he has successfully accomplished, having long since become a master of the craft. At present he is the owner of an interest in the mill, which he and his father operate as partners.

On the 17th of April, 1898, Mr. Hess married Miss Sarah E. Masters, the ceremony being performed at Goldendale. Mrs. Hess is the daughter of Thurston and Mary J. (Story) Masters, the former of whom was born in the central part of Washington County, Oregon, and is a butcher by occupation. He came to Klickitat county in the early days, and has ever since remained there. Mrs. Hess was born in Klickitat county, January 18, 1875. She was educated at Vashon College, near the city of Tacoma, taking a course in music and elocution, both of which she teaches to a limited extent at the present time. She has two brothers and two sisters, namely, David A., Thurston H., and Sylva, in Goldendale, and Mrs. Ethel Russell, in Silverton, Oregon. Mr. and Mrs. Hess have two children, Madalene, born April 17, 1899, and Reginald, born April 17, 1903, both in Goldendale. Fraternally, Mr. Hess is connected with the Knights of Pythias, the Artisans, the Woodmen of the World and the Rathbone Sisters and in politics, he is a Democrat. An industrious, ambitious young man, thoroughly conversant with his business, to which he gives close attention, he is winning his way nobly in the financial world; at the same time enjoying, among his fellow citizens, an enviable reputation for integrity and uprightness of character.

An Illustrated History of Klickitat, Yakima and Kittitas Counties with an Outline of the Early History of the State of Washington
Interstate Publishing Company, 1904, Pages 386-387
Transcribed by FOFG


PROFESSOR JOHN GRAY IMEL. Perhaps no appointment of an individual to a position in the public service of Astoria has given more uniform satisfaction than when Professor John Gray Imel was again called upon to take charge of the public-school interests of this city as superintendent for a three year period that will continue him in the office until 1914. His record as an educator has been a most creditable one, crowned with that success which is the expression of duty faithfully and capably performed. He was born September 29, 1871, in Jefferson county. Indiana, and is descended from one of two brothers who came from Germany just prior to the Revolutionary war. All trace was lost of one of the brothers but the other married and removed to Indiana, becoming the progenitor of the representatives of the name in that state and in Ohio. His parents were James M. and Anna (Gray) Imel, both of whom were natives of the Hoosier state, whence they removed to Ford County, Kansas, in 1878. There the father engaged in the stock-raising business and is still the owner of a large ranch in that county. The children, six sons and three daughters, are yet living.

    Professor Imel supplemented his public school course by academic training in Kansas and his professional training in the Oklahoma State Normal School, while his more advanced training was received in the University of Chicago. He received the degree of Master of Arts from Milton University. In early manhood he determined upon the profession of teaching as his life work and that his choice has been the pursuit for which nature evidently intended him is indicated in the successful outcome of his labors which have won wide commendation in the various localities where he has taught. He was a teacher in the common schools of Kansas in 1892 and 1893, and of Oklahoma in 1895 and 1896. In 1900 he was appointed to a position as instructor in the Oklahoma Central State Normal School and in 1904 was appointed professor of Latin in the same school, occupying that position until 1908. In the latter year he accepted the principalship of the high school of Astoria. Oregon, and the following year was chosen superintendent of the Astoria city schools for a term of two years. In 1911 he was reelected for a term of three years, on which occasion the Morning Astorian of May 7, 1911, said: "The pleasant and satisfying news developed yesterday that the board of directors of Astoria school district had secured the further service of Professor J. G. Imel as superintendent of the city schools for a period of three years and at an advanced salary, Mr. Imel has been a most faithful and efficient officer and has given the city and its big school system the best possible care in the past and his retention means much for the immediate future of the young people of Astoria, with whom he has been an influence for good in many ways, as well as a dependable custodian of the public interests in that direction, and the Morning Astorian takes pleasure in congratulating both the board and Mr. Imel upon the conclusion of this gratifying business.'' In the Astoria Daily Budget of the 8th of May appeared the following: "In the reappointment of Professor J. G. Imel as superintendent of the city schools for a term of three years the local school board has, we believe, made a judicious move. Mr. Imel has during the time he has been the head of the city school department handled the affairs of that position in a manner that has reflected credit upon himself and also been of great benefit to the educational system. A strict disciplinarian, he has established a system embracing the entire school department that has created and maintained harmony among the different schools and branches and thus accomplished better results in behalf of the pupils." The only business connection which Professor Imel has ever held outside the strict path of his public
profession was that of director of the Citizens Bank at Edmond, Oklahoma, from 1903 until 1905.

    In 1894 in Geuda Springs. Kansas. Mr. Imel was married to Miss Sarah N. Mann, a daughter of S. S. Mann, of Gladbrook. Iowa, a descendant of Horace Mann. The only child born unto Professor and Mrs. Imel is Dea L. Imel. Professor Imel devotes his undivided attention to his family and his professional duties, yet with his wide reading keeps abreast with the best thinking men of the age upon subjects which are of significant and vital interest. He holds to high standards in his chosen life work and is continuously seeking out new methods whereby he may reach his ideal. Moreover, each forward step brings him a broader outlook and wider opportunity and his work is of increasing usefulness as the years go by.

Source: The Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912 illustrated volume IV (1912) S. J. Clarke Publishing Company; transcribed by Vicki Bryan

ORA W. TAYLOR is general manager of the Gearhart Park Company, which owns one of the most attractive seaside resorts along the Pacific coast, and in this connection his business ability and executive qualities are resulting in the attainment of a gratifying measure of success. He was born in Algona. Iowa, February 13, 1865, and is a son of James M. and Velonia (Foster) Taylor, the former a native of Jamestown, New York, and the latter of Pennsylvania. The father was a carpenter by trade but after his marriage took up his abode upon a homestead near Algona, Iowa, and was associated with agricultural interests in that locality for a number of years. He came to Oregon in 1874 and settled at Oregon City, where he lived for a year, after which he spent two years in Salem. On the expiration of that period of time he began farming at New Era, Clackamas County, and was very successful in his labors there. As the years passed he acquired a comfortable competence, with which he retired about eleven years ago, establishing his home in Portland, where he still resides at the age of about eighty years, his birth having occurred July 19, 1832. One of the most creditable chapters of his life record covers his experience as a soldier in the Civil war. He served as a member of Company D, Twelfth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and participated in a number of important engagements, including the battle of Fort Donelson, in which he was wounded, being struck on the shoulder by a grape shot when the troops were storming the breastworks and he had almost reached the top. A spirit of patriotism has characterized his entire life. In matters of citizenship he ever stands for progress and improvement. He holds membership with Oregon City Post, G.A.R., and belongs to Oregon City Lodge, I.O.O.F.

    In 1906 he was called upon to mourn the loss of his wife, who passed away at the age of fifty-eight years, dying in the faith of the Congregational church, of which she had long been a consistent member. In his family are two sons and a daughter: Frank M., who is living in Benton county; Clara, the wife of George Broughton, of Irvington; and Ora W.

    Ora W. Taylor was a lad of about nine years when the family left Iowa and came to Oregon. In this state he was reared upon the home farm to the age of seventeen years, when he started out in the business world to provide for his own support. He began studying telegraphy with the Western Union Telegraph Company in their Salem office under William Dumars and in 1883 became agent and operator for the Oregon & California Railroad at Glendale, Oregon. After two years he was transferred to Portland as night operator in the dispatcher's office and subsequently
was operator and assistant dispatcher until 1893, when he was promoted to the position of chief train dispatcher. He severed his connection with railway interests in 1906. During the last two years of his work in that field of business he acted as train master and assistant superintendent. Gradually he worked his way upward as he gave proof of his ability and the same spirit of progress has characterized him since severing his connection with railway interests. His next step in the business world brought him to the position of manager of the real-estate department of the firm of Hartman & Thompson, with whom he continued for two years. During this time Rose City addition, the largest residence section of the city of Portland, was platted under his direction. He afterward became manager of the Ruth Trust Company and in November 1909, was also elected to the presidency of that institution, after which he continued to act both as its president and general manager until April. 1911, when he resigned on account of impaired health. After a rest by which he was greatly benefited he became identified with the Gearhart Park Company as its general manager. Gearhart Park is located on the seaside of Astoria. Thousands of dollars have been spent in its improvement and thousands more are being expended to keep the improvements proportionate to its rapid growth. Because of the salubrious climate of Oregon it is an all-the-year-round resort. The place has great natural beauties, to which the work of man has added. Only a year or two ago the company erected a splendid hotel, one of the finest to be found on the coast. It contains spacious parlors and also sun parlors. The magnificent dining room and many large chambers are fitted with every modern convenience. It has broad verandas overlooking the sea and a splendid natatorium. where one can have warm salt water baths if surf bathing is not desired. In the rear of the hotel is a beautiful stretch of natural forest. All around the hotel have been erected attractive cottages for the park  is artistically laid out and offers every advantage to those who wish to have homes at a seaside resort. An attraction of the season of 1911 was a Chautauqua, for while superior talent was secured. The management is making every effort to sustain the high reputation which Gearhart has already enjoyed as one of the most popular, attractive and high-class resorts on the Pacific coast. As general manager Mr. Taylor's efforts are a potent clement in the accomplishment of this result.

    In 1897 occurred the marriage of Ora W. Taylor and Miss Nellie Beverly, a daughter of .John Beverly, of Canyonville. Oregon, and they have three children. Anna Marie, Gretchen and Robert. Mr. Taylor is a life member of the Portland Commercial Club. He is a public-spirited citizen and his efforts and cooperation can always be counted upon to further any movement for the general good. He served on the charter commission appointed by Mayor Simon and he has in many other ways given tangible evidence of his devotion to Portland and her upbuilding. He is a man of unfailing courtesy, always earnest and genial and his frank and cordial address wins confidence.

Source: The Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912 illustrated volume IV (1912) S. J. Clarke Publishing Company; transcribed by Vicki Bryan

GEORGE E. FLATMAN, who started out in business life without any special  advantages, has steadily worked his way upward by the force of his own ability, determination and ambition, and is today one of the representative men of Hammond, where he is conducting a store and where he also owns other properties. Moreover, he has been active in the public life of the community and his fellow townsmen have called him to a number of political positions.

    Mr. Flatman is a native of London, England. He was born on the 19th of January, 1861, and is a son of Charles E. Flatman, who was born in Suffolk. England, on the 3d of April, 1838. His grandparents, Eastgate and Harriet Flatman, spent their entire lives in England, where the former engaged in business as a carpenter and contractor to the time of his death, which occurred in 1869. His son, Charles E. Flatman, is the only one of the family of nine children now living. He was married in London, England in 1860 to Miss Mary A. Thompson. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Flatman there were born six children, of whom George E. Flatman, of this review, is the eldest. The others are: Charles W., who was born in London and makes his home in Grand Rapids, Michigan; Arthur, who was born in London and now resides in Mills City, Marion County. Oregon; Frank, who was born in Michigan and now resides in Hammond; Robert, deceased; and one who died in infancy. It was in the year 1869 that the family came to America, first settling in Belleville, Canada, where the father worked at the carpenter's trade for a year. He afterward spent six months at Brantford. Canada, and a similar period at Fort Gratiot, Michigan. Later he was employed in the car shops of the Michigan Central railroad at Detroit as a car builder, working on passenger cars for fifteen years. In 1889 he became a resident of Fort Stevens, Clatsop County, Oregon, where he worked at carpentry for the government and he is still in the government employ, making his home in Hammond since 1900.

    George E. Flatman, whose name introduces this record, was a lad of eight years when the family came to the new world. He accompanied his parents on their various removals and acquired his education in the public schools of the different localities in which he lived. He remained under the parental roof until he had attained his majority, after which he worked as a farm hand for two years and then accepted a position as a steam engineer in the Fort Stevens Jetty Works, at Fort Stevens, Oregon, continuing in the employ of the government for nineteen years. In 1889 he purchased a half interest in a mercantile store at Hammond and is still an equal partner in that enterprise and in the building in which it is located. He also owns other property in Hammond and his life on the whole has been a successful one, unfaltering industry being the secret of his  advancement and prosperity.

    On the 6th of July, 1893, Mr. Flatman was married to Miss Sarah Kindred, who was born in Clatsop County, Oregon, and is a daughter of B. C. Kindred, who is mentioned elsewhere in this work. Mr. and Mrs. Flatman are now parents of two children: Vivian L.. born March 17, 1894; and Edna R., July 20, 1895. Both are attending school. Mr. Flatman and his family hold membership in the Episcopal Church and he belongs to the Order of Maccabees at Hammond. His political views are in accord with the principles of the republican party which he has supported since age conferred upon him the right of franchise. For several years he served as a member of the school board of Hammond and his fellow townsmen, appreciative of his worth as a citizen, called him to public office as the chief executive of Hammond. For two years he served as mayor and his record was  one highly satisfactory to the general public for he advocated progress, reform and improvement and sought by practical methods to attain the ends desired.

Source: The Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912 Illustrated volume IV (1912) S. J. Clarke Publishing Company; transcribed by Vicki Bryan

NATHAN W. BOWER, although a resident of Clatsop County only since 1908, has become well known here and is meeting with success as one of the owners of Sunset Beach, an attractive summer resort which borders the ocean and also Sunset Lake. He was born in Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in  1864, a son of Nathan S. and Maria Bower, both of whom were natives of Nova Scotia and of English parentage. They spent their entire lives in the land of their nativity and the father conducted a lumber business there for many years, but later he established a hotel which he carried on until his life's labors were ended in death, in 1902. He is still survived by his wife, who yet makes her home in Nova Scotia. In their family were seven children: Chapman S.; Nathan W.; Bertha A., who died in 1890; William E., a contractor of Nova Scotia, working on government contracts; Annie S.. the wife of George A. Evans, of Walla Walla, Washington; Alice N., the wife of Kiff Cameron, of Nova Scotia; and Andrew R.. of Shelburne, Nova Scotia, who is engaged in contracting with his brother.

    Nathan W. Bower, whose name introduces this record, acquired a common-school education and also studied drafting under Professor Hauslein. of the Chicago Athenaeum.

He came to the United States in 18S7 at which time he took up his abode in Chicago, where he resided for four years. In 1891 he removed to Boise City, Idaho, where he lived for some years, conducting business as an architect and contractor at that place until 1901. The succeeding seven years were passed in Meridian. Idaho, and he built the first house there. He had large interests at that place and still owns many properties in the heart of the town. In 1892 he became the owner of. a third interest in the town site of Nyssa. Oregon, and he also owns a placer stone claim in Malheur County, Oregon. He continued his residence at Meridian, Idaho, until 1908. when he removed to Clatsop County, where he has since resided. Aside from his property interests elsewhere he is the owner of a third interest in Sunset Beach an attractive resort of Clatsop County, which borders the ocean and also extends to Sunset lake. He is doing much to improve this and make it one of the popular resorts at the seaside. He is also engaged in freighting and does deep-sea fishing with a gas schooner, Moonlight.

    On the 28th of February. 1893. Mr. Bower was married at Boise City. Idaho, to Miss Julia Asbery, who was born in Lee County, West Virginia, in 1866. a daughter of Joseph and Julia (Brooks) Asbery, who spent the greater part of their lives upon a farm in West Virginia. The mother died during the girlhood of her daughter. Mrs. Bower, and the father passed away in 1903. In their family were eleven children: John, Thomas, Reese, Jeff and William, all deceased; Margaret; Sina; Roxanna; Frances; Rebecca; and Julia. Mr. and Mrs. Bower have become the parents of four children but the oldest, Nathan W., died at the age of fourteen years, and the youngest, Hazel M., when eight years of age. The other children of the family are: Eva S.. who was born February 2. 1895, and is now a high-school student : and Jessie L., born July 14. 1897. Mr. Bower possesses the enterprising spirit that has been the dominant feature in the rapid and .substantial upbuilding of the northwest, quickly recognizing and utilizing the opportunities that have come to him, and as the years have passed by he has made steady progress which indicates greater success in the future.

Source: The Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912 Illustrated volume IV (1912) S. J. Clarke Publishing Company; transcribed by Vicki Bryan

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS BOWLBY
Residence, Astoria, Ore. Office Odd Fellows building. Born August 30, 1843, in New York City. Son of Weson and Sarah Elizabeth (Jones) Bowlby. Married in 1876 to Georgianna Brown. Came to Oregon in 1852, at the age of nine years. Educated at Pacific University, Forest Grove, Ore., graduating in 1867 with A. B. degree. Studied law in the office of Judge Upton, of Portland, moving to Astoria in 1868. Admitted to the bar of Oregon in December 1874. Judge of Clatsop County from 1874 to 1882. Member of Masonic, I.O.O.F. and A.O.U.W. Fraternities. Republican.

Source:  History of the Bench and Bar of Oregon; Historical Publishing Company, Portland, Oregon (1910)
Transcribed by Vicki Bryan

HOWARD MITCHELL BROWNELL
Residence 77 Third Street; office, County Court House, Astoria, Oregon. Born September 15, 1879 in Duchess County, New York. Son of George Clayton and Alma Lane Brownell. Married February 28, 1907, to Nellie B. Hart. Came to Oregon when a small boy and up to the age of 16 attended public schools at Oregon City; for three years thereafter Tualatin Academy at Forest Grove, Oregon, then entered his father's law office at Oregon City; studied law under him until admitted to practice in 1901. After his admission entered into partnership with his father at Oregon City; same lasted for two years, when he moved to Marshfield and practiced there two years. He then located at Astoria, in 1906, and entered the law office of Harrison Allen, who was then District Attorney for the Fifth Judicial District. Worked for Mr. Allen until the latter removed from Astoria, after which he practiced law with J. A. Eakin, until he became Deputy District Attorney in 1908. Republican.

Source:  History of the Bench and Bar of Oregon; Historical Publishing Company, Portland, Oregon (1910)
Transcribed by Vicki Bryan

CHARLES HENRY ABERCROMBIE. Residence 777 Irving avenue; office 172 Tenth street, Astoria, Ore.  Born November 8, 1878, at Brandon, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin.  Son of John and Harriet (Earle) Abercrombie.  Married February 27, 1904, to Mary Lucile Ford.  Attended the grammar schools of Wisconsin until 1887, in which year he removed with his parents to Oregon, and attended the grammar schools at Astoria, graduating from the high school at that place in 1897.  Studied law in the office of C. W. and G. C. Fulton in 1897-8-9.  Attended the University of Wisconsin from 1899 to 1903, graduating with degree of LL. B.  Admitted to the bar at Madison, Wis., June 18, 1903, to the Circuit Court and District Courts of that state, United States, Western District of Illinois, at the same time, and to the Supreme Court of Oregon, July 1, 1903.  Ensign-Lieutenant First Division N. R., O. N. G., 1897-99.  Captain First Company Coast Artillery Corps, O. N. G., July 9, 1908, to date.  Deputy District Attorney Fifth Judicial District, 1904 to 1906.  City Attorney, 1906.  Member Astoria Amateur Athletic Club, Elks, Masons and Knights of Pythias.  Republican.

Source: History of the Bench and Bar of Oregon; Historical Publishing Company (1910) transcribed by Glenda Stevens

Creed W. Mullins:
Residence, Astoria, Oregon; office, 367 Commercial street.  Born February 27, 1884, at Flat Gap, Virginia.  Son of James A. and Margaret L. (Purkey) Mullins.  Educated at the public schools at Flat Gap, Virginia, at the high School, Wise, Virginia, at the Clintwood Normal College, Clintwood, Virginia.  Studied law with Bond & Bruce at Wise, Virginia.  Came to Oregon in 1906, and studied law in the office of John H. & A. M. Smith at Astoria, for three years.  Admitted to the bar at Salem June 9, 1909, since when he has practiced his profession alone at Astoria.  Served three years in Coast Artillery of U. S. A., and received honorable discharge.  Member Redmen.  Democrat.

Source: History of the Bench and Bar of Oregon; Historical Publishing Company (1911) transcribed by Richard Ramos

Albin Walter Norblad:
Residence, 739 Franklin avenue; office 3-4 Page building, Astoria, Oregon.  Born at Malmo, Sweden, March 19, 1881.  Son of Peter and Bessie (Anderson) Norblad.  Came to the United States when two years of age, settling in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where he attended the common schools until he was twelve years of age.  Took an academic course in the Chicago Seminary of Sciences for a four years’  term, then to the Northwestern University and Harvey Medical College, where he completed a special course, then entering the Chicago Law School, graduating from the same with degree of LL. B., June, 1905.  He removed to Grand Rapids, Michigan, being admitted to the bar at Lansing, Michigan, in April, the same year; moving to Escanaba, Michigan, forming a partnership with Judd Yelland, under the firm name of Yelland & Norblad; appointed Acting Prosecuting Attorney of Delta County, Michigan, which position he held from 1905 to 1908.  Moved to Astoria, Oregon, March, 1909, forming a partnership with G. A. Hemple, under the firm name of Norblad & Hemple, which partnership exists to date.  Admitted to the bar of Oregon at Salem, Oregon, April 7, 1909; to the United States Circuit and District Courts.  December 15, 1909.  Served in the First Illinois Volunteer Infantry and in the Second Division, Second Battalion, Michigan Naval Brigade.  Member of the Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity, K. of P., Elks, Odd Fellows, Woodmen and Masonic fraternities; former Secretary Escanaba Business Men’s Association; is now President of the Astoria Chamber of Commerce.

Mrs. W. H. Gray
Side by side with the fathers, husbands and brothers who constituted the mighty army that conquered the west for civilization stood the women who in spirit were as heroic, whose endurance was as great and whose zeal as untiring as that displayed by the men of the pioneer households. Many of them were reared in eastern homes of culture and refinement, tenderly nurtured and carefully educated. It seems that it would have required sterner stuff to meet the conditions here to be found, but one of the elements in Oregon's splendid citizenship of today is found in the gentle influence and consecrated lives of those eastern bred women. History contains no more thrilling story than the records of the lives and military records present no account of greater fearlessness in the face of danger than is contained in the life story of Mrs. W. H. Gray, who in 1835 came as a missionary to the Oregon country. Her Christian work was

"A labor loved and followed to the goal. . .
A faith so sure of the divine intent
It dignifies the deeds of daily life."

In her maidenhood Mrs. Gray bore the name of Mary Augusta Dix. She was of English lineage and came of the same ancestry as Dorothy A. Dix, the philanthropist. She was born at Ballston Spa, New York, January 2, 1810, and was one of a family of seven daughters who were reared in a Christian home amid refined associations. Her parents took an active interest in church work and it was no unusual thing to see them with their seven daughters seated in the church choir, the mother and daughters dressed in white. The first break in the happy home circle came in February 1838, when W. H. Gray of Utica, New York, sought the hand of Mary Dix in marriage. He had recently returned from the Oregon country, where he had gone in 1836 with Dr. Marcus Whitman and Rev. H. H. Spalding as secular agent of the missions they went to establish. She was to be not wife alone but colaborer in this mission field. Not long before the death of Mrs. Gray her daughter, Mrs. Kamm, said to her: "Mother, I have often wondered how, with your education and surroundings, the refinements of life you were accustomed to and your personal habits, you could possibly have made up your mind to marry a man to whom you were a total stranger so short a time before and go with him on such a terrible journey thousands of miles from civilization into an unknown wilderness, exposed to countless dangers. Mother, how did you do it?" After a few moments' pause her mother replied with earnestness and solemnity: "Carrie, I dared not refuse. Ever since the day I gave myself to Jesus, it has been my daily prayer, 'Lord, what will thou have me to do?' When this question, 'Will you go to Oregon as one of a little band of missionaries to teach the poor Indians of their Savior?' was so suddenly proposed to me, I felt that it was the call of the Lord and I could not do otherwise."

This was the motive that led Mrs. Gray to sever home ties and go with her husband in the work of consecrated Christian service to the far west. By steamer and stagecoach they traveled westward until they reached Independence, Missouri, where they were joined by the Rev.  Cushing Eells, Rev. Alkanah Walker, Mr. and Mrs. A. B. Smith and Mr. Rogers, who were also to become workers in the missionary field. They planned to make the journey on horseback – a difficult undertaking as well as an arduous one in that day when the streams and rivers in the west were unbridged and when little more than an obscure trail marked the way to the coast. The Indians were a constant menace and often surrounded their camp, standing around like great dogs and sometimes even following the party all day. They carried with them tents which served as shelter at night while a buffalo robe and oil cloth blankets constituted their beds. At times  their blankets would become heavy with rain and their clothing in the morning would be as damp as when they took it off the night before and when darkness came upon them they pitched their tents, spread the robes upon the ground within and then the piece of oilcloth. The saddles and loose baggage were arranged neatly about on the walls inside and rolled up blankets served for seats. In the center of the tent a table was spread for the evening meal. At night the cries and howling of wild animals could be heard. When day broke, about 3:30 in the morning, all were astir; the animals were turned out to feed, breakfast prepared and eaten, the dishes washed, the repacking done, morning prayers were said and they were ready for the journey of another day. They had traveled for one hundred and twenty nine days after leaving Independence, Missouri, when on the 29th of August, 1838, they reached Whitman mission, where they were joyously greeted by Dr. and Mrs. Whitman and Rev. and Mrs. Spalding, who had been anxiously awaiting them. Mr. and Mrs. Gray became the assistants of Rev. and Mrs. Spalding, who were in charge of the mission at Lapwai. Mrs. Gray earnestly undertook the task of teaching the Indian women and children and soon was instructing a band of fifty or more natives whom she taught under a pine tree until a log schoolhouse could be built. It was a primitive structure with puncheon seats and earth floor. There Mrs. Gray continued her labors until November 1842. Her well trained voice proved a potent factor in her work. When she first joined in the singing at family prayers Rev. Spalding realized what a power her voice would be in his Sunday worship and requested her to take charge of that part of the service. The Indians, too, were visibly impressed by her singing and spoke of her as "Christ's sister," and told the tale of her music long afterward. No doubt the awakening powers of her voice, coupled with her rare sweetness of character, had much to do with bringing about the great revival among the Nez Perce Indians. Several hundred made confessions of religion and the influence was at least in a degree lasting, for years after Mr. Spalding left that field the Indians in many of the lodges continued to read the Bible, to sing hymns, to pray and return thanks at their meals.

In November, 1840, the Gray family came to the Willamette valley, Mr. Gray having severed his connection with the missions to accept the appointment of secular agent for the Oregon  institute. The journey to the coast was one of untold hardships, the parents, their son and two daughters floating down the Columbia to Clilo in a bateau belonging to the Hudson Bay Company. Believing that the trail would be safer than the turbulent waters of the Columbia near the cascades, Mr. Gray arranged that he and his family should proceed on the backs of Indian ponies, but when they were deep in the mountains they encountered a severe snow storm |which not only imperiled their lives but rendered further travel impossible. Some of their Indian guides were then sent to Fort Vancouver for help. At the Columbia the red men found a canoe in which they proceeded down the river and when Dr. McLaughlin heard that a woman and little children were snowbound in the mountains he at once sent a boat manned by Hudson Bay Company men to their relief. Mrs. Gray's calm faith and belief that all would yet be well served to keep up the courage of the others and as the relief party were making their way up the Columbia, there came to them upon the wings of the wind the strains of a song that she was singing. Thus they directed their course to where the little party was imprisoned. They returned with the family to the river bank where embarkation was made for Fort Vancouver.

From that time forward the work of Mr. and Mrs. Gray proved a strong force in advancing the religious development of Oregon and also the temperance and educational work. Their home was the center from which radiated social and reform movements. In 1846 they assisted in forming on Clatsop plains the first Presbyterian Church in the northwest. The strongest influences in life are often the most intangible and who can measure the work of this noble couple who were never contented with second best but chose those things which are highest and holiest. Every movement or measure for the promotion of truth, justice and righteousness received their support and many such found their impetus in their home. In 1870 they returned on a visit to their old home in New York, going from Portland to San Francisco and thence across the continent by rail, accomplishing in a few days a journey to which they had devoted months when they made their way on horseback to the Pacific coast thirty-two years before. It has been said of Mrs. Gray that her presence was gentle and dignified. Many there are yet who bear testimony to the nobility of her character. She possessed a pure spirit and strong soul and was so pacific in her disposition that under the severest tests she remained calm and self-possessed. Her last words were a prayer that her husband, children and friends might join her in the Father's house not made with hands. She passed away at her country home, the Clalskanie farm, December 8, 1881, when nearly seventy-two years of age, survived by her husband and seven of the nine children born unto her. The high sensitiveness of her nature was tempered by a serenity that had its root in an unwavering faith. She never faltered when she believed that the work before her was that which her maker intended that she should do.  Of a most quiet, refined nature, her life was a restraining power to the spirit of lawlessness which is too often an element in a new community where an organization of society and of government has not been effected. While her words carried weight and influence, the beauty of her own Christian life and spirit constituted a still stronger power for good.

Source: Oregon Pictorial and Biographical Deluxe Supplement (1912) S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, Chicago
Transcribed by Vicki Bryan


Thomas H. Gray

This pioneer of pioneers and historian of events in which he took so conspicuous a part was born in Fairfield, New York, on the 8th of September 1810, and was a gentleman of Scotch descent. When but a lad of fourteen he lost his father and was apprenticed to the cabinet-maker's trade. At the age of seventeen, before the term of his apprenticeship was completed, he became foreman of the shop. After attaining his majority he studied medicine and, being a member of the Presbyterian Church, he was solicited by the American board to accompany Dr. Whitman. He crossed the plains with Dr. Whitman and wife and Rev. Henry H. Spalding and wife, the party arriving at Fort Vancouver on the 12th of September 1836. Having come with Whitman in 1836 across the plains in company with Sublette to the Greene River, having assisted the other missionaries in the journey to Vancouver and in establishing themselves at Wailatpu, and having himself gone to Alpona among the Flatheads, he determined to return the next year for reinforcements. To defray the expenses of his journey he drove a band of twenty horses and also had as companions in his company three young Flathead Indians, one of whom was the son of a chief. All went well with the party until Ash Hallow on the Nebraska River was reached. There they were attacked by a war party of three hundred Sioux. The Flatheads, being desperate fighters, although vastly outnumbered, kept the enemy at bay for three hours, laying fifteen of them dead on the sand. Gray himself took a hand in the fight, having two horses shot under him and receiving two bullets through his hat. The Sioux, having lost a war chief among the slain and seeing no likelihood of overcoming the doughty little band, proposed a truce. But while the chiefs were parleying with Gray, others of the Sioux treacherously attacked his young men, shooting down one Iroquois, one Snake and three Flatheads, one of whom was the chief's son. The French interpreter then declared that the others were prisoners and must give up their guns. This Gray refused to do and told the rest of his squad to sell their lives as dearly as possible. At this show of determination the Sioux gave back again and proposed a talk, and over the slain of both sides smoked the pipe of peace. It has been said variously that the death of this young chief alienated the Flatheads from Gray and that it was one of the causes of the Whitman massacre. Neither of these statements is correct or even reasonable. After his return to his mission, the Flatheads allowed Mr. Gray to live and teach among them until 1842; and his final withdrawal seems to have been due not to the disaffection of the Indians but to lack of agreement with his missionary companions. To suppose that the death of a Flathead in company with Gray in 1837 would cause another tribe, the Cayuses, two hundred miles off, to kill Whitman in 1847, is very peculiar.

Gray's services in establishing the provisional government were as that of originator of the scheme. His Americanism found no vent or scope in the Oregon of the old Hudson's Bay rule; and, shut off from the national life which had been a part of his own and learning to hate the plans and expectations of the British, he was no sooner in the Willamette valley than he conceived the idea of the American settlers establishing a government of their own. He took the responsibility of agitating the matter, of interesting Le Breton and Matthieu and others, of getting up the Wolf meetings and of pushing the scheme which seemed constantly on so slender a basis as to be ready to fall to the ground either on this side or that. With admirable tact, shrewdness and force, Gray and Le Breton led the column and carried the matter through to a most pronounced factory.  The following is an account of the "Wolf meeting." An avowed attempt to form a government would have arrayed the Canadian French in opposition, would have confirmed the doubting or conservative Americans into opponents. Hence the expedient was resorted to of bringing together all classes and limiting them in a movement in which all felt a common interest. A notice was issued for a meeting on the 2d of February 1843, at the Oregon Institute, to consider the propriety of adopting measures for the protection of herds and for the destruction of animals which preyed upon cattle, stock, etc. The ulterior purpose was a combination of settlers – a cooperative association to concert measures for the formation of some kind of civil government. At this meeting William H. Gray was chosen a member of a committee of six to make arrangements for a general meeting and to report business to such meeting. This done, the "Wolf meeting," as it is known in history, adjourned to meet at the house of Joseph Gervais on the first Monday in March. After adopting resolutions looking to the defense and welfare of their live stock against predatory animals and organizing the "Wolf Association," the meeting did not adjourn but appointed a committee of twelve, of which Mr. Gray was a member, to take into consideration the propriety of taking measures for the civil and military protection of this colony. That the outcome of that meeting to form a "Wolf Association" would prove to be either the submission of a plan of government, or a proposition to initiate the preliminary steps to organize, had been public expectation. There was an eventful meeting at Champoeg. Mr. Gray was chosen a member of the first legislative committee. He was a member of the first territorial legislature and was one of a committee of five appointed to draft a memorial to the congress of the United States, setting forth the condition, situation, relation and wants of the country. In achieving the success of the "Wolf Association," the cunning of Le Breton would have had no effect without the moral earnestness and direct force of Gray, who did the talking, made the appeals, wrote the resolutions and closed the debates. This detracts nothing from the merits of Griffin, Meek, Smith and others, who were not simply followers but colaborers. It is to be regretted that no record remains of the secret sessions of these American agitators.

After the full establishment of the provisional government Gray went to Clatsop Plains and in 1852 went east once more for the purpose of getting sheep for the young settlement. The scheme had been original with him for some time; and it was a favorite theory with Whitman himself that sheep were of more value than soldiers to the early settlers and also to the Indians. Colonel James Taylor was interested in the same line and formed a partnership with Gray for the purpose. Gray made the arduous journey in safety, bringing his flock by boat down the Columbia, but at Tanzy Point a heavy south wind coming down Young's Bay prevented a landing. The scow was caught in a storm and blown out upon the sands and was wrecked on Chinook Spit, and the whole almost invaluable flock was drowned. He assumed the entire responsibility of the loss and gave up his farm and home to meet the obligation, yet was not disheartened by the reverse. He was engaged in many business operations, being in California in 1849 to dig gold. He went to the Eraser river mines at Fort Hope and Okanagan in 1858. In the winter of 1860-61 he built a boat at Asooya's lake on the British border. This was a craft with ninety-one-foot keel and a twelve-foot beam. It was constructed with no tools but a saw, hatchet and chisel, and was caulked with wild flax mingled with pitch gathered from the pine trees. She was brought down the Okanagan and Columbia rivers to Celilo. Mr. Gray was also one of the earliest navigators of the violent Snake river.

For many years he lived at Astoria and during part of that time was a government inspector of the port. His later years were most enjoyably spent on the farm of his son-in-law, Jacob Kamm, on the Klaskanine. It is a matter of justice, which he was never forward to claim for himself, to say that his reason for not going to the Cayuse war was on account of the prevalence of a dangerous epidemic of measles on Clatsop Plains, to prevent the ravages of which he was particularly desired to remain by those who were going to the scenes of war and who wanted some one upon whom they could rely to care for their families in this sickness. He was the only physician in that region. For a number of years he was thus practicing medicine on the plains and was ever successful. Dr. Gray performed the first operation of trephining of the skull on the Pacific coast, and the Indian boy who was thus benefited by his skill spread his good fortune up and down through the forests. He was ever the friend of churches and schools, ever bore his hand in politics and public affairs, served as representative county judge and justice and found his chief interest in public improvements. He was exceedingly active in the promotion of temperance, holding the most advanced views upon that subject.

Mr. Gray's history of Oregon, the first history written in the state, is so well known and so important in its sphere that it is fitting to devote some space here to its special consideration. The history was published m 1870. It exhibits flashes of dramatic power throughout. To those who have no interest in the contests of old times and to whom it is somewhat offensive to read of plots, charges and countercharges, the book ceases to please. But while these elements awaken the opposition of the reader, . . . to the scientific or philosophical inquirer into the early conditions of our state, it is invaluable as presenting the feelings of all parties—not only of Gray himself, but of the Presbyterians, Methodists, the non-mission people and even of the English. This makes Gray's history a most useful work upon this subject. Gray discards nothing as unimportant and makes little use of the cloak of charity but tells everything with reckless truthfulness. He caters to no one, writes nothing for the sake of popularity and never changes a word for the sake of rhetoric.

In his political career, as well as in all his enterprises, Mr. Gray was ever inflexible, blunt and direct, hard to manage, a good hater, but keen and faithful to his cause. When he had some great object to accomplish, he showed address and appreciation of the circumstances, and in the early days was without doubt the Achilles of the American party. He was an honest friend, moreover, and his personal relations with Dr. McLoughlin were most kindly, although for many years they were firm political opponents. Mr. Gray died on the 14th of November 1889, and his remains were taken to Astoria to rest beside those of his loved wife. Taken all in all, William H. Gray is one of the most remarkable characters of North Pacific history.

One of Mr. Gray's objects on his first return trip to the east, in 1837, was to claim his bride. The young lady to whom he was betrothed was appalled by the prospect of a life in the far western wilderness among savages and remote from civilization, so the match was broken off. After a brief but ardent and forceful wooing, he married Miss Mary A. Dix, who was born in Ballston Spa, New York, on the 2d of January 1810. The marriage ceremony took place on the 25th of February 1838, Mrs. Gray being the daughter of a Revolutionary soldier who had decided to devote her life to missionary work. In 1838 this courageous couple set forth upon their life mission in the west, taking with them three other missionaries and their wives and locating at Fort Lapwai, Idaho. The zeal of the missionaries is understood when it is known that two weeks after their arrival Mrs. Gray had started a school for Indians under a pine tree in the wilderness and had a membership of from fifty to one hundred. Nor were her efforts confined to teaching the children, for during leisure hours she instructed the mothers in keeping their homes clean, in the art of making bread, and also taught them to cut and make clothes for their families. In 1838 both Dr. Gray and his wife received certificates from Rev. Dr. Greene, of New York, as missionaries of the American Board of Foreign Missions, both of which now hang in the historical rooms together with their passports. In July 1842, Mr. Gray resigned from the Board of Foreign Missions and made a trip to the Willamette valley, where he became trustee and contractor and built the old Oregon Institute, since known as Willamette University from 1842 until 1844 he lived with his family in Salem and then until 1846 in Oregon City. He next removed to Clatsop Plains, where, aided by his wife and three others, he organized the first Presbyterian Church in Oregon. During the latter years of their lives Mr. and Mrs. Gray lived principally at Astoria. Mrs. Gray died in 1881. They had the following children: Captain J. H. D. Gray, who died at Astoria on the 26th of October, 1902, and was ex-state senator and ex-county judge of Clatsop county; Mrs. Jacob Kamm; Mary S., deceased, who was the wife of Frank Tarbell of Tacoma, Washington; Sarah F., who became Mrs. Abernethy, of Oregon City and Portland; Captain William Polk; Captain Albert Williams; and Captain James T.  Mrs. Gray was a lady of education and refinement and of unusually lovely person, manner, and character. She was an humble, consecrated Christian. One especially interesting fact in connection with her labors at Lapwai has been handed down to us. She had a remarkably sweet, finely trained voice, and when upon the morning after her arrival she joined in the singing at family worship, Mr. Spalding felt that it would be a power in their Sabbath services and requested her to conduct that part of the worship. When the Indians heard her sing they were visibly impressed and afterward spoke of her as "Christ's sister." While visiting at her mother's a few months before her death, Mrs. Kamm said to her one day. "Mother, I have often wondered how you, with your education and surroundings, the refinements of life that you were accustomed to, and your own personal habits, could possibly have made up your mind to marry a man to whom you were a total stranger so short a time from your first meeting with him, and go with him on such a terrible journey, thousands of miles from civilization, into an unknown wilderness, across two chains of mountains and exposed to countless dangers. “Mother, how did you ever do it?” Her mother sat with her eyes intently fixed upon the carpet and then, after a few moments' pause, replied with great earnestness and solemnity: "Carrie, I dared not refuse! Ever since the day when I gave myself up to Jesus, it had been my daily prayer, 'Lord, what wilt thou have me to do?' And when the question, 'Will you go to Oregon as one of a little band of self-denying missionaries and teach these poor Indians of their Savior?' was suddenly proposed to me, I felt that it was the call of the Lord and I could not do otherwise."

Source: Oregon Pictorial and Biographical Deluxe Supplement (1912) S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, Chicago
Transcribed by Vicki Bryan

CLARENCE JOHN CURTIS.
Residence, 488 Commercial street; office, Page building, Astoria.  Born August 20, 1853, at Edwardsburg, Case County, Michigan.  Son of Cyrus Madison and Mary Jane (Kimball) Curtis.  Married August 29, 1876, to Anna M. Wood.  Received his early education in the public and high schools of Kalamazoo, Michigan, from which he graduated in June, 1875.  Came to Oregon in 1878 and studied law for three years with ex-Governor Addison C. Gibbs at Portland.  Admitted to the Supreme Court of Oregon in October, 1882; to the United States District Court, Portland, in 1890, and to the United States Circuit Court in 1891.  Member Legislature 1889, 1892 and 1893.  City Attorney of Astoria 1887 to 1803.  President Common Council, Astoria, 1909-10.  Member B. P. O. E.  Republican.

Source: History of the Bench and Bar of Oregon; Historical Publishing Company, Portland, Oregon (1910)
Transcribed by Kathy Childs

JAMES ALEXANDER EAKIN.
Residence, 51 Grand Ave.; office, 426-8 Commercial street, Astoria, Ore. Born October 26, 1859, at Chicago Heights, Illinois. Son of Stewart Bates and Catherine (McEldowney) Eakin. Married October 8, 1887, to Clara M. Adams. Moved to Oregon with his parents when he was seven years of age, attended rural school near Eugene. Attended public schools at Eugene for one year, entering the preparatory department of the State University (in its second year) and attended that institution until the completion of his studies. Read law three years in the office of his brother, Judge Robert Eakin, at Union, Oregon, and was admitted to the bar in 1887; practiced two years with him, then attended Boston University School of Law for two years and graduated in 1891. Located at Astoria and has practiced there ever since. Appointed Circuit Judge Fifth District Oregon in May, 1909, which position he still holds. Served as Deputy District Attorney for the past six years. Republican.

Source: History of the Bench and Bar of Oregon; Historical Publishing Company, Portland, Oregon (1910)
Transcribed by Kathy Childs

FORREST STARKEY FISHER.
Residence, 630 Montgomery Drive; office, 601 Fenton building. Born July 4, 1876, in Astoria, Clatsop County, Ore. Son of James William and Mary (Starkey) Fisher. Married June 5, 1907, to Edith M. Barnhisel. Received his education at the public schools at The Dalles, Ore., and Wasco Independent Academy. Attended Leland Stanford Junior University, 1894-1899, and graduated degree A. B. Later attended National University and graduated in 1902, with degree LL. M. Admitted to the bar in Salem, Ore., October, 1899. From 1903 to date in partnership with Homer D. Angell under firm name of Angell & Fisher. Republican.

Source: History of the Bench and Bar of Oregon; Historical Publishing Company, Portland, Oregon (1910)
Transcribed by Kathy Childs

GEORGE CLYDE FULTON.
Residence and office, Astoria, Ore. Born August 28, 1860, near St. John, Iowa. Son of Jacob and Eliza Ann (McAllister) Fulton. Married October, 1885, to Maude Edith Hobson. His early education was received at a country school in Iowa, and later in the public schools of Pawnee City, Neb., where his parents had taken up their residence. Graduated from the High School at Pawnee City and also from Pawnee Academy. Studied law in the offices of George Graham and Hon. George M. Humphrey, of Pawnee. Taught school for several years in order to secure means to pursue his law studies, which he continued while teaching. Admitted to the bar of Nebraska in 1882. Practiced at Marion Centre, Neb., for a few months and then moved to Leadville, and stayed there a year. Came to Oregon in 1883 for a visit, later locating at Snohomish, Wash., and practiced there a few months. Returned to Astoria and entered into partnership with his brother, C. W. Fulton, where he has since continuously lived and practiced. Admitted to the Supreme Court of Oregon October 10, 1883. Admitted to the Federal Courts of Washington July 31, 1896. Member B. P. O. E., A. A. A. C., Commercial Club of Astoria, Masonic order. Republican.

Source: History of the Bench and Bar of Oregon; Historical Publishing Company, Portland, Oregon (1910)
Transcribed by Kathy Childs

Dr. B.A. Owens-Adair

Dr. B.A. Owens-Adair (Autobiographical).  I was born February 7, 1840, in Van Buren county, Missouri, second daughter of Thomas and Sarah Damron Owens.  My father and mother crossed the plains with the first emigrant wagons of 1843, and settled on Clatsop plains, Clatsop county, Oregon, near the mouth of the great Columbia “River of the West,” within the ceaseless roar of the mighty Pacific.  I was then very small and delicate in stature and of a highly nervous sensitive nature and yet I possessed a strong and vigorous constitution and a most wonderful endurance and recuperative powers.  These qualities were inherited, not only from my parents but my grandparents as well.  My grandfather Owens was a man of exceptional financial ability.  He owned a large plantation in Kentucky and had many slaves and many stores throughout the state.  He was a grandson of Sir Thomas Owens, of Wales, of historic fame and my grandmother was of German descent.  Small in stature but executive, she took full charge of the plantation in my grandfather’s absence which was most of the time.  She was the head of her household as well.  Everything came under her capable control.  She was the mother of twelve children.  All grew to maturity, married and went on giving vigorous sons and daughters to the young and growing republic.
My grandfather Damron was of equal worth.  He was a noted Indian fighter.  He was employed by the government as a scout and spy during the wars with Shawnees and Delawares.  He performed many deeds of bravery and daring.  He killed that noted Indian terror “Big Foot.”  He shot him in “Cumberland Pass;” but the most daring feat of bravery was his rescue of a mother and her five children from a band of Shawnees.  For this the government presented him with a silver mounted rifle valued at three hundred dollars.  Grandmother Damron was of Irish descent and noted for her great beauty.

My father was a tall, athletic Kentuckian, served as sheriff of Pike county for many years, was appointed as deputy at sixteen.  It was said of him, “Tom Owens was not afraid of man or devil.”  Mother was of slight build but of perfect form.  She weighed ninety-six when married at sixteen.  Mother inherited her father’s courage and bravery.  She was the mother of twelve children and lived to have passed her fourscore years and ten (ninety).  Brother Flem was my constant companion.  He grew rapidly and soon overtook me in size; but I was tough and active.  Not until I was twelve did he ever succeed in throwing me.  One day he came in with a broad grin on his good-natured face and said, “’Pop’ told me to go to the barn for two bundles of oats for the horses.  Now the first one down will go for the oats.”  Instantly the dish cloth was dropped and we clinched.  I had noticed for some time that he had been gaining on me but I could not take a “dair” and he had not yet thrown me.  Round and round the room we went, bending and swaying like two young saplings, till seeing his chance he put out his foot and tripped me.  I fell and my mouth struck on the post of a chair which broke off a piece of one of my front teeth.  Poor brother picked up the fragment of tooth, burst out crying and ran off for the oats.  He had just learned this new accomplishment in wrestling which he had kept secret from me to his life-long regret, for in those times and parts dentistry was almost an unknown art.  It was eighteen years before I could find a dentist who could repair the injury.  Dr. Hatch, of Portland, did the work for ten dollars.  I was more than glad to have the ugly gap filled with shining gold.  It remained for thirty-five years and was perfect when extracted.  I have saved if for a souvenir in remembrance of that particular tussle with my good brother, not the last by any means.  We were constant companions and I was a veritable “tom-boy” and gloried in the fact.

It was the regret of my life up to the age of thirty-five years that I was not born a boy, for I realized early in life that a girl was hampered and hemmed in on all sides, simply by the accident of sex.  Brother and I were always trying our muscular strength, and while in my thirteenth year I bet him I could carry four sacks of flour, two hundred pounds.  We placed two sacks on a table and two on a box and I stood between.  Brother placed a sack on each of my shoulders and then I managed to get the remaining sacks, one under each arm.  Then while he steadied the two on my shoulders, I walked off triumphantly with the four sacks.

In the year of 1847, after the Whitman massacre, my father was preparing to go with the Clatsop volunteers to fight the Indians.  When all was ready and father stood in the midst of his weeping wife and children, a Mr. McDonald, who was working for father, stepped forward and said, “Mr. Owens, I am a simple man!  I have no one to care for me but I am poor.  Give me your outfit and money for my expenses and I will go in your place.”  Yielding at last to the entreaties of his family, father finally consented and Mr. McDonald went in his place, but he never returned.  He was killed.  We have always remembered him gratefully, believing he might have saved our father’s life.  At least he gave his own freely.
I was the family nurse and it was seldom I did not have a child in my arms and more clinging to me, when there was a baby every two years.  There was no end to nursing, especially when mother’s time was occupied from early dawn till late at night with inside and outside work, she seldom had time to devote to baby except to give it the breast.  When the weather was fine we fairly lived outdoors, I hauling baby in its rude little sled or cart, which bumped along and often bumped baby out but which seldom seriously hurt and never killed.  With a two-year-old on my hip and a four-year-old clinging to me to keep up or more often on brother Flem’s back we went playing here and working there during all the pleasant weather.  When it rained we ran to the barn where we could swing, play hide-and-seek and slide down the hay mow.  Many times I have carried the children to the top and with baby in my arms and the other two clinging to me we would slide to the bottom, to the great delight of all.

I was fond of hunting hens’ nests and usually found them.  One afternoon I crawled under the barn.  I knew there were eggs there.  The ground was hard and smooth, and near the barn floor about the center, I found a nest full of eggs.  I squeezed under so I could reach and gather them in my apron.  I could not turn around so I began to slide out backwards when passing a sleeper a knot caught between the waist-band of my dress and the first button.  Try as best I might I could not get loose.  Brother was waiting outside and when he found I could not extricate myself he ran for mother.  Father was away from home and mother knew the only way to release me was to break the button hole.  Lying there on my face, wedged in, I could not reach the button or break the button hole.  The big barn was full of hay which would have taken several men at least a day or more to get down to the middle of the barn and to have tunneled under would have taken as much time.  Mother told me to push myself forwards, sideways and backwards, with all my force.  After a long time I succeeded in tearing out the buttonhole.  As soon as I got clear of the sleeper I reached back and unbuttoned all my buttons to make sure I did not get hung up again.  Now being free, I soon backed out to freedom, bringing my eggs with me.  That was not the last time I crawled under the barn for eggs; but I had learned a lesson and I never went into a tight place like that again without preparing myself to leave all my clothes behind, in case I got hung up on a knot or peg.

When I was twelve years old, a teacher came to teach a three months school for our neighborhood.  His name was Beaufort.  School-books were very scarce.  Sometimes whole families were taught from one book.  All children over four attended school.  Children did not remain babies long in those days, when other children came so fast to crowd them out of the cradle.  Boys and girls of fourteen and fifteen were expected to do a full day’s work on the farm or in the house, and the younger ones were taught to be helpful and to take care of themselves.  The teacher was a fine, handsome young man.  He kept himself clean and neat and trim and did not seek the company of the young men of his age, and they naturally disliked him.  He boarded at our house and we children walked two miles to school with him daily.  He was very kind to the children and they were all very fond of him.  He would often take two or three little tots or as many as could hold on to him and then run races with the larger ones, to the great delight of the youngsters who thought they had won the race.  I simply worshiped my handsome teacher who taught me so many things.  He taught me to run, to jump, to lasso, and to spring upon the horses backs, all of which I greatly appreciated.

One time there was picnic at our house, it being the largest and best house on Clatsop.  The young men began to joke and guy our teacher about his white hands.  He took it good-naturedly, but finally said, “I will bet you two hundred in cash, my watch and chain and all I have against one hundred and whatever you can put up, that I can dig, measure, and stack more potatoes than any man on Clatsop.”  This stirred their blood and touched their pride and they accepted his challenge.  He was to dig, measure and stack, sixty bushels of potatoes in three stacks in ten hours, he to select the ground.  My father said to Lagrand Hill who was then working for him and whom I married two years later, “My boy, take my advice and don’t fool your summer’s work away!  I have been watching that young man for three months.  He is as strong as a bear and as active as a cat;” but like the others he needed no advice.  He bet his watch and two hundred sheaves of oats on the issue.  Mr. Beaufort selected Mr. Jewett’s potato patch, near the county road.  The day before he staked off the ground and smoothed off the spots on which to pile his potatoes.  The day was bright and beautiful.  Everybody was there, including Indians.  It was a genuine picnic.  Everybody came provided to stay all day and see the fun.  The hour being near at hand, the teacher removed his coat, vest, and long, blue, handsome, Spanish silk scarf and hung them on the fence.  Suspenders were unknown in those days.  He then loosened his leather belt and taking off his boots he encased his feet in a pair of handsome beaded moccasins, then drawing on a pair of soft buckskin gloves over his soft white hands, he picked up the new hoe from which he had sawed off about half the handle and stepped to the middle of the plot.  When the time keeper called the hour, he took off his hat and made a graceful bow, and stepping across a potato hill, with a foot on each side of it, with two or three strokes of the hoe he laid bare the potatoes and with both hands scooped them into the half bushel measure.  It did not require more than two or three hills to fill the measure.  Then with two or three elastic leaps he emptied it on one of the places.  For two or three hours he kept the tellers busy, then he took it easy and laughed and joked as he worked, and finished long before night.  That was a red letter day for our handsome teacher.  He had raked in watches, rings, scarf-pins and about all the spare money the young men and some of the old ones had.  After he had finished he turned several hand springs and when he reached the fence, he put his hands on the top rail and sprang over and that was a revolution in potato digging on Clatsop.  All the whites dug with a long-handled hoe and the Indians used a stick or their hands, crawling along on their hands and knees.  That was a good lesson to the Clatsopites.  He left in a few days and we never heard of him again, but his memory is always fresh in my mind.

He was in my young, crude and barren life, a green, flower-strewn oasis, with a fountain of cool water in its midst.  I was but twelve years old, small, perfect in form, health, and vigor.  Brother Flem towered far above me and sister Diana, “The Clatsop Beauty,” was taller than our mother.  My love of my handsome teacher knew no bounds.  Sister Diana said I was always tagging him around and mother scolded me saying, “You ought to know that he must get tired of you and the children sometimes.”  But I found many opportunities of being in his society and I always improved them, especially as mother was so over-worked and she was glad to be relieved of the care of the baby and two younger ones.  Taking my brood, I would seek out my friend who invariably met us with a welcoming smile for he had learned to love the two tiny girls and the big fat baby, who returned his affection.  He would catch up one of the older ones, toss her above his head in such a way that she would rest across his shoulders with her little arms around his head and then he would take baby and hug her up, and taking the other tot under his arm we would be off for a race and how we did enjoy it.  The children would scream with delight and my own happiness was no less deep.  Often we went to the field where my father was cultivating or ploughing, and many times did he lift me lightly to the back of the near horse and handing me the baby and seating one of the others behind me, with one on his shoulder he would walk beside with his hand upon us to keep us from falling.  Father liked him too, and was always glad to have him with us.  It was a sad day when he left us.  First he bade father and mother good-bye and then the children.  He snatched up the baby from the floor, tossed her up and kissed her.  I was trying to keep back my tears.  He smiled down on me with his handsome blue eyes and said to mother, “I guess I’ll take this one with me!”  Mother said, “All right, she is such a tom-boy, I can never make a girl of her anyway.”  He took my little hand in his and I went some distance down the road with him.  Then he said, “Now little one, you must go back.  You are a nice little girl.  Some day you will make a fine woman; but you must remember and study your book hard and when you get to be a woman everybody will love you, and don’t forget your teacher, will you?”  He gathered me up in his arms smiling and kissed me and then set me down with my face toward home.  I ran back and seeing the children on the fence looking, I ran around back of the house in the garden and hid and cried a long time.  Of course they all laughed at me and oftentimes when I was rebellious and wayward, which was frequent, I would be confronted with, “I wish the teacher had taken you with him,” to which I never failed to answer promptly and fervently, “I wish he had too.”

About this time a Mr. and Mrs. McCrary moved in on the adjoining farm.  Their little home was just beyond a pretty little grassy hill, not more than a quarter of a mile away.  I did not like the man but I fell in love with his tall splendid wife.  She was older than my mother and very different from her.  She was tall and fair but not pretty in form or face; but she was one of the most beautiful and admirable characters I ever met.  To me she was beautiful, for I loved her always.  No child could have loved a mother more than I loved this pure, noble woman.  It is said that love begets love, and surely it did in this case for she returned my love with a true mother love.  She was not blessed with children of her own.  This affection remained unbroken through her long, subsequent life of nearly fifty years, and now looking back I can realize that the lovely example of her beautiful life has had much to do in molding my own and I doubt not that of many of the characters of those around her.  They had but two small rooms, scantily furnished, but everything was immaculate and she with her hair combed smoothly back, her white kerchief pinned smoothly over her bosom and with her kind words, sweet smiles and sweet and winning ways, was a fitting and charming mistress of her spotless, little home.  My mother was a neat and tasteful woman; but she said Mrs. McCrary always looked like she came out of a bandbox.

I always managed to visit my friend once a day and often several times.  Whatever might be my task, I would finish it as soon as possible that I might slip off and fly to Mrs. McCrary’s.  It did seem like flying for my feet scarcely touched the ground as I ran.  I received many scoldings for running off, and was told that grown up people did not want to be bothered with children; but unless I was positively forbidden I went.  She always seemed so glad to see me and had so many pretty and pleasant things to say to me that it was no wonder I loved her.  She seldom visited and never gossiped.  She was a reader, but books and papers were scarce in those days.  She always treated me as if I was a little lady.  She would say, “Your visits are just like bright, sparkling, refreshing sunbeams to me.”  If a button was gone from my dress or apron, a pin went in and she would say, “Now that looks so much nicer.”  Sometimes she would say, “I am going to comb out those lovely braids of yours.”  She would take down my hair, which came halfway to the floor, and then the little glass from the wall, holding it that I might see how pretty it looked, waving over my shoulders, saying, “We will just wait a while, it makes you look so like a fairy.”  Sometimes she told me fairy stories while she taught me to knit, crochet and sew, all this time talking and drawing me out, correcting my mistakes, with such delicacy, that my supersensitive nature was never wounded.  She infused such a charm into everything she did and said, that I was not only interested, but anxious to learn.  She impressed upon my mind in the most positive language just how the things should be done and showing me by example, and having me assist when possible and always excusing my blunders.  If she was making biscuits, she would have me stand by while she showed me every step.  “Now you take so many cups of flour, so many cups of milk, so much butter, so much salt and sugar for so many persons and when you knead the biscuits, be sure and do not get the flour too near the edge of the board or it will get on the floor and you must stand a little back or you will soil your apron.  Do you know I have seen women who would wear an apron all the week and then it would not be as mussed as that of some women would be in one day.  Some women have a place for everything and keep them in place while some women keep their things haphazard and never know where anything is.  They make themselves a great deal of work, and have a harder time.  You will never be that kind of a person, for your mother is a good house-keeper.”  Was it any wonder that I loved that wise, good woman?  I was as wax in her hands.  Could I have been under her influence till I reached maturity instead of one year, I could and would have escaped many hardships and sorrows of my life.

After many years I returned to Clatsop and heard that Mr. McCrary was dead and Mrs. McCrary was spending the winter in Astoria.  I went at once to see her.  Oh, what a joyful meeting was ours and with what interest and emotion did we recall and rehearse the past!  She was the same grand woman.  Hardships and griefs of which she had suffered many, seemed to have made her more lovely and saintly.  She said,  “Well, I am getting old and you are young and fresh with the bloom and beauty of womanhood upon you; but I can see much to remind me of the little barefooted girl who brought me so much pleasure the year I lived near your father’s,” and she laughed heartily.  Again we parted and years came and went.  I became a physician, married, and went to live on my “Sunnymead” farm, on Clatsop.  One dark night a messenger came with a lantern saying, “Mrs. McCrary is suffering dreadfully with an abscess.  Would I go?”  “Yes, by every fond recollection, by every tie of gratitude and affection, yes, I will go.”  A walk of a mile and half over the rough roadless tide land brought us to the Lewis and Clark river where horses were awaiting us, then a three mile ride brought us to our destination.  I administered an opiate and lanced the ulcer, applied a hot poultice and hot water bag and she was soon comfortable.  Then she said, “How good God is to send you to me in my troubles.  I do not regret my suffering so that it brought you to me.  Now I want you to get right in bed with me.  I am ashamed to be so selfish not to let you sleep in another room after such a hard trip; but if you had given me a bushel of opiates, I could not sleep.  I am so hungry for a good long talk.”  “Do not think you are depriving me of anything, for I am as anxious as you for such a talk,” and we did talk from 2 A.M. to breakfast time, living over much of our past lives from my early childhood.  A few years later she came to Clatsop to visit friends who owned my father’s old donation land claim.  While there she was attacked with pneumonia and for a time I despaired of her life.  She calmly said, “I know my time has come!  I am ready and anxious to go.  I have lived beyond my usefulness.  You are doing all you can and I do not blame you; but I feel that I ought to go now.”  But her time was not come.  She recovered and went to Portland to live with her adopted son whom she had raised from infancy.  I saw her there frequently.

In 1899, just before moving to Yakima, Washington, I called to say good-bye.  On seeing me she arose to her feet and met me with her heart warming smile.  “I see you are reading the Oregonian,” I said.  “Yes, I spend much of my time in reading.  If I could only remember what I read.  My memory is just about half across the floor.  You see that is about the length of it.”  “Never mind your present memory,” I said, “your past will not desert you, and the good you have done in this world will linger long after you and I have been laid to rest.”  The pleasant and cheerful way in which she alluded to her loss of memory illustrates the wonderful charm and beauty in which she invested life, so that all its rough, unsightly and annoying features were sure, under her sunny way of presenting them, to become less disagreeable and often charming.  To me her examples have been helps and blessings throughout my life.  That was the last time I saw that grand, noble woman, one of God’s masterpieces.  Her walk in life was lowly; but sunshine and flowers followed her and illumined her pathway.  No one came in contact with her without being made better.

An amusing occurrence took place when I was about thirteen.  Father had a little, ugly Welshman working for him.  This man had been trying to make love to me for some time and notwithstanding my scornful rejection of his attention and positive rude treatment of him, he persisted.  One morning I was washing.  In the room under the stair-way were several barrels, half-filled with cranberries.  That little imp, knowing I was there and watching his opportunity, slipped up behind me as I was stirring down the clothes with a long broom handle.  He threw his arms around me and hugged me and tried to kiss me, then jumped back and laughed triumphantly and tried to escape by the open door; but like a tiger I leaped between him and the door and gave him such a whack with the broom handle that he staggered and rushed under the stairs and plunged his head in the cranberry barrel, thus presenting a fair field for the strokes which in my fury I laid on thick and fast with all the strength I possessed.  He screamed and mother hearing the disturbance ran down stairs and had to actually pull me off by main strength.  When I got his head out of the barrel he sputtered and stammered and could not utter a coherent word.  In towering contempt I exclaimed, “You little skunk, if you ever dare to come near me again, I’ll kill you.”
About this time another occurrence happened that made a lasting impression on my mind.  One morning a young farmer about twenty-seven years old came rushing excitedly up with his coat on his arm to mother who was in the back yard, saying, “Where is Tom Owens?”  “What do you want of him?  He is not here.”  “I want him and I intend to whip him within an inch of his life.”  Mother said “Now Luke, go home and get over your mad fit.  Owens has never done you any harm and I tell you now, if you do get him roused he will beat you half to death, and I don’t want to see you hurt.”  But he had no notion of getting hurt.  Just then we saw father coming up the road on horseback.  Luke saw him and started for him.  Mother called and begged him to come back, the children were terribly frightened and began to cry.  Mother said, “Stop your crying, your father is not going to be hurt.”  She walked out with us to where we could see and hear all.  Father stopped his horse, and Luke, throwing down his coat, began gesticulating, swearing and daring father to fight him; but father sat calmly on his horse and said,  “Now Luke, you are only a boy, and you don’t know what you are doing.  Go home and let me alone.  I don’t want to hurt you.”  At this Luke sprang at him, calling him a coward and attempted to pull him off his horse; but before he could catch his foot, father was off his horse on the opposite side.  Giving the bridle a pull he turned the horse away from him.  The first thing he did when Luke came lunging at him was to knock him down with a single blow and then he held him down and choked him till he cried enough, when father released him saying, “Go to the house and wash and clean yourself up!  My wife will give you water and towels.”  Luke lost no time in obeying and mother assisted him.  She said, “I am very sorry you did not take my advice for I knew you would get hurt.”  He was very penitent and humiliated and when father came up, bringing his coat and assisted him in putting it on, they shook hands and were friends ever after.  It turned out that some of the neighbors knowing him to be a bragging bully and wanting to see the conceit taken out of him had told him that father had accused him of stealing.

In 1853, finding that his six hundred and forty acres could no longer supply food for his rapidly increasing herds, father decided to move to southern Oregon.  He set about building a flat boat or scow in which to move the family and stock that he did not wish to sell.  In the fall, after the crops were harvested, and everything sold that was not desirable to move, the stock was shipped to Rainier and then the family and teams were shipped to Portland, then a small town.  After disposing of the boat and loading up the two wagons we started for the valley.  It had been raining and we had a terrible time getting through the timber west and south, of Portland, father leading and mother following with the second team.
Mr. John Hobson, my brother-in-law, had taken the cattle and horses through by a trail and leaving them in care of the men came back and met us in the woods for which we were very thankful.  We came up with the herd and bidding Mr. Hobson and the men good-bye we proceeded on to Roseburg, without mishap, brother Flem and I with one man, who father said was not worth half as much as either of us.  Father said we were worth more as drivers than any two men he could hire.  The weather was fine and there was plenty of grass.  That part of the journey was a picnic.  Upon leaving home I insisted upon taking my big cat, “Tab,” against the judgment of everybody; but after a good deal of argument and many tears on my part, I carried my point.  After we were well on our way I let him out after making camp, putting him in the covered wagon and fastening down the cover.  When we were ready to start one morning the horses had strayed off and father sent me after them.  When I returned with them everything was packed and was moving.  I forgot Tab.  After going a mile or more I thought of him and rushed back to mother’s wagon.  She had not seen or thought of him.  Without a word I put whip to my horse and galloped back to camp and rode up and down that pretty little creek calling, “Tabby”; but saw no signs of him.  With a sad heart I rode back and overtook the wagons and stock.  When we stopped for noon mother sent me to the wagon for something and when I lifted the cover what did I see but my big, beautiful Tab, ready to meet me with his affectionate meow.  On reaching Roseburg we found our old friends, the Perrys, who had a house ready for us and we moved in.  Father took up a claim just across the Umpqua river from the little town of Roseburg.  He bought lumber for a good house and began hauling it on the building spot.  He had a large scope of range and during the winter he built a ferry boat for his own accommodation and the public.

During the winter Mr. Hill came to visit us.  His family had come to Oregon the year before and settled in Rogue River valley.  It was arranged that we should be married in the spring when father’s house was ready to move in.  During the winter and spring I put in all my spare time preparing for my marriage.  I had four quilts pieced.  Mother gave me lining for all and cotton for two and I carded wool for two and we quilted them all.  She gave me muslin for two sets of sheets and pillow cases, two table cloths and four towels.  I cut and made two calico dresses for myself and assisted her with my wedding dress which was of pretty sky-blue lawn.  Mr. Hill came in April and assisted us in moving into our new house.  On the 4th of May, with only our old friends, the Perrys, and minister besides our family, we  were married.  I was still very small. My husband was five feet and eleven inches and I could stand under his outstretched arm.  I grew slowly until I was twenty-five.  Am now five feet and four inches.  Just prior to our marriage Mr. Hill had bought a farm of three hundred and sixty acres, four miles from father’s, bought on credit for six hundred dollars to be paid in two years.  The improvements consisted of a little log-cabin, twelve by fourteen, without floor or chimney.  The roof was made of boards tied on with poles.  One window consisted of two panes of glass, a section of log sawed out.  Later I chinked the cracks with grass and mud.  About ten acres had been fenced and seeded to oats and wheat.  A rough open shed sufficed to shelter six or eight cattle.  Our furniture consisted of the pioneer bedstead, made by boring three holes in the wall in one corner and then one leg was all that was required.  The table was a mere shelf fastened to the wall.  Three small shelves supplied for a cupboard and were sufficient for my small supply of dishes.  My cooking utensils were a pot, bake-oven, frying pan and coffee pot.  A washtub and board and a large pot for washing and a full supply of groceries I got on my father’s account as he told me to go to the store and get what I wanted.  He also gave me a fine saddle mare, Queen, a fresh cow and calf and a heifer that would be fresh.  Mother gave me a feather bed and pair of blankets.  My husband’s possessions consisted of a horse and gun and less than twenty dollars in money.  The Hon. John Hobson had once said to me, “Your father could make money faster than any man I ever knew.  He came to Clatsop with fifty cents in his pocket and I don’t think there were one hundred in the county, and in ten years he was worth twenty thousand,” so I had high hopes and great expectations.  My husband was strong and healthy.  I had been bred to thrift and economy and everything looked beautiful and bright to me.  My soul overflowed with love and joy and my buoyant and happy nature enabled me to enjoy everything, even to cooking outdoors without a shelter over my head.

Soon after our marriage father urged my husband to begin at once to fell trees and hew them so as to put up a good house before winter; but he was never in a hurry to get down to work.  He frittered away the whole summer in going to camp meetings, reading novels and hunting.  In September when the mornings and evenings grew cold we bought an old second-handed stove which we set up in one corner of the cabin.  This was a great comfort to me.  Soon after this we had a heavy rain.  The next morning our house was flooded, and in one corner the water was bubbling up.  That was from a gopher hole.  It was late in November before the logs were even ready to be hauled for the sixteen by twenty house.  Father provided doors, windows, shingles, nails and lumber for floors.  He had all on the ground long before the logs were ready.  At last all was ready and father came with men to help raise the house and mother came bringing bread, pies and cakes to help me with the dinner.  The house was soon up and the openings for the windows and door were sawed out.  Father said, “Now Lagrand, go right at it and get the roof on, for we can look for a big storm soon.”  Next morning I slipped out of bed and milked the cow and had breakfast almost ready when I tickled my husband’s feet to get him in a good humor, because he was not pleased at what father had said.  At breakfast I said, “Now we have an early start and we will show father how soon we can get the roof on and the floor down.”  I was so excited over the prospects of having a fine new house with a floor and windows.  By the time the roof was on Mr. Hill was getting tired and suggested a hunt, but I begged and coaxed for only half the floor so we could move in, till he reluctantly went ahead.  When sufficient floor was down for our one-legged bedstead it was moved in and made up and then one of my new braided rugs went down.  No young wife of wealth could have looked with more pride on her velvet or Turkish rugs than I did on mine that I had made from scraps.  When half the floor was down Mr. Hill stopped to put in the door and mashed his finger which meant a lay-off for a time.  November was nearly gone.  The cooking must be done in the old hut.  There was no opening for the pipe and not sufficient pipe.  I was planning to get the pipe with the butter and few eggs I could save the next week.  Our groceries had all been bought with the butter except what mother gave me.  Winter was on us and we were in a dilemma.  I realized our condition.  Though but fifteen I knew that it was due to the want of industry.  He suggested that we go to father’s for a visit.  I did not like that for I realized that father did not approve of shiftlessness, but I had to consent for he had begun to exhibit temper when I objected to his plans.  We got up the horses, nailed up the house and taking our cow and calf we took ourselves to father’s.  There we stayed for two weeks, then father got us a box of groceries and stove pipe and he and mother came over and helped us get settled and now with two cows we could get along.

Mr. Hill had been receiving letters from his folks who were doing well and urged us to sell out and come out there in the spring.  In April we were to pay three hundred dollars on the farm and we had not a dollar.  Nothing had been added to or taken from the place excepting the house and father had furnished everything except the bare logs.  Mr. Hill was handy with tools and could have had work all the time at good wages.  The owner was anxious to get the place back and offered sixty dollars to have it returned, so we decided to go early in the spring.  We traded the younger calf and crop for another horse as I would have to ride Queen to drive the cows.  We remained several months with his father and mother and then he decided to go to Yreka, California, so he sold my cows and now that he had money he suggested that we ride back and see my folks before we went so far away.  I was homesick and glad to go.  Father did not approve of his having sold my cows.  He said, “Now take my advice and settle down, and remember it does not take long for a few cows to grow into money.”  Mr. Hill had an aunt in Yreka.  As soon as she heard we were there she came to see us.  She had partly raised him.  She said, “Now Lagrand, you must get right into work.  There is plenty of it at good wages; but you must not leave this little wife alone.  There are too many rough men here.  She will be safe with me and I can help you both so you pick up and move right over to my house.”  I was delighted and she proved to be one of the best of mothers to me.  She was an executive woman.  She had two cows and chickens.  She sold milk, eggs, and made cakes and pies for sale and took in sewing and so we worked together, she giving me all and more than I earned.  “Now, I am going to see that you have plenty of nice clothes and I shall see to it that you do not give it to Lagrand to fool away.”  He sold the team and wagon.  She would say, “Now, Lagrand, I want you to buy a house and lot while you have the money.”  In March there was a lot and a small one-roomed battered house with a barn too, for sale for four hundred and fifty dollars, which we bought just across the street from Aunt Kelly’s, which was a bargain.  We paid three hundred dollars down, which was all the money left from my cows, heifer and team.  My Queen was out on pasture which was now a bone of contention as she was only an expense; but I refused to have her sold and Aunt Kelly stood by me.  We moved in and on April 17 our baby was born and Aunt Kelly begged me to give him to her.  She would say, “Now Bethenia, you just give him to me and I will educate him and make him my heir.  I know Lagrand will just fool around all his life and never do anything.”  I continued to work for Aunt Kelly who was overworked and by this means I was able to keep up the house.

Mr. Hill did not drink nor use tobacco but as his aunt said he simply idled away his time, doing a day’s work now and then spending more than he made.  Father had heard how things were going.  Thus the time dragged on till September, 1857, when one day father and mother drove up, to our surprise.  They came to see the country and baby.  It did not take them long to see that we were living from hand to mouth.  “How would you like to go back to Roseburg?  It is a growing town.  I have several acres and I will give you an acre and lumber for a good house which you can build this fall.”  We were delighted and sold our house for less than a hundred dollars profit and were soon packed and on our migration.  My only regret was leaving dear Aunt Kelly who had taught me so many useful things.  With many tears I bid her goodby.  The weather was fine and we enjoyed the trip till we came to a deep gulch with a high, narrow bridge.  Mother sat on the back seat with my youngest sister in her lap.  I sat beside my husband.  Father was leading Queen behind.  The moment we were across Mr. Hill started up the horses with the whip, to which they were accustomed on a hill.  In springing forward the wheel came up against a rock, and in the attempt to bring them around they began to back.  I saw the danger and with one bound I was on the ground with baby in my arms.  Laying him on the ground I seized a chunk, and turning I saw father running and heard his commanding shout, “Whoe!”  The next instant he had seized the spokes of the wheel and with one supreme effort he stopped the wheel at the very edge of that forty-foot gulch.  Meantime I had placed the chunk back of the front wheel and thus an awful tragedy was averted.  Not till the danger was passed did I realize that I was hurt.  I had suffered a severe sprain of my right foot which caused me suffering at times for many years.

Upon reaching home father said, “Go over and select your acre and your building spot,” which I gladly did.  Then he told Mr. Hill to take the team and he and the boys could haul the lumber, which they did; but Mr. Hill had been talking to a man about making brick.  The man had the land and the teams.  Each was to furnish a man and I should cook for them for the use of the team.  Father begged him not to attempt it as the ground had not been tested and it was too late to burn a kiln; but the more he talked the more he was determined to put all we had in the venture.  So he moved me down in the low, swampy place in a tent and we began work.  But before a hundred brick were moulded it began to rain and put a stop to the wok and I was stricken down with typhoid fever.  Father and mother came with the wagon and took us home.  It was now late in November and winter had set in.  When I became convalescent, father urged him to begin on the house.  He replied that he wanted a deed to the acre before he began the house.  Father told him that he and mother had talked it over and had decided to deed the property to me and the boy; that they had given us one good start and now after three and one-half years we had nothing left but one horse.  This enraged him and he said that he would not build on the acre unless it was deeded to him as he was the head of the family.  Father asked him to think it over and not act rashly.  He sulked for a time then bargained for a lot and hired a team and hauled the lumber off the acre to the lot and began to build.  All this time we were living off father and mother who said nothing but furnished shingles and told him to get the nails on their account.  In time the house was up and the roof on and floor down and kitchen partly finished.  It was so open that the skunks made night hideous by racing under and on the floor and even getting on the table.  My health was poor and baby was fretful and ill most of the time and things were going anything but smoothly.

A short time before the climax came I went home and told my parents that I did not think that I could stand it much longer.  Mother was indignant and told me to come home, “that a man who could not make a living with the good start he had never would, and with his temper he is likely to kill you or the baby.”  But father broke down and said, “Oh, Bethenia, there never has been a divorce in my family and I hope there never will be.  Go back and do your best to get along, but if you cannot possibly get along come home.”  I went back relieved for I knew I could go home.  Our troubles usually started over the baby.  He was so cross and had a voracious appetite.  His father thought he was old enough to be spanked which I could not endure and war ensued and I received the chastisement.  The evening before the separation he fed the child six hard boiled eggs in spite of all I could say or do.  I did not close my eyes that night expecting the child would go into convulsions.  Early in the morning early in March after a tempestuous scene he threw the baby on the bed and rushed down town.  As soon as he was out of sight I put on my hat and shawl and taking baby I flew over to father’s.  I found brother Flem ferrying a man over and I went back with him.  By that time I was almost in a state of collapse.  I had run all the way, about three-fourths of a mile.  Brother seeing that something was wrong and always anxious to smooth out the wrinkles, said with a smile, “Give me that little ‘piggy-wig,’ and shall I take you under my other arm?  It seems to me you are getting smaller every year.  Now hang onto me and I will get you up the hill all right.  Mother will have breakfast ready and I guess a good square meal is what you need.”  The next day father saw Mr. Hill.  He found he had been trying to sell the house.  He told him that he would come with me to get my clothes and a few things and he could have the rest.  As the lot was not paid for the house would go with it, and when he sold it I would sign the deed.  Before he found a purchaser he repented and came several times to get me to go back.  I said, “I have told you many times if I ever left you I would never go back and I never will.”  And now at eighteen I found myself broken in health and spirit, again in my father’s home from which four years ago I had gone so happy and full of hope.  It seemed that I should never be happy or strong again.

At this time I could not write or read legibly.  I realized my position fully and determined to meet it bravely.  Sorrow ended with cheerfulness and affection and nourishing food.  My health soon returned and with it an increasing desire for education.  My little George felt the benefits as much as I.  He was such a tiny mite that he was only a plaything for the whole family.  I said one day, “Mother do you think I might manage to go to school?”  “Why, yes.  Go right along.  George is no trouble.  The children will take care of him.”  From that day I was up early and out to the barn, milking and doing all the work possible.  Saturdays with the help of the children I did the washing and ironing for the family.  At the end of four months I had finished the third reader and had made good progress with the other studies.  In September, Mr. and Mrs. Hobson (sister Diana), came to visit us, and she begged me to go home with them.  With a light wagon and good horses we had a delightful trip over the road where I had helped to drive the stock five years before.  Before going father had me apply for a divorce, the custody of my child and to change my name to Owens.  The next spring brother Flem met us at Salem with a light rig and took us home in time for the May term of court.  The suit was strongly contested on account of Mr. Hill’s widowed mother, who wanted the child, thinking that would induce her son to remain with her on her farm as all her children had homes of their own.  I, however, won the suit.

Now the world began to look brighter to me.  I was a free woman.  I sought work in all directions, even washing, which was the most profitable in those days.  Father objected to this and said, “Why can’t you be contented to stay at home?  I am able to support you and your child.”  But no argument could shake my determination to support myself and child.  So he bought me a sewing machine, the first one ever brought to that part of the country and so with Mrs. Hobson, urged me to return to her on the farm on Clatsop.  She greatly needed my help.  In the fall of 1860 she and I went to Oysterville, Washington, to visit an old friend, Mrs. Munson.  The few days passed off too quickly and Captain and Mrs. Munson assured my sister that they would see that I reached home safely if I would only stay till I got my visit out.  I told Mrs. Munson of my anxiety to go to school.  She said, “Why not stay with me?  We have a good school here, and I shall be glad to have you, especially further on.”  I said I would gladly accept if I could only find some way of earning my necessary expenses.  She said, “There is my brother and his man.  I can get their washing which will bring you in from one dollar to one dollar and a half per week.”  I gratefully accepted doing their washing evenings.  Work to me was mere play and change of work is rest and I had plenty of it.  Thus I passed one of the most pleasant and profitable winters of my life.  Whetted with what it fed on, my thirst for knowledge grew stronger daily.  My sister now urged me to go back to her, which I did.  I said to her, “I am determined to get at least a common school education.  I know I can support myself and child and get an education, and I am resolved to do it.  And I do not intend to make it over the wash tub, either.  Neither will I work for my board and clothes.  You need me and I will stay with you six months if you will send me to Astoria to school next winter.”  She agreed to that.  Later I said, “Diana, don’t you think I might teach a little summer school?  I could be up at four to help milk and have the other work done by 8 A.M., and I can do the churning, washing and ironing evenings and Saturdays.”  She said, “You might try it.”  I asked Mr. Hobson if he would not get me up a little school.  He said, “Take the horse and go around among the neighbors and work it up yourself.”  I lost no time and got the promise of sixteen scholars at two dollars each for three months.  This was my first attempt.  I taught my school in the first Presbyterian church in Oregon.  Of my sixteen scholars there were three further advanced than myself, but I took their books home and with my brother-in-law I kept ahead of them, and they never suspected my incompetency.
 
Fall found me settled in an old hotel in Astoria in one small room.  I had to take care of my nephew and my George.  And now I encountered one of the sharpest trials of my life.  On being examined in mental arithmetic I was placed in the primary class.  Words cannot express my humiliation at being required to recite with children eight and ten years old.  This was of short duration, for with the teacher’s assistance I was soon advanced to the second class and then to the third, the highest.  At the end of the nine months I had passed into most of the advanced classes, not because of ability but by determination and hard work.  At 4 A.M. my light was burning.  I never allowed myself more than eight hours for sleep.  I permitted nothing to come between me and this, the greatest opportunity of my life.  Next summer I was on the farm, milking, butter-making and doing all kinds of work on the farm.  It was now 1862 and the state called upon the counties to contribute to the “Boys in Blue.”  Clatsop, being a dairy district, decided to contribute a mammoth cheese.  Mr. Hobson had a man who made cheese so he and I volunteered to make the cheese.  Everybody contributed milk; the ends of a hogshead were sawed off and the middle was used for a hoop.  After the cheese was made the hoops were filed off.  The cheese was pronounced a success, and was sold and resold in Astoria and brought one hundred and forty-five dollars.  I was then sent with it to the state fair where it was again auctioned off many times till it brought between four hundred and five hundred dollars, and then the money and cheese were forwarded to the Oregon soldiers.  Whether they found it palatable or digestible I never learned, as such things were not as easily accounted for as now.  In the fall I rented three rooms in Astoria and with scanty furniture which I procured by the proceeds from blueberry picking and other work, I set up housekeeping.  I was eager for school but my expenses must be met and this is how it was done.  I engaged to do the washing for two large families, and washing and ironing for one.  Sunday night found George and I at Capt. C.’s.  At 4 A.M. I was in the kitchen.  George went to school with the children and at 10 I was there myself.  Monday and Tuesday this was repeated.  The other was done at my rooms.  For all this I received five dollars per week, including the kindest of treatment.  This was sufficient to provide for our wants, especially as we lived on the beach, which enabled us to pick up most of our wood.  And thus I was happy in my independence.

At that time there was a kind and estimable man in Astoria, a Captain Farnsworth.  He was a friend of Mr. and Mrs. Hobson.  He knew of my struggles for an education.  One rainy evening he called.  George had been tucked in bed and I was ironing at the table with my book before me.  Thus I studied while I worked.  My hands were trained to do their part without calling upon the brain.  Removing his heavy overcoat and seating himself by the table he said, “Have you no time to talk?”  “Oh, yes; I can talk and work, too.”  “Well,” he said, “I want you to put away that work.  I have come to talk to you and I want you to listen well to what I have to say.”  I closed the book, folded the ironing cloth and sat down, not knowing what was coming, but feeling very apprehensive.  He saw this and smiling, said, “Don’t you ever get tired?’  “Oh, yes; but I get rested easily and quickly.”  “How long do you expect to go on this way?”  “I don’t know,” I said,  “I don’t want to see you working in this way, and I have come to see you as a friend, and I want to be a true friend to you.  I am alone in the world.  The nearest friend I have is a nephew.  I have more money than I need and I think I cannot do better than to help you.”  Trembling, and with moist eyes I exclaimed, “No, no; I cannot take money from you!”  “Now, don’t be foolish, but listen to me.  I know you are thinking that it will compromise you.  Besides you are a great deal too independent for your own good.  I am a good deal older than you and know vastly more of the world than you do, and I want you to understand that if you accept the offer you are never to feel under any obligation to me.  My offer is this:  You are to select any school in the United States for as long a time as you choose.  I will furnish the money for all the expenses for yourself and boy and no one shall ever know from me where the money came from.  If you say so I will not even write to you.”   Could there ever have been a more generous or unselfish offer?  I was now in tears, but my self will, independence and inexperience decided me to refuse it.  I could not consent to such an obligation.  The acceptance of that offer would doubtless have changed my whole life, but who can tell for better or for worse.  Captain Farnsworth was thoroughly disgusted at my obstinacy, though he was still my friend, yet he did not show the same interest in me from that time and many times in after years during my hardships and struggles in my supreme efforts to get ahead, I bitterly repented my hasty decision, feeling that it was the mistake of my life.

Others beside my generous friend, the Captain, had been watching my efforts.  Colonel Taylor and Mr. Ingalls were the school directors, and as the wife of the principal was prevented from assisting they generously gave me the position at a salary of twenty-five dollars per month for the remaining three months.  This was a wave of prosperity, and as one good thing sometimes follows another I was offered board and room for myself and George for the care of nine rooms in a private boarding house, which I accepted.  I asked and received permission to recite in two advanced classes.  I also joined a reading and singing class which met once a week.  When I was given charge of the primary department I had among my pupils a young lady who was far ahead of me when I attended the Oysterville school.  Before the school closed I received a call to teach a three months’ school at Bruceport, Washington, at twenty-five dollars per month and board.  Judge Olney was county school superintendent.  With fear and trembling I applied for an examination.  He said, “I know you are competent to teach that school.  I have had my eye on you for a year, and I know you will do your duty.  I will send you a certificate,” and he did.  This was great encouragement and made me more determined to do my best.  I accepted the school and left with my boy as soon as my school closed, and opened the Bruceport school at once.  After two weeks a collection was taken up among the oyster men and a few families for a second term, and before the six months closed I had a call to teach the Oysterville school, which had the undesirable reputation of being ungovernable.  It was my reputation for good government that had prompted the directors to offer me the school.  My reply was, “I will engage to teach your school if the directors will pledge their support to my government.”  They did, and I taught the school.  There were three students that made all the trouble- a girl and two boys.  The girl was the ringleader.  About the third day one of the boys stuck a pin in a girl.  I reprimanded him and told him to bring his lunch the next day and stay in noon-time.  He only groaned.  The next day he failed to show up and in the afternoon his older brother came dragging him in.  I met him at the door and taking him by the hand attempted to lead him to his seat.  He had on heavy shoes and kicked me vigorously.  That was a little more than my temper could stand.  I seized him by the shoulders and fairly churned the bench with him, which subdued the young gentleman in short order.  At the close of the school I gave him his choice of staying in during noon hour for one week or receiving five blows on each hand with the ferrule.  He chose the latter and I administered the punishment at once.  The Irish girl was living with one of the directors.  He told me that she came running home and said, “It’s no use fooling with that teacher; she don’t scare worth a cent.”  She was twelve and proved to be one of my best scholars both in behavior and aptitude.  That was the only punishment administered in that school by me.  Before the close of that school I received a call for a four months’ school on Clatsop at forty dollars per month and board myself.  With my boy I moved into the old parsonage at Skipenon which had been unoccupied for a long time.  This I could have free, so that with the addition of a few boards and nails made two rooms comfortable for spring and summer, so I was happy as a lark.  I was an expert, as experts went in those days, with the sewing machine and crochet needle and my hands were never idle.  I had in this way, so far, saved all my school money, and with this term I would have four hundred dollars.  My ambition was to have a home.  I had bought a half lot and engaged a  carpenter to build me a little three-room house with a pretty little porch.  To this, my last school, I can look back with pleasure and satisfaction.  The neighbors and farmers were kindness itself to me.  At the end of the term I moved in my little home.  How proud I was!  I could turn my hand to most anything and work came from directions.

During all these years Mr. Hill kept on writing, urging me to remarry him.  One dark night while my machine was buzzing and I was singing while I sewed, a knock came.  I opened the door and there stood the father of my child.  He had come unannounced, thinking his appearance might overcome my opposition.  But, alas!  He did not find the young inexperienced child-mother he had abused, but a full-gown, self-reliant and self-supporting woman who could look upon him only with pity.  He now realized that there was a gulf between us which he could never hope to cross.  He said, “Can I come and take my boy down town with me tomorrow?  I will not ask you to wake him up tonight.”  “You can if you will promise not to run off with him as you are always threatening.”  “I will promise.”  Not daring to trust him I hastened to the sheriff next morning and told him my troubles.  He smiled and said, “Now don’t you worry, my dear little woman.  He will never get out of this town with that child.”

In the fall I rented my little home and went to Roseburg to visit my people at their urgent request.  Roseburg was growing and they urged me to stay and go into business, so I rented a house and opened a millinery and dressmaking establishment.  For two years I applied myself, and saved my earnings and bought my home and had a good, growing business.  My boy was in school and work brings its reward and pleasure and I was happy.  5 A.M. never saw me in bed.  Yes, I had had two years of uninterrupted success, but now a new milliner made her advent and opened next door to me.  She came right in and looked me over, stock and all.  She said she had been a milliner for years, had learned the trade and understood it thoroughly, and had come to stay.  I was soon made to feel her power.  She laughed and ridiculed my pretensions.  Said mine was only a picked up business.  She knew how to bleach and make over all kinds of straw.  She could make hat blocks on which she could make over hats and frames, all of which was Greek to me.  She came late in the fall and her husband went all over the country picking up all the old hats and advertising his wife’s skill.  This was not only humiliating to me, but also a severe blow to my business.  I was at my wit’s end to know what to do and how to do it.  One beautiful day I was thinking the matter over while eating my dinner in front of a window which overlooked my neighbor’s kitchen.  I had seen her husband unload several boxes of old hats the evening before and now they were getting ready for bleaching and pressing.  They sat at a table out in the sun on which they placed two new plaster paris hat blocks and now the work began not twenty feet from me.  My house was above them and I could see them and hear everything they said; but they could not see me.  For an hour I sat there and learned the art of cleaning, stiffening, shaping, pressing and bleaching.  Oh, what a revolution.  My heart was beating fast and I felt that I had never learned so much in one hour in my life.  I saw how easy it was and how much profit there was in it.  I knew if I could get the blocks I could press the hats so I stepped down and asked her what she would charge for two blocks.  She said, “Thirty dollars.”  “I will think of it; I did not expect them to be so high.”  “You do not expect me to give my business away.”  Then with a smile she said, “Can you press hats?”  I passed out and as the door closed I heard them laughing.  This roused me and I said to myself, “The day will come when I will show you that I can press hats and do several other things as well.  First of all I will find out how to make hat blocks.  I had a book “Inquire Within.”  From this I learned how to mix plaster of paris.  My first attempt was a failure, but it proved I was on the right track.  I slept little that night, but I had thought it all out.  As soon as the drug store was opened I bought a dollar’s worth of plaster paris and in less than one hour I had made my coveted block.  Words could not have expressed my triumph.  In less than twenty-four hours I had found and held the key to that mysterious knowledge that had charmed away my customers.  I commenced at once to put my acquired knowledge into practice and resolved not to allow a soul to know how I had obtained it.  The next day a lady brought me a fine old hat to be renewed.  “Oh, you haven’t got any of that beautiful lace fringe.  Mrs. ____ has it!  Would you mind getting it?”  “Not at all.”  When the hat was ready, I wrapped it carefully and walked into my rival’s store with the pride of a full grown peacock.  Laying it on the counter and lifting a pressed hat from the block that she kept for advertisement on the same style, I asked, “How much of the bugle lace will it take for this hat?”  “Three-quarters of a yard.”  I laid down seventy-cents; she measured it off.  “Please stick a pin in and I will see if it is enough,” unwrapping the hat and measuring with the lace.  As I finished I clipped it off with my belt scissors and dropped it in my hat.  “Whose hat is that?”  “It is one I have just made over for a customer.”  “Who pressed it?”  “I did.”  “Who made the block?”  “I made it myself,” I said, and I walked out.  I heard no laughing then.  She knew I had her secret, but never knew how I obtained it.

I put my newly acquired knowledge into practice.  All winter I worked.  My work and goods were equal to hers, still the customers passed by me and bought of her.  She managed to checkmate me.  Thus the summer wore away and left me stranded, but not conquered.  My time had not been lost and I knew I had gained much that would be of service to me in the future.  I had surmounted other difficulties and I would yet wring victory out of this defeat.  I had learned more of human nature than I had ever known.  I saw that I must convince the community that I was not a pretender but was in reality mistress of my business and that could not be done by making over old hats and bonnets.

In November, of 1869, I left my boy with a minister and his wife who occupied my house, borrowed two hundred and fifty dollars and left for San Francisco, having previously advertised in the paper that I would spend the winter in the best millinery establishment for the purpose of perfecting myself in the work and would return in the spring bringing the latest and most attractive millinery.  I carried that out to the letter.  I sent out posters.  Had a grand opening and swamped my rival and she left in disgust.  I cleared one thousand, five hundred dollars that year and business continued to increase as long as I conducted it.  In 1870 I placed my son in the University of California.  I had a love for nursing.  Mother said I was born a doctor and was always feeding the rag dolls with a spoon.  Now my time was beginning to be encroached upon by calls from friends and doctors.  One evening I was called by a friend.  The old doctor came and was trying to catheterize her poor, suffering little girl by his bungling attempt.  He had lacerated her tender flesh.  At last he laid down the instrument to wipe his glasses.  I picked it up and said, “Let me try, doctor,” and passed it instantly with perfect ease, bringing instant relief.  Her mother, who was in agony at the sight of her child’s agony, threw her arms around my neck and sobbed out her thanks.  Not so, the doctor.  He was displeased and showed his displeasure most emphatically.  A few days later I called on my friend, Dr. Hamilton, confided to him my ambitions, and asked for the loan of medical books.  As I came out of his private office in his drug store, I saw Hon. S.F. Chadwick, who had heard the conversation.  He came up, shook me warmly by the hand, saying, “Go ahead.  It is in you.  Let it come out.  You will win.”  The Hon. Jesse Applegate, my dear father’s friend, who fondled me as a baby, was the only other one who ever gave me one word of encouragement.  Realizing the opposition, especially from my own family, I decided not to mention my plans.  I began at once to arrange my business affairs so that I could leave in eighteen months.  I worked and studied as best I could.  In due time I announced my decision.  I had expected opposition, but I was not prepared for the storm of opposition.  My family felt that they were disgraced and even my own child was made to think that I was doing him an irreparable injury.  Most of my friends seemed to think it was their Christian duty to try to prevent me from taking the fatal step.  That crucial fortnight was a period in my life never to be forgotten.  I was literally kept on the rack.  I had provided a home for my now seventeen year old boy in Portland.

My business, all in good shape, was entrusted to a sister who had been with me for a year.  The day I left two friends came to say goodby.  One said, “Well, this beats all!  I always did think you were a smart woman, but you must have gone stark crazy to leave such a business and run off on a wild goose chase.”  I smiled.  “You may change your mind when I come back a physician and charge you more than I have for hats and bonnets.”  “Not much.  You are a good milliner; but I’ll never have a woman doctor about me.”  Choking back the tears, I replied, “Well, time will tell.”  As a fact both of those ladies receive my professional services, and we laugh together over that goodby conversation.  11 P.M. came at last and found me seated in the California Overland stage beginning my long journey across the continent.  It was a dark and stormy night and I was the only inside passenger.  I was alone with my thoughts.  I realized that I was starting out into an untried world alone with only my unaided resources to carry me through.  All rose up before and all that I had left behind tugged at my heart strings.  My crushed and over-wrought soul cried out for sympathy and forced me to give vent to my pent up feelings in a flood of tears, while the stage floundered on through a flood of mud and slush and the rain came down in torrents as if sympathizing nature were weeping a fitting accompaniment to my lonely, sorrowful mood.  I had time to reflect.  I remembered that every sorrow of my life had proved a blessing in disguise and had brought me renewed strength and courage.  I had taken the step and I would never turn back.  Those cheering words from my faithful attorney came to me then as a sweet solace to my wounded spirit.  “Go ahead.  It is in you.  Let it come out.  You will win.”  How many times have those inspiring words cheered me on through the dark hours of my life.  I resolved that if there was anything in me it should come out and come what might I would succeed.  That decision comforted me.

Upon reaching Philadelphia I matriculated in the Eclectic Medical School and employed a private tutor.  I also attended the lectures and clinics in the great Blockly Hospital.  In due time I received my degree and returned to Roseburg.  A few days later an old man without funds died and the five doctors decided to hold an autopsy.  When they met, Dr. Palmer, who remembered my impudence in using his catheter, made a motion to invite the new Philadelphia doctor.  This was carried, and a messenger was sent for me with a written invitation.  I knew this meant no honor for me, but said, “Give my compliments to the doctors and say I will be up soon.”  The messenger left and I followed close behind and waited outside till he went in and closed the door.  He said, “She said to give you her compliments and she will be up in a minute.”  Then came a roar of laughter.  I opened the door and walked in, went forward and shook hands with Dr. Hoover who advanced to meet me and said, “The operation is to be on the genital organs.”  I answered, “One part of the human body should be as sacred to a physician as another.”  Dr.. Palmer stepped back and said, “I object to a woman being present at a male autopsy.  If she is allowed to remain I will retire.”  “I came by written invitation and I will leave it to a vote whether I go or stay; but first I will ask Dr. Palmer the difference between a woman attending a male autopsy and a man attending a female autopsy?”  Dr. Hoover said, “I voted for you to come and I’ll stick to it.”  No. 2, “I voted yes and I’ll not go back on it,” and “So did I.”  Dr. Hamilton said, “I did not vote, but I have no objections.”  Dr. P., “Then I’ll retire,” which he did, amid the cheers of forty or fifty men and boys.

Inside of the old shed the corpse lay on a board, resting on two old saw bucks, wrapped in his old gray blankets.  One of the doctors came forward and offered me an old dissecting case.  “You do not want me to do the work, do you?”  “Oh, yes; go ahead.”  I took the case and complied.  The news of what was being done had spread to every house in town.  The excitement was at fever heat.  When I had finished, the crowd, not the doctors, gave me three cheers.  When I passed out and down to my home the street was lined with men, women and children anxious to get a look at the terrible creature.  The women were shocked and scandalized, and the men were disgusted and some amused at the good joke on the doctors.  Now that I look back I believe that all that saved me from a coat of tar and feathers was my brothers, Flem and Josiah.  They did not approve of my actions any more than others; but they would have died in their tracks before allowing me to suffer such indignities, which that community well knew.  I did not at the time stop to consider the consequences.  I was prompted by my natural disposition to resent an insult, which I knew was intended.  I closed up my business as soon as possible and taking my sister moved to Portland and opened my office.  I frankly admit that I breathed more freely after I had bid adieu to my family and few remaining friends, and was aboard the train, for it did seem that I was only a thorn in their flesh; but I will say right here that that affair was the means of bringing me many patients, especially from that locality, in after years, which added much to my purse and reputation.

For four years I practiced and got ahead far better than I had expected.  I had given my sister a course in Mills Seminary; my son a medical education and set him up in business.  I had eight thousand dollars at interest.  I was thirsting for some knowledge.  The old school would not recognize the Eclectic School, which was a thorn in my flesh.  I said, “I will treat myself to a full course in Allopathy and a trip to Europe.  Again my family and friends objected; saying, “You will soon be rich.  What do you want to spend all you have got for?”  But I was deaf to all entreaties.  I must and would drink at the fountain head.  This time I armed myself with letters from governors, senators and professors, and on September 1, 1878, I sailed for San Francisco.  In due time I matriculated in the University of Michigan.  After arriving there I was in my seat the next day but one.  During the next nine months I spent sixteen hours a day excepting Sundays, in attending lectures, clinics, quizzes, and hard study.  During vacation I spent ten hours a day in hard study.  Most of the time was given to Professor Ford’s question book on Anatomy, which was a “bugbear” for medical students.  This book contained only questions and covered Gray’s Anatomy from beginning to end.  I completed it except a few answers which I could not find.  When the term began I took it to Prof. Ford to get the answers.  He took the book and examined it carefully.  “And you have done this?  You have done what no other student of this University has done and I never expected them to do, and you have done it while they have been enjoying a vacation, and I shall not forget it.  It will be of great value to you in the saving of time and fixing the facts in your mind.”

It was my custom to rise at 4, take a cold bath, then exercise, then study till breakfast, at 7.  I allowed myself one-half hour for each meal, between lectures, clinics, quizzes, and laboratory work, two good sermons on Sunday, now and then a church social, the time was fully and pleasantly occupied.  The constant change brought rest and acted as a safety valve to my overheated brain.  At the end of two years I received my degree and sent for my son, and with him and two lady physicians sailed for Europe.  My letters with state seals always secured us open doors as travel was not then as it is now.  We were there for study and we received the benefits by visiting the great hospitals and medical schools of the countries through which we traveled and attended their clinics.  While in Munich we were being shown the masterpieces in castings.  The guide opened the door and ushered us into a large circular room known as the American department.  The central figure was a heroic statue of Washington on his great white charger, carrying the flag of his country.  Around him were grouped the signers of the Declaration of Independence, and there was our martyred Lincoln striking the fetters from the black man.  That sight, so beautiful, so real, so moving, was enough to stir the blood of the coldest American.  For months I had not seen “Old Glory,” and her bursting upon our view, floating over all, the images of all we held nearest and dearest on earth was too much for my impulsive nature.  Forgetting time and place and oblivious to all around me I rushed forward and fell upon my knees at the foot of the “Father of His Country,” and gave vent to my pent up feelings of joy in exclamations of “Oh, My Country, My Country, My Flag.”  I was brought suddenly to my senses by the warning of Dr. Hill.  “Mother!  Mother!  These people cannot understand one word of English and no telling what kind of trouble you will get us into.”   I sprang to y feet looking behind me expecting to see the gendarmes coming to take charge of me.  Instead I saw a picture I shall never forget.  The door was filled with great, broad smiling faces, showing more plainly than words that they thoroughly understood the situation and heartily sympathized with the loyal American.  As we passed out they further showed their appreciation and approval by bows and smiles.  Dr. Hill said, after passing out, “Well I never did see anything like it.  Mother is always getting into scrapes but somehow she always comes out on top.”

Dr. Hill became homesick before the trip was nearly ended, declaring he would rather go home to his sweetheart than to see all the countries in the world.  I have him five hundred dollars and his return ticket and he lost no time in getting back to Goldendale and getting married.  Upon reaching London I found many letters, one from a dear friend, begging me to come to her.  I, like Dr. Hill, was homesick.  Three years was a long time.  When I landed in New York the custom collector demanded seventy-five dollars on my surgical instruments which I purchased in Paris.  I said, “I am a physician and these are for my own use.  Here are letters from United States senators, governors, doctors, and the president of the University of Michigan.  If you take my instruments I will employ a lawyer.”  He said, “You sit right here.  You will have to pay that duty.”  He was gone two hours.  He said, “Take your things and go on!”  I speedily obeyed, glad to get out of his clutches.  In a few hours I was on my way to San Francisco.  On reaching Portland, I found a carriage waiting to take me to the bedside of a patient, as all passengers names were telegraphed ahead.  That was surely an auspicious beginning.  I was delighted to get home and to get to work.  My purse was depleted.  I had but two hundred dollars left.  Within twenty-four hours I had secured nice rooms over my old friend’s, Dr. Plummer‘s drug store.  A few days later a doctor whom I had known and greatly admired called upon me.  His home was in Roseburg.  He said, “I cannot succeed in Portland, I am going to sell at auction.  I have many things you will need.  Come to the sale?”  “Why doctor, I have just come home.  I have no money.”  “No matter, you can have everything I have without a dollar.  You will soon earn enough.”  “But I do not know that.”  “I do!  I only wish I was sure I could make half as much.  In less than six months you will be making six hundred a month.”  I was astonished for I knew he was in earnest and yet his prophesy came true.  I had for so many years been struggling, clinging to the slippery ladder and fighting for an existence making headway surely but so slowly that I could not realize that there was so much within my reach.

Hundreds of incidents might be recorded to prove my success during the next few years and words could never express the satisfaction and happiness it brought me.  One morning a woman pale and trembling came into my office and said, “I have been sick for many years and the doctors say I cannot be cured.  I have heard so much about you that I have come to see if you could give me any relief.  We have paid out nearly all we have to doctors and I know if you cannot help me you will say so.”  Whom should this invalid be but my old Roseburg rival.  I gave her a warm and cordial reception saying, “I earnestly hope I may be able to help you.”  I found her case ulceration of the bladder.  I said, ”I can help you.  I will treat you for two or three weeks and then teach you to treat yourself and if you will follow my directions, I have faith that your health will be restored.”  With tears of hope and gratitude she said, “No one can or will be more faithful or obedient than I will be.  When shall I come again?”  “You are not able to come to my office.”  “But it is so far out to my son’s and we are so poor.”  “That makes no difference.  I am going to take you in my carriage and will go to your son’s every day and treat you till you are ready to go home and don’t you worry about my bill, either.”  She broke down and said, “Oh, you are heaping coals of fire on my head; but I do want to tell you that I always had the greatest respect for you.”  “Now I do not look at it in that way.  If you had not gone out to Roseburg and goaded me on by showing me how little I knew about millinery I might have been out there making poor hats and bonnets yet.  A friend once said, ‘If I wished you to be two and one-half inches taller I would attempt to press you down and you would grow out of sheer resentment.’  So now you see my dear friend, you have been all along my good angel in disguise.  I owe you a great debt of gratitude and I intend to repay it with interest,” and I did.  Her health was restored and from that hour arose a friendship between us that lasted till her death only a few years ago.  We exchanged photographs.

When asked, as I often was, why I did not marry, I always replied, “I am married to my profession,” and I was honest for I was in love with it; but the time came which is said comes to all that I was ready to add to my name that of another.  Col. Adair and I were married July 24, 1884, in the First Congregational church of Portland.  The church was filled with invited guests, many coming from Roseburg, two hundred miles distant.  When we left the church the street was filled with friends and uninvited people and as the carriage rolled by many called, “Good-bye doctor!  Good-bye!”  After a month in San Francisco and California we returned and I took up my work where I left off.  At the time of my marriage my yearly income was at least seven thousand dollars.  My husband was of a bright and happy disposition and optimistic, always among the clouds and rarely got down to terra firma.  There were no shadows in his picture and my love of him knew no bounds.  At the age of forty-seven I gave birth to a little girl baby.  Now my happiness knew no bounds.  A son I had, and a daughter was my great desire.  For her my plans were all made.  With her nurse I would take her on all my rounds.  She should imbibe the love of the profession not only from her mother’s milk but by constant association as well.  She should have all that I possessed and all that could be added; but ah, how little we mortals know what is in store for us and well we do not.

     “There is no flock how ever watched and tended
        But one dead lamb is there.
    There is no fireside how so e’er defended
        But has one vacant chair.”

In 1898, being mentally and physically sick, my husband urged me to go to North Yakima, Washington, for the holidays with my son and his family.  I went and the high altitude and change worked like magic.  I confided my troubles to my son and he urged me to leave the farm and come up there saying, “I know you can make one hundred and fifty dollars a month and that is better than going behind that much.”  I said, “I will come.”  He smiled because he knew what that meant.  When I reached home I said, “I have decided to go to Yakima.  We will sell off all the stock, pay on the debts as much as we can and rent the farm.”  He looked at me in amazement saying, “My dear, consider well before giving up our home at our ages.”  “I do not consider that we will long have anything with a twenty-four thousand dollar mortgage at eight and ten per cent.”
On April 6th we landed in North Yakima.  In one week we were settled in four rooms and three days later I performed a one hundred dollar operation and so business came as of former years, and in six and one-half years I realized twenty-five thousand dollars from my profession alone.

In October, 1905, I retired from practice.  I closed up my business, ordered my good horse, “Pride,” hitched to my buggy and drove seventy-five miles to The Dalles over the mountain.  My friends tried to dissuade me.  Said it was too late and dangerous.  I was not afraid and made the trip without a mishap and stayed two nights with friends.  My whole trip home was a real pleasure trip, besides I made thirty-five dollars more than expenses.  I retired from practice for several reasons; first, that I might complete a book, “Dr. Owens-Adair – some of her life experiences;” second, that I might take up a work that had been near my heart, “The Purification of the Human Race Through Propagation by Preventing the Birth of Defectives through Sterilization.”

For many years I held the office of heredity and hygiene in the state Woman’s Christian Temperance Union and for over thirty years I have been working along those lines and now that there were thousands of medical women in the field I felt that I might step out without being missed and I could be free to devote my time to the work that few women would care to take up.  In November, I sailed for San Diego, California, that I might be free from care and devote myself to completing my book.  December 5th I arrived, found my dear friend of forty years on the dock awaiting me.  We were soon in her cozy little wren’s nest.  I began my work at once, she doing all the typewriting and assisting me in many ways.  When the book was all in manuscript I said, “Now we will take a few days for sightseeing.”  I took a buggy and drove to Mexico and then to several beach resorts about San Diego, and gathered shells on California’s lovely sea-shores.  We saw the old adobe house where Romania, the heroine of that beautiful story was born, and many beautiful things in that lovely climate.  Then I started for San Francisco, had a few hours with dear Mr. and Mrs. R.R. Monroe.  Never did San Francisco look more beautiful.  Next month, April, she was being consumed by quakes and fires.  I was soon at my Sunnymead farm amidst chaotic confusion, neglection and destruction everywhere.  The barn was unsafe and the house unfit for occupation.  The rats made night hideous.  My fine young orchard had not felt the pruner’s knife for seven years.  The big woodshed where so many cords of wood used to be stored was gone.  The last board had been used for fuel.  My beautiful lawn and flower beds were overrun with briers and brambles.  The sight was sickening.

Had I not been inured to hardships and struggles all my life I should have succumbed, but “can’t” has ever been unknown to me.  There was but one thing to be done, to put my shoulder to the wheel and say “I will,” as I had so often done.  More than twenty-eight years have passed since I plighted my marriage vows.  Many sorrows have been interspersed with the pleasures of my married life and during all these years I have been as active and determined as in my former life.  I have never flinched from any undertaking and I hope I never shall, to the day of my death.  But often during these later years I have looked back over my past life, not with a shudder but to gain strength and courage to meet the financial difficulties that had accumulated and threatened to engulf me.  But let me draw the curtain and shut out all of the terrible ordeals through which I have passed during the last six years.  Suffice it to say that I have lived through it all and still have my health, and my mind is unencumbered.

I have saved sufficient from the fortune that I had made to make me comfortable, with care, the remainder of my life.  I have three lovely farms side by side, “Grand View,” “Sunnymead” and “Park.”  The buildings are all within calling distance.  I have reserved ten acres of my Grand View farm which contains a fine old orchard.  Nature has made this one of her beauty spots for an ideal country home.  I can sit on my porches or look from my windows and see all that is going on over my farms.  The county road runs six hundred feet in front of my doors, where everything goes on a beautiful macadam road.  The lordly Columbia a mile away, in front, on which the traffic of all nations comes and goes.  I can see every craft from a fishing boat to a war ship as it comes and goes to the great Pacific.  At my right, five miles away is Astoria, the oldest town in Oregon.  At my left, one and a half miles is Warrenton, Flavel three miles, Hammond four miles, and Fort Stevens five miles.  Across on the Washington side is Fort Columbia, Fort Canby and Cape Disappointment.  Oh, what a grand panoramic picture!  And this is my home where I expect to spend my days.  And I shall try to enjoy everything as it comes and goes.  I love to see the horses and cows as they come and go to and from their barns, the colts and calves as they play and feed on the green meadows.  Just now I see fifteen pretty young pigs racing around in their lot near Park barn.  There is a pretty stream full of fish winding along among my farms with the grass growing to its water’s edge.  There the ducks and geese love to swim, making love and raising their young.  My home is surrounded with flowers and shrubs.  Behind the house is a long wide bed, bordering the vegetable garden, filled with beautiful old-fashioned flowers, reminding me of my girlhood days and “mother’s garden.”  Among these loves I hope to receive my friends.  I am strong and vigorous.  I can mount my horse from the ground and ride as of old.  I drive one or two horses.  My dear old Pride now past twenty, is sometimes as gay as a colt.  He and pretty Lady are my drivers.  They know when I take the reins and they obey my voice.  I do so love them!  Can I ever give them up for a mobile!  Certainly not, for some time to come.  And here in my home, surrounded with nature’s own beauty and home comforts, I am prepared to vigorously prosecute my special work, now so well known as, “Dr. Owens-Adair ‘Human Sterilization Bill of Oregon.’”

Source: Oregon Pictorial and Biographical Deluxe Supplement (1912) S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, Chicago; transcribed by Sheila Gruver


Daniel Knight Warren
The family of which Daniel Knight Warren represented the fifth or sixth generation in this country, was established long before the Colonies began to rebel at English tyranny, but the exact date of the British emigrants’ departure from the land of his forefathers is clothed in uncertainty. The traveler is supposed to have settled in or near Boston, Massachusetts, where Phineas Warren, the great-grandfather of Daniel K. Warren, was born about 1745, being a first cousin of General Warren of Revolutionary fame. Phineas, son of Phineas, and the next in order of birth, was born in Marlborough, Windham county, Vermont, October 12, 1776, and married Mary Knight, born in the same locality, December 22, 1777. The grandparents had ten children, seven of whom were sons, and of whom Danforth, the father of Daniel and the fourth child, was born in Saratoga county, New York, September 22, 1806. He married in Steuben county, New York, Amanda Pike, a native of Springfield, Massachusetts, born April 9, 1808. There were four sons of this union all born at Bath, New York, all now deceased, and Daniel Knight, born at Bath, Steuben county, New York, March 12, 1836, was the youngest of the family. The family, at no time prosperous, was reduced to dire straits upon the death of the father August 23, 1837, the oldest of the four sons being then scarcely six years of age. Mrs. Warren proved herself one of the heroically molded women, and supported herself and children by spinning and weaving. Later Mrs. Warren married a Mr. Baxter and moved to Illinois with her family. Her death occurred in Princeton, Illinois, in September, 1881. As a youth of thirteen Daniel K. Warren started out to earn his own living by working on a farm, with the understanding that he was to receive for his services an amount which at that time was considered a fair remuneration for able-bodied men. For three years he followed this life, performing the ordinary duties of the farm and attending school during the winter. In the spring of 1852 he joined his three brothers in a trip across the plains. This never to be forgotten journey was well planned, the boys having their own teams, and arrangements were made with Captain Thomas Mercer to pilot them to the coast country. Each agreed to give the captain one hundred dollars, and do his share of the work on the trip and all fulfilled their contract to the letter, finally parting from the amiable captain, who afterward settled in Seattle, Washington. The company crossed the Missouri river May 21st, and soon afterward camped on the present site of Omaha. At this point the company was thoroughly organized, there being fourteen wagons, forty horses and sixty-six men. Reaching the Dalles September 2, 1852, they met the first white men who had founded homes in that town and from there they proceeded on barges down the Columbia river, finally boarding the steamer at Cascade Locks, which brought them in safety to Portland, September 9, 1852, the trip consuming six months. In many respects this was a fortunate party, for the Indians were not troublesome, and only one member died on the way. All enjoyed good health until reaching Powder river, when Mr. Warren was taken ill with mountain fever and did not fully recover until after reaching his destination in Oregon. At Portland the brothers separated, Daniel going alone to the mines in southern Oregon, Engaging in mining on Rogue river, being at that time only sixteen years of age. Not meeting with success he retraced his steps and arrived in Astoria in June, 1853, his available assets at that time being his much worn clothes and three dollars in currency. Finding employment in a sawmill camp he worked diligently and in 1855 with the savings of several months tried his luck in mining again. Not being successful, he engaged in lumbering until February, 1859, when he left Astoria for New York via Panama. On February 24, 1863, he was married to Sarah E. Eaton, a former schoolmate who was born in Salisbury, New Hampshire, July 28, 1840. She was daughter of John Ladd and Lovey B. Eaton of sturdy, thrifty New England stock of sterling ancestry. In 1845 the family moved from New Hampshire to Princeton, Illinois, traveling by canal boat from Buffalo and by the lakes to Chicago, then by teams to Princeton. The marriage was solemnized at 8 o’clock in the morning and at noon the young people started on their long journey for Oregon via Panama (there being at that time no transcontinental railroads), consuming a month of the trip. Arriving at San Francisco April 26, 1863, and at Astoria May 1st, they were soon comfortably settled on a small farm previously owned by Mr. Warren thirteen miles above Astoria, the present site of the town of Knappa, but then known as Warren’s Landing. A philosopher always, Mr. Warren recalled the hardships of these early days with much pleasure since they were the stepping-stones to the success which followed his industry and good management. From this farm Mr. Warren moved to Astoria, where he engaged in mercantile business for fourteen years, being one of the most prominent and influential men of the town and materially promoting its commercial well being. In 1885 Mr. Warren moved across the bay from Astoria to the present site of Warrenton, where he had purchased and reclaimed by dyking about nine hundred acres of land, then of little value. Mr. Warren was the first man to build dykes on the lower Columbia and was forced to employ Chinese labor. The result of his effort was a most substantial advance in value of the land reclaimed. Here he built a spacious residence which is the family home at the present time. While his main endeavors were centered around his home and the town of Warenton, which it was his pride to beautify and improve, many other interests engaged a share of his attention, and at the time of his death he was president of the Astoria National Bank and vice president of the Astoria Savings Bank. He was one of the organizers and one of the first stockholders of the railroad running between Warrenton and Seaside, which was built in 1889. Some years later the road was extended to Astoria and Portland and is now known as the S. P. & S. Railway. All along the course of his busy life, Mr. Warren took a keen, if not conspicuous, interest in republican politics and filled many of the prominent local offices. In 1876 he was appointed to fill the unexpired term of Solomon Smith in the state senate. During the memorable fight for common point rates, Mr. Warren lent valuable assistance, his appeals for recognization of the Oregon seaport attracting the attention of the people of the entire state and compelling the admiration even of those who differed from him. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Warren. Lucy Alice, the oldest daughter, married Henry C. Thompson of Portland. Maud M. is the wife of Charles R. Higgins of Astoria. George W. married Florence E. Baker, now living at Warrenton, Oregon. Fred L. married Ruth Smith and is now doing business in Astoria. Perhaps a quotation from the pen of Senator Charles W. Fulton would most fittingly close this sketch: “In the death of Daniel K. Warren (which occurred September 4, 1903) not only did the immediate family lose a devoted husband and father, but neighbors, friends and citizens were deprived of a considerate friend, wise counselor and deep sympathizer, and the state one of its ablest minds.” Wise in counsel, courageous in action, in misfortune and adversity cheerful and undaunted, Mr. Warren was ever a leader in whom his friends and neighbors had perfect confidence and reposed perfect trust. He was public-spirited to a fault. Every public movement in the interest of, and important to, the people found him at the head. The needy and unfortunate never appealed to him in vain. A strong man and a lovable character in every station of life, public or private, it is no surprise to those who knew him that his death has cast so great a sorrow over the community. His life was one of exceptional industry and activity. It was a successful life, successful far beyond that attained by the average mane; that is, he accomplished more in the upbuilding of society and the community where he lived as well as in the narrower field of acquiring wealth. He accumulated and left his family a considerable fortune by reason of his industry, frugality and intelligence, but what is more to us and dearer far to them, he left them the priceless treasure of an untarnished name and the memories of a useful life. All that Mr. Warren accomplished, and it was much, he accomplished in the face of great obstacles and under many and great disadvantages. There is no better lesson for our young people that the story of his life.

Source: Oregon Pictorial and Biographical Deluxe Supplement (1912) S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, Chicago; transcribed by Laura Eitniear

JUDGE OLOF ANDERSON. Among the citizens of Astoria a position of respect is held by Olof Anderson, who is now serving in the capacities of city auditor and police judge. He was born in Carlscrona, Sweden, and is the only living son of Andreas Anderson, for many years a merchant of Carlscrona, and still a resident of that town. The wife and mother, Bothilda Larson, has also been a lifelong resident of that place. Of their five children four are still living, Olof being the only one of the number in America. In the city where he was born, August 6, 1868, he passed the years of boyhood and early youth. At the age of fourteen he left school and secured employment in a very humble capacity on a ship engaged in trans-Atlantic trade. A year later he transferred to an American ship and thereafter continued on the same. In 1886, on the ship, Southern Hulbert, he rounded the Horn, and after a voyage of one hundred and eighty-five days out from New York, he arrived in Astoria. Ever since his arrival, October 15, 1886, he has been a resident of this city, interested in its growth and a contributor to its material progress. At first he greatly felt the need of a more thorough knowledge of the English language, so attended school during his spare time for three winters, the intervening summer months being devoted to fishing. Later he was employed as a clerk and bookkeeper for different firms, including Johnson & Carlson. Meantime he perfected himself in the occupation of bookkeeping.

    On the death of H. E. Nelson, city auditor, Mr. Anderson was appointed auditor and police judge by the city council, and took the oath of office December 23, 1902, to fill the vacancy thus occasioned. Since taking up the work he has inaugurated a system of book- keeping for the cit3^ bringing the whole up to a standard thoroughly modern and accurate. Aside from being police judge, he is ex-officio justice of the peace. He has taken a rigid stand in the enforcement of city laws and fines for misdemeanors. As a result the city treasury is much benefited, and improvements within the corporate limits are being pushed ahead and completed. Within the six months ending September 1, 1903, the receipts from the police court amounted to $5,325. The city indebtedness within a year was reduced from $208,000 to $152,070. Every department was systematized and the books brought into excellent shape. The work of the official has been much praised by press and citizens. People, irrespective of political views, have united to commend his accuracy, splendid system and dispatch in executing matters connected with his office. In his work as police judge there has been strict impartiality and a rigid adherence to law and justice.

    The marriage of Mr. Anderson was solemnized in Astoria July 26. 1896, and united him with Miss Sophia Sund, who was born near Wasa, Finland, of Swedish parentage. The two sons born of their union are named Olof Ewart and Aaron Melvin. A Democrat in party views, Mr. Anderson has served that organization on the county central and city executive committees. However, there is no trace of partisanship in his opinions, for he is above all things else a patriotic, loyal citizen, true to the country he has made his home. The Chamber of Commerce numbers him among its active members, as does also the Commercial Club. Other organizations with which he is identified are the following: Independent Order of Odd Fellows, being a member of Beaver Lodge since 1891. He is past noble grand, recording secretary, and has represented the lodge in the Grand Lodge five terms. He is also a member of the Rebekahs: the Red Men, in which he is past sachem of Concomly Tribe No. 7, and has served as chief of records for six years, also has been raised to the Degree of Pocahontas; and the Eagles, in which he is vice president.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Alona Planca


FREDERICK BARTOLDUS. A fine representative of the pioneer settlers of Oregon, and an important factor in developing the industrial interests of Clatsop county, Frederick Bartoldus is recognized as one of the most skilful and successful agriculturists of Astoria, his well managed and finely improved dairy farm lying about four miles south of the city limits. During his long and useful life he has pursued the even tenor of his way as an honest man and a good citizen, advancing the welfare of his community as he had opportunity, and is now living somewhat retired from the activities of business, leaving the care of his ranch to his sons. He was born January 1, 1830, in Prussia, Germany, which was also the birthplace of his parents, Joseph and Victoria (Herbold) Bartoldus, both of whom spent their entire lives in their native land, the father dying in 1839, at the age of fifty years, and the mother in 1845, when about sixty years of age.

    The youngest child in a family consisting of five sons and one daughter, Frederick Bartoldus received his early education in the fatherland, and afterward served in the regular army for three years. Immigrating to America in 1855, he settled first in Kentucky, and for a year or more thereafter worked as a day laborer in Fulton County. Coming by way of the Isthmus to Clatsop County in the fall of 1856, he was identified with the lumber industry for some time, working in a saw mill at Oak Point for four years. In 1860 he went to Kentucky on a visit and owing to the war it was impossible for him to return until 1863. On his return to Oregon he was employed at Westport the following five years. Then for two years he conducted a sawmill seven miles above Vancouver on the Old Hudson Bay plain. Locating on Youngs River in 1870, Mr. Bartoldus bought his present home farm, lying four miles south of Astoria. The two hundred and seventy acres included in his ranch was then in its primitive wildness, being covered with trees and shrubs. By dint of hard labor he has made substantial improvements, and has sixty-five acres in a high state of cultivation. As a general farmer he has been successful, and is now carrying on an extensive and profitable dairy business, milking thirty cows.

    In 1872 Mr. Bartoldus married Amelia Shoup, a native of Germany, and into the household thus established six children have been born, four of whom are living: Joseph F., William, Minnie and Charles, all at home. Caroline and Mary, two of the older daughters, are deceased. Taking a genuine interest in local affairs, Mr. Bartoldus has served as road supervisor and school director. In his political views he is independent, voting irrespective of party prejudice for the best men and measures. He is a member of one of the leading fraternal organizations of Astoria, belonging to Beaver Lodge, I. O. O. F.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Alona Planca


THOMAS S. CORNELIUS. This history of western Oregon would be incomplete indeed if no mention were made in it of the Cornelius family, whose members are so prominent in public life and are among the most successful men of their section. The above named gentleman is a worthy scion of his progenitors, and, at the present writing, is ably filling the office of assessor of Clatsop County, Ore. The Cornelius family is of Scotch descent and the great grandfather of Thomas S. was a native of South Carolina, but removed to Kentucky. His son, Benjamin, was born there, and in 1812 he married and settled in Missouri. In 1845 he went to the far west and settled in Oregon.

    Thomas S. Cornelius is one of a large family of children of the late Col. Thomas R. Cornelius, whose sketch is found elsewhere in this work. His mother was, before her marriage, Florentine Wilks, who descended from a distinguished Virginia family and was herself a native of that state. She was a daughter of Peyton and Anna (Dalles) Wilks. Her father was born in Bedford County, Va., July 15, 1791, and was a tanner by trade. He served during the war of 1812, and his marriage with Anna Dalles took place in 1815. In 1829 they went to Hendricks county, Ind., where Mr. Wilks cleared and improved a farm and became a tiller of the soil. Ten years later they went further west, settling in Missouri, where they lived until 1845, and then went west to Oregon. The trip overland was a memorable one. They traveled in Captain Brown's company of eighty-five persons, and their own family consisted of father, mother, six sons and one daughter. One son died on the plains, and the company lost the trail and ran out of food, but finally secured a competent guide and was thus saved. Mr. Wilks engaged in agricultural pursuits and his last years were spent on a farm at Galescreek. He was ninety years old at the time of his death, but his wife died when but thirty-eight years old.

    T. S. Cornelius was born on his father's donation claim, five miles north of Cornelius, August 13, 1854. He was reared to farm life and attended district school, afterward taking an advanced course in the Pacific University, which he attended two years. Leaving school he went to work in his father's store at Cornelius. He subsequently spent one year in California, and the three following years were spent by him in the Klickitat country, Washington Ter., where he was engaged in the stock business. Returning to Cornelius, he reentered the store, and later turned his attention to farming. He purchased a farm near Cornelius and still owns this tract, which contains two hundred and twenty acres. In 1890 became to Astoria, which has since been his home, and again entered mercantile life, as a member of the firm of Hay & Cornelius, and a successful business was carried on for three years. Selling his interest, Mr. Cornelius entered the employ of Mr. Scofield, a prosperous merchant of Astoria, and later became bill collector for the firm of Ross, Higgins & Co. In June, 1902, he was nominated on the Republican ticket for the office of county assessor and was elected by a majority of five hundred votes, taking the oath of office in January, 1903. Since his election he has devoted his entire time to the duties of his office, and from all appearances he is a most capable and efficient man for the place.

    Mr. Cornelius was united in marriage with Miss Scofield, an accomplished daughter of Benjamin Scofield, of Washington County, Ore. Three children now bless their home, their names being Byron, Louretta and Lovelle. Fraternally Mr. Cornelius is allied with the Masonic fraternity, which he joined in Hillsboro. He now affiliates with Temple Lodge No. 7, of Astoria, being one of its most valued members.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Alona Planca


HON. JOHN HAHN. No country on the globe has afforded greater opportunities to the poor than our own, many an industrious and thrifty young man having risen from a condition of comparative poverty to a position of affluence and influence. Prominent among this class is Hon. John Hahn, formerly one of the leading boot and shoe dealers of Astoria, who came to this country without money and without friends, and by persistent energy and prudent management has accumulated wealth, and gained the good will and friendship of a host of people, among whom are many men of eminence and ability. A native of Germany, he was born April 21, 1846, at Hesse Cassel, which was also the birthplace of his parents, Philip and Magdalene (Court) Hahn. The father was for many years a noncommissioned officer, and was afterward in the employ of the government, having charge of the House of Correction at Ziegenhain, where his death occurred. The mother died in Hesse Cassel. She bore her husband four children, three daughters and one son, and of this one daughter is now living in New York.

    Going with his father to Ziegenhain when a child of four years, John Hahn was there educated, attending the public schools of that place. Sailing from Bremen in 1860 on the "Clara," he arrived in New York City after a voyage of eight weeks and two days. On the first day out he was robbed of the small sum of money he had, and of all his papers. The loss of the latter proved very serious as among them was one containing the address of an uncle upon whose help he depended. Having lost the address, he at once began hunting for work in the great city, and soon found employment in a tailor's shop, where he worked as an apprentice for two years, receiving no remuneration excepting his board. Becoming discouraged and disgusted with that trade, he took up cigar making, which he followed two years or more, the last year being foreman of the shop. In 1864 he tried to enlist in the Union army, offering his services to his adopted country, but, failing to pass the physical examination, he was not accepted. At the lime of the cigar makers strike in New York, his funds grew low, and as he could find nothing to do, he made cigars which he sold on the street. Being taken ill in 1865, he was advised by his physician to give up cigar making. Entering a clothing manufactory, Mr. Hahn then learned the trade of a trimmer, and was subsequently employed by the firm of Davis & Jackson, at 59 Murray street, and was afterward trimmer and collector for Miller Brothers, of 749 Broadway. In August, 1867, Mr. Hahn enlisted in Battery H, Fourth United States Artillery, and was stationed first at Governors Island, then at Arlington Heights, going thence to Fort McHenry, Baltimore, and from there to North Carolina, where he was engaged for awhile in hunting the Ku Klux Klan, his headquarters being at Ruffin. Receiving his honorable discharge from the army in 1870, Mr. Hahn went to Baltimore, but being unable to find employment he reenlisted in his old regiment and battery, and again went to North Carolina, being stationed at Raleigh. The ensuing two years he hunted the Ku Klux, traveling through North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. In 1872 he accompanied his regiment to California. In the fall of that year he came with his comrades on the "Ajax" to Astoria, and was stationed at Fort Disappointment, now Fort Canby, until the breaking out of the Indian war when his regiment was sent to Ouiniault, Wash. Returning to Fort Disappointment at the end of six months, he was afterward stationed there until honorably discharged from the service, October 1, 1875.

     Immediately forming a partnership with E. Papmahl, Mr. Hahn embarked in the brewery business in Astoria, continuing in that occupation until 1883. Embarking in business as a shoe dealer in 1885, Mr. Hahn continued in this line up to September 1, 1903, meeting with success in his operations. Although he has had a checkered career in life, meeting with reverses and disappointments, he has always been honest and upright, and is known to the business world as a straightforward, honorable man, true as steel. In 1889 Mr. Hahn made a trip to the fatherland, visiting the scenes of his childhood, and while on the journey had the advantage of having personal letters from Hon. James G. Blaine, then secretary of state, and from United States Senator John H. Mitchell, to present to prominent officials in different European cities.

    A sound Republican in his political views, Mr. Hahn has been elected to public offices of importance, and has ever performed the duties devolving upon him in an official capacity with a tact and discrimination that has secured him universal esteem and respect. Elected councilman in 1877, he served faithfully for three years. In 1880 he was elected mayor of Astoria for a term of two years, and during that time occurred the disastrous fire, which destroyed the town. Riots ensued, becoming so violent that it was necessary to have a vigilance committee organized. In 1888 Mr. Hahn was a representative to the state legislature, where he helped elect J. N. Dolph as United States senator, and was also chairman of the committee on fisheries. Through his efforts, mainly, the Portland water bill, praying that $1,500,000 be exempted from taxation for a period of thirty years, was defeated in that session; and for that reason, probably, he was not honored with a re-nomination the following term. In 1892 he was elected police commissioner, and served four years, three years of the time being president of the board. In 1900 Mr. Hahn was a candidate for the legislature on the Citizens ticket, and was elected by a good majority. During the twenty-first biennial session of the legislature he was a member of the committee on fisheries, and was successful in getting the fishery bill through the house, creating Bill No. 219. Reelected on the Citizens ticket in 1902, Mr. Hahn served in the twenty-second biennial session, and from first to last cast his vote in favor of Charles W. Fulton as United States senator. He again served on the committee on fisheries, his former experience making it possible for him to do a great deal for one of the greatest industries of the state.

    In Astoria, Mr. Hahn married Lena Althaber, who was born in Prussia, and came to Astoria, Ore., with her father, A. Althaber, in 1872. Fraternally Mr. Hahn is a member and past noble grand of the Astoria lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and is a past officer of the Encampment. He is secretary and treasurer of the Odd Fellows Land and Building Association, a position that he has filled since its organization. He is also a member and vice president of the Commercial Club, and is a member of the Lutheran Church. Generously interested in everything affecting the public weal, Mr. Hahn has exerted a marked influence in city and county.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Alona Planca


CHARLES C. C. ROSENBERG, M. D. During the seventeenth century, at the expiration of the Thirty Years war and after the death of Gustavus Adolphus, an officer of the German army bearing the name of Rosenberg went to Sweden with the army from his native kingdom of Wurtemberg and founded the Swedish branch of the Rosenberg family. From him descended Mauritz Rosenberg, a native of Stockholm, and by occupation a lumber manufacturer. Removing to Finland, he built the first steam sawmill in that country, this being located at Bjorneborg on the Gulf of Bothnia. His son, Capt. Gustavus Adolph Rosenberg, a native of Stockholm, Sweden, accompanied the family to Finland, where he, too, engaged in the manufacture of lumber, remaining there until his death. By his marriage to Eva Nyburg, who died in Sweden, he had two children, Charles Conrad Constantine and Walter, the latter a resident of Escanaba, Mich., where he follows the machinist's trade.

    In Tammefors, Tevastehus, Finland, Charles C. C. Rosenberg was born October 16, 1859. As a boy he attended the gymnasium at Abo, Finland. During the progress of the Turko Russian war he entered the Red Cross service of the Russian army and there became interested in the science of medicine, the study of which he prosecuted after the close of the war. In 1880 he was graduated from the Medical and Surgical College at Helsingfors, Finland, with the degree of M. D. For the following six years he held a commission as surgeon, with the rank of captain, in the Wasa Battalion of the Finnish Guard. Later he entered the Russian Imperial Maria Fredonia Hospital in St. Petersburg (the army hospital) where he remained for two years. He also had the privilege of attending the Army Medical College in the same city.

    October of 1889, found Dr. Rosenberg in the United States, where he opened an office at Harbor, Ashtabula county, Ohio, and there conducted a general practice for two years. His first knowledge of Oregon was gained in 1891, when he settled in Astoria. Six months later he crossed the bay to Frankfort, Wash., and there conducted a general practice for seven years, returning in 1900 to Astoria, where he now make his home. His extensive practice in medicine and surgery is not confined to his home town, but extends to different points in both Oregon and Washington.

    To keep abreast with every discovery in therapeutics has always been an ambition of Dr. Rosenberg. In the pursuit of this purpose he took a course of lectures in the Bennett Medical College of Chicago, from which he was graduated in 1898. The following year he was graduated from the National College of Electro Therapeutics at Lima, Ohio, with the degree of Master of Electro Therapeutics. In 1900 he was graduated from the Chicago School of Psychology with the degree of D. P., and in addition he is a graduate of the American School of Magnetic Healing at Nevada, Mo. His knowledge of pharmacy was gained in the Ohio Institute of Pharmacy at Columbus, from which he was graduated in 1899. It may be readily understood that, with the advantages offered by all of these institutions he has gained a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of his profession and kindred sciences. Indeed, he knows no happier hours than those spent in diagnosing intricate forms of disease and conquering them by his skill and knowledge. In 1900 he was appointed on the staff of St. Luke's hospital, at Niles, Mich., with which he is connected as corresponding physician. He is also an honorary member of the staff of the World's Electro Medical Institute at Columbus, Ohio, and is a member of the American Medical Union. The varied nature of his studies may be inferred from the fact that he has won the degrees of M. Ch., M. D, M. E., Ph. G., D. M. and D. P.

    While in Ohio Dr. Rosenberg married Mrs. Maria (Ladwa) Reane, who was born in the city of Wasa, Finland, and by whom he has one child, Aune. By her first marriage Mrs. Rosenberg has three children, Einar, Theodore and Olga. In his fraternal relations the doctor is connected with the Ancient Order of United Workmen, Degree of Honor, Modern Woodmen of America, Royal Neighbors, Eagles, and Red Men, Tribe of Pocahontas. Besides being one of the most active workers in the Finnish Cooperative Workingmen's Association, he holds office as its secretary. He is a member of the American Labor Union and secretary of the Columbia Federal Union, of which he is also state organizer. Since youth he has been a student of mankind. His wide travels have taken from him any narrowness of mind that might be associated with isolation. Though intensely loyal to the land of his birth, he is nevertheless a cosmopolitan, and all men he regards as his brethren. It is his belief that the highest happiness of mankind can never be attained until socialistic principles are brought into actual practice, and he is an ardent defender and disciple of Henry George.

    Those unfamiliar with Dr. Rosenberg's energy might infer that the practice of his profession and the duties connected with membership in numerous organizations would leave him no leisure time for participation in other affairs, but we find these do not represent the limit of his activities. In addition, he is editor and publisher of the Lannelar, a Finnish newspaper, six-column quarto, published weekly, and containing news of interest to Finnish people in the United States and Finland. Subscribers to the paper are to be found in every state of our own land, besides a large list in Canada. While a specialty is made of items of news, yet Dr. Rosenberg has a higher ideal than this in publishing the paper, for he endeavors, through its columns, to inspire higher aims and motives among laboring men and broaden their range of thought and aspiration. In him the laborer has a friend, one who realizes his difficulties, sympathizes with his needs and understands the many problems that confront him. Those who know Dr. Rosenberg most intimately assert that, while his successful medical career is a source of gratification to him he appreciates no distinction more highly than to be known as the "friend of the laboring man."

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Alona Planca


JAMES L. LOVELL. The proprietor of the Scow Bay Iron and Brass Works is one of the well known business men of Astoria whither he came for the first time in 1889. His connection with the plant of which he is now the head dates from 1900, when he leased the foundry. In March of 1903 he bought the plant, and at once began to remodel and improve the same, since which lime he has carried on an extensive business in the manufacture of iron and brass castings of all kinds, his specialty being steamboat, sawmill and logging work. The plant has a large capacity and its usefulness is further enhanced by the pattern shop in connection therewith. Employment is furnished to a number of men, varying from six to ten. There are two cupolas with a capacity respectively of five and fifteen tons, also one of brass with a capacity of one half ton.

    Of English birth and descent, Mr. Lovell was born in Boston, Lincolnshire, December 25, 1852, and was next to the youngest in a large family, six of whom are now living. His father, Charles Penton Lovell, who was a pattern maker and cabinet worker, came to America in 1868 and settled in Chicago, where two years later he was joined by his family. From that time he engaged in pattern making until his death, which occurred in Chicago. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Lucy Ellen Green, was born in England and died in that country. When twelve years of age James L. Lovell left school and became an apprentice to the trade of a pattern maker. Two years later he was apprenticed as a molder in the foundry of Tux ford & Son. When his father sent for the family, he started for the United States, landing in New York City May 30, 1870, off the Steamer City of London. Then he proceeded direct to Chicago, where he promptly secured work, at $40 per week, on the abutment of the Omaha Bridge made by the Boomer Bridge Company in Chicago. For eighteen months he worked there, without loss of time. Later he followed his trade in different cities of the north, south and west. June 18, 1874, he arrived in Virginia City, Nev., where he was employed for five months. Later he was engaged in the building of the city hall at San Francisco, after which he worked for three years at his trade in Mill City, Nev. Subsequent to this he was manager of the Manhattan Silver Mining Company's foundry at Austin, Nev., for thirteen and one half years. For three years he then followed his trade in San Francisco and Placerville, after which he came to Astoria in 1889 and started the Scow Bay Foundry Company, with D. H. and John Welch as partners. The company was incorporated with Mr. Lovell as president and under his experienced guidance the works were built and operated. In 1897 he disposed of his interest in the business and returned to Placerville, Cal., where he leased and operated a placer mine for two and one half years. On his return to Astoria he resumed his connection with the foundry, of which he is now the sole owner.

    While living in Austin, Nev., Mr. Lovell married Miss Rose Anita Watson, who was born and reared there, and has the distinction of being the first white female child born in that town. Her father, William Watson, was a blacksmith by occupation and followed his calling after identifying himself with the pioneers of the west. Four children comprise the family of Mr. and Mrs. Lovell, namely: James Watson, a molder with his father; Sherman, who acts as bookkeeper for his father; May and Violet. Though loyal in every respect to the country of his adoption, Mr. Lovell is not a partisan, and aside from voting the Republican ticket takes no part in politics. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce in Astoria and fraternally is connected with the Knights of Pythias, the Ancient Order of United Workmen and the Eagles.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Alona Planca


JOHN NORDSTROM. The salmon fisheries and canneries on the Oregon side of the Columbia River employ in the vicinity of five thousand people, and the salting and packing of salmon stands second in the list of important industries of the state. Millions of dollars are invested in these fisheries, which generally yield a fair profit to investors. The Alaska Fishermen's Packing Company, although of only a few years duration, is one of the most successful companies doing business in that section, which fact is undoubtedly due to the undivided efforts of John Nordstrom, the subject of this writing, who succeeded in organizing the company in 1898, and ever since its incorporation has served as its manager and secretary.

    As his name indicates, Mr. Nordstrom is a native of Sweden, his birth having taken place November 1, 1854, at Grunsunda Sacken, Westternorrland, also the birthplace of his father, Jonas Nordstrom, who was a mill wright by occupation. His mother died when he was but six years old, leaving three sons, John being the eldest. The others are Jonas, a farmer at Twin Lake, Mich., and Andrew, a farmer in Clatsop County, Ore.

    Public instruction is compulsory for all children in Sweden as it should be in all countries, and Mr. Nordstrom went to school until heat attained the age of fourteen years. He then spent five years in the lumber yards of Husum. When nineteen years old be became apprenticed and served as a retail grocery clerk in Hernosand one year and another year in Sundsvall, as bookkeeper and clerk. Having saved enough to pay expenses, he entered the college at Sundsvall and graduated with the first honors of his class.

    Soon after leaving college he obtained a lucrative position with the Alvik Lumber Company in Sundsvall and remained in their employ from 1876 until 1883, being bookkeeper and cashier most of the time. In 1883 he resigned, much to the discomfiture of his employers, who, however, voluntarily tendered him an excellent recommendation. For four years thereafter he was superintendent of a grocery store.

    In 1887 Mr. Nordstrom came to America, locating for a short time in North Dakota, where his father in law lived. After five months stay there, in February, 1888, he came to Oregon. Going directly to Astoria, he entered the employ of W. F. McGregor, proprietor of the Astoria Box Company, and for thirteen years served as bookkeeper for that firm, when he resigned, to accept his present position as secretary of the Alaska Fishermen's Packing Company.

    This company is engaged in fishing and packing salmon in Nushagak Bristol bay, Alaska, where they have extensive fisheries and canneries. Sixty thousand cases are packed in one season. Vessels are chartered to take supplies to the plant, and after the packing is completed the cases are brought in the same wav to Astoria, where the employees also return until the next season. From Astoria the product is sold through different parts of the United States and other countries.

    While still in his native land, Mr. Nordstrom was united in marriage with Anna Westling, also of Swedish nativity and a daughter of Isaac Westling. They have four children: Turie, who is bookkeeper for the cannery in Alaska, and Rosa, Lily and Esther. The family is influential members of the Swedish Lutheran church, being counted among its most worthy members. Fraternally Mr. Nordstrom is a member of the Knights of Pythias, the 'Woodmen of the World, and Ancient Order of United Workmen. He is also a member of the Chamber of Commerce and for the past six years has served as recording secretary of the Scandinavian Benevolent Association. Politically he is a stanch supporter of the men and measures of the Republican Party and in T901 was elected a member of the city council. Mr. Nordstrom's record is certainly praiseworthy and his success is well deserved, as he is a man of worth and integrity.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Alona Planca


WILLARD N. SMITH. Next to the oldest established plumber and tinner in Astoria, W. N. Smith has, by his own energy, foresight and sound judgment, built up a large and lucrative business, and is recognized as one of the most prosperous of citizens. A man of ability, enterprise and integrity, he is held in high estimation throughout the community, and enjoys in a large measure the confidence and good will of his many friends and acquaintances. The descendant of an old honored family of New England, he was born November 1, 1857, in Granby. Mass. His father, Nelson Smith, was a lifelong resident of Hampshire County, Mass., his birth occurring in South Hadley, and his death in Granby. He was a farmer by occupation, and was highly respected by all who knew him. He married Selina Burnett, who spent the greater part of her life in Granby, Mass. Of the children born to their union, five sons and two daughters are having, Willard N., who is next to the youngest child, being the only resident on the Pacific coast.

    Brought up on the home farm, W. N. Smith was educated in the district schools of Granby, and in the South Hadley high school. At the age of eighteen years he began learning the trade of a tinsmith, at which he served an apprenticeship of three years in South Hadley Falls. He subsequently worked as a journeyman in different places in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. Migrating to Kansas in 1880, he followed his trade in Kansas City for a short time, and was afterward engaged in business in Fort Scott. Removing to Idaho in 1882, he remained there two years, being first located in the Wood River country, then in Boise, and afterward in Caldwell. Coming to Oregon in 1884, he spent a year in Portland, from there coming to Astoria in the spring of 1885. Securing a position with Mr. Hawes, he was made superintendent of the plumbing and tinning department of his shop. Subsequently removing to the Lewis & Qark River valley, Mr. Smith purchased land, on which he resided about one year. Returning then to Astoria he was appointed by the water commissioners superintendent of the Astoria Water Works, which were then being greatly enlarged and the system extended, and served most efficiently and satisfactorily for three and one half years. Wishing then to start in business on his own account, in 1896 Mr. Smith opened a plumbing shop on Exchange Street, where, as junior member of the firm of Gribble & Smith, he was located for four years. Buying out the interest of his partner in 1900, Mr. Smith removed to his present location, No. 615 Commercial Street, where he is carrying on an extensive and profitable business. He makes a specialty of house plumbing, heating, gas fitting and tinning, and is recognized as a superior workman. He has furnished the plumbing for many of the finest residences and public buildings of Astoria, including the Flavel Hotel, at Hammond, one of the finest in the state.

    In Astoria, Mr. Smith married Jennie Haddam, who was born in Chanute, Kans., and they have one child, a daughter named Lena. Politically Mr. Smith is a steadfast Republican, but is not an aspirant for official honors. He is a member of the Artisans, and belongs to the Astoria Chamber of Commerce.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Alona Planca


JAY TUTTLE, M. D. Prominent among the leading physicians and surgeons of Clatsop County is Jay Tuttle, M. D., who is especially note worthy for his professional knowledge and skill. His ability in dealing with difficult cases consigned to his care has gained for him the confidence of the community, and his patronage has steadily increased from year to year. Successful from the time of taking his degree, he is well deserving of credit for the position he has won not only as a practitioner, but as one of the most popular and esteemed citizens of Astoria. A son of Daniel Tuttle, Esq., he was born December 21, 1841, in Nottingham. N. H. He comes of English ancestry, being a descendant in the eighth generation of John Tuttle, the immigrant ancestor, his lineage being John (1). Judge John (2), Ensign John (3), Lieut. Nicholas (4), Ensign Stoughton (5), Joseph (6), Daniel (7), Jay (8).

    John Tuttle (1), a native of Hertford County, England, emigrated to America with Capt. Thomas Wiggin and his company in 1633, and settled at Dover Neck. N. H., his lot being on the east side of High street, near the present site of the schoolhouse. He acquired considerable real estate, receiving several land grants. He was familiarly known as "Captain," and his original home lot is still called Captain's Hill. He died in Dover, N. H., in 1633. Of the children born to him and his wife, Dorothy, John was the next in line of descent.

    Judge John Tuttle (2), a lifelong resident of Dover, N. H., died in 1720. He became a large land owner and a citizen of prominence. He resided on High street, nearly opposite his father's home. He was for many years town clerk and town treasurer; representative in the convention that met in 1689 to organize the New Hampshire provincial government, independent of Massachusetts; a representative in the general court from 169S until 1707; and was judge of the court of common pleas from 1695 until his death. For several years he was captain of a company of militia. He owned several mill privileges and mills, and carried on a very extensive and lucrative business, manufacturing lumber, and exporting it to England and the West Indies. His wife's name was Mary.

    Ensign John Tuttle (3) was born in Dover, N. H., in 1671, and died there May 17, 1712. Coming into possession of lot No. 7, which was given to his grandfather by the town in 1642, he resided there after his marriage to Judith Otis. A part of his estate is now owned by one of his lineal descendants, Richard Tuttle, the property having passed from father to son by will, and the house which he erected, and in which he lived, still stands on the original farm. He held several town offices, and was ensign of a company during one of the early Indian wars. He was engaged in the lumber business with his father, and was killed by the Indians while at his mill in Tole End, which is about a mile above the site of the present Cocheco Cotton Mills. The savages, alarmed by the coming of English troops, did not take his scalp, although they scalped several of the mill men killed at the same time.

    Lieut. Nicholas Tuttle (4) was born in Dover, N. H., July 27, 1708, married Deborah Hunt, settled subsequently in Lee, N. H., and was afterward engaged in the lumber business at Nottingham, N. H., where he was a pioneer settler, and afterwards a resident until his death, in 1793. He took an active part in the old French and Indian war, serving as lieutenant of his company.

    Ensign Stoughton Tuttle (5), born in Lee, X. H., September 30. 1739, married, in 1760,
Lydia Stevens, and soon afterward removed to Nottingham, N. H., living there until his death, in August, 1812. When but sixteen years old he enlisted in the Provincial army, and served for five years in the French and Indian war, being commissioned ensign of his company. He was with General Wolfe at Quebec, and was one of the brave soldiers that scaled the Heights of Abraham, taking the French by surprise. He was a farmer by occupation, and for many years served as selectman in Nottingham, in that capacity furnishing the Continental army with supplies and men during the Revolutionary war.

    Joseph Tuttle (6), who spent his entire life in Nottingham, N. H., was born July 26, 1766, and died February 28, 1843. A prominent business man, and one of the leading citizens of the place, he was active in public affairs, serving as selectman twelve years; as representative a number of terms; and was justice of the peace thirty-nine consecutive years, being known as "Esquire" Tuttle. He was an extensive farmer, an expert land surveyor, and had a good knowledge of the mason's trade.

    Daniel Tuttle (7), also a lifelong resident of Nottingham, N. H., was born September 26, 1801, and died October 26, 1874. He was a man of good education, especially in mathematics; he taught school eleven winters in his early life; he was one of the selectmen of Nottingham 1835-36, 1848-49, 1862-3-4, and town treasurer during the latter three years; recruiting officer during the Civil war; he was appointed justice of the peace in 1835; justice of the peace and quorum 1845; coroner in 1846; justice of the peace and quorum throughout the state in 1852, which office he continued to hold until his death. He represented his town in the legislature in 1851-52; he was a land surveyor and civil engineer fifty years, always noted for the accuracy of his work: he was also a farmer and operative mason, doing much work in his own and neighboring towns. On October 16, 1828, he married Nancy Scales, who was born in Nottingham, N. H., of excellent English ancestry. She was a descendant of one Hugh Scales, who went from Normandy to England with William the Conqueror, and was afterward knighted, and given large grants of land. The immigrant ancestor was William Scales (1), the line being continued through his son, James Scales (2). Capt. Matthew Scales (3), the next in line of descent, was born in Rowley, Mass, but afterward settled in North Yarmouth, Me., where he was killed by the Indians, at his home, in April, 1725. His son Abraham Scales (4), born in Falmouth. Me., married Sarah Thompson, daughter of John and Sarah (Woodman) Thompson, and granddaughter of Capt. John Woodman, whose father, John Woodman, emigrated from England to New England in 1635. Their son, Samuel Scales (5), was a lifelong resident of Nottingham, N. H., and through him the line of descent was continued. Samuel Scales (6), the father of Nancy Scales, married Hannah Dame, a descendant in the fifth generation of Sergeant John Dame (1), the line being as follows: John (1), John (2), John (3), Moses (4), Hannah (5), John Dame (1), born in Dover, N. H., in 1647, was prominent in the Colonial wars, serving as sergeant of a company of militia. Moses Dame (4) married Anna Hunking, daughter of Capt. Mark Hunking, and granddaughter of Col. Mark Hunking, who was a prominent resident of Portsmouth, N. H., where he served as judge, colonel of a military company, and as royal councilor. The colonel was a son of John and Agnes Hunking, who emigrated from England to Portsmouth, N. H., and a grandson of Mark Hunking, of Devonshire, England. Of the four children born of the union of Daniel (7) and Nancy (Scales) Tuttle, Jay, the youngest child, is the only one living. The mother died in San Francisco, Cal, April 17, 1871.

    Jay Tuttle (8) received excellent educational advantages, attending the public schools of his own town, also at Pembroke, New London and Philips Exeter Academies, from which he graduated fitted for college; from 1853 to 1866 he was bookkeeper and salesman in company with Joseph Galloway, m the lumber business at Antioch, Cal.; from 1868 to 1869 he was general clerk and assistant agent of the California Steam Navigation Co. ; from 1869 to 1872 he was in partnership with his father in law, Stephen Abbott, at Antioch, doing business in drugs, chemicals, books, periodicals, etc., with agencies for insurance companies; from 1872 to 1880 he was in partnership with Dr. C. W. Tower in the drug business at Empire City, Coos county. Ore.; during that time he studied medicine and graduated as M. D., in April, 1880, from Willamette University, Portland, Ore. Immediately locating in Astoria, Dr. Tuttle has here built up a large and lucrative general practice, being one of the most prominent physicians of the city. In connection with Dr. Kinney, he was surgeon at the hospital from the time of locating in Astoria, and from 1880 until 1882 was deputy state health officer, during which time he so successfully quarantined the bark "Alden Besse," which came here from Hong Kong infected with smallpox, that there was no further spread of the dread disease. In 1881, 1889 and 1890, he rendered efficient service as city physician. Appointed acting assistant surgeon of the United States Marine Hospital Service in 1892, he has since retained the office.

    Dr. Tuttle married first, in Antioch, Cal. November 8, 1868, Emily Abbott, who was born in Wilton, N. H., a daughter of Stephen Abbott, of Antioch, Cal. She died March 30. 1871, leaving one child, Arthur Cornwall Tuttle (9), who was born in Antioch, Cal., February 17. 1870, married Emma Clark, and is now engaged in mercantile pursuits in Pocahontas, Miss. The doctor married second, in Empire City, Ore., March 26, 1873, Emma Lois Winkler, a native of Grass Valley, Cal., and they have three children, namely: Nancy Elnora Scales (9), born in Astoria, Ore., December 14, 1875, married, January 11, 1899, Walter Hull Aldridge, of Trail, B. C.; Nettie Emily (9) born in Astoria, August 3, 1877, married, January 16, 1900, Robert Hunter, who is engaged in a general mercantile business at Roslyn, B. C.; and Jay Tuttle (9), who was born in Astoria, October 17, 1880.

    One of the prominent and active Masons of the Pacific coast, Dr. Tuttle united with the order at Marshfield, joining Blanco Lodge, No. 48, A. F. & A. M., and is now a member of Temple Lodge, No. 7, A. F. & A. M., in which he served as worthy master in 1888, 1889 and 1890; he was a member of Umpqua Chapter No. 11, R. A. M., serving as high priest; demitting to St. John's Chapter No. 14, R. A. M., of which he was high priest from 1882 until 1887, inclusive; in 1888 and 1889 he was grand scribe; in 1889 and 1890 he was grand king; in 1890 and 1891 was deputy grand high priest; and in 1891 and 1892 was grand high priest of the grand chapter; he also belongs to Oregon Commandery, No. 1, K. T.; to Oregon Lodge of Perfection No. 1; and to Washington Council, R. S. M., No. 1. In 1891 and 1892 the doctor was president of the Oregon Order of High Priesthood, and he is now an active member of the Masonic Veteran Association of the Pacific coast. He is also connected with other fraternal organizations, being a member of the Knights of Pythias, serving as grand chancellor in 1886 and 1887; and is past master workman of the Ancient Order of United Workmen. He is a stanch Republican in politics, and during the time of the Civil war was secretary of the California Union League. Dr. Tuttle is also a member of the State Medical Society, and of the American Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. He is now president of the County Medical Society and holds membership with the American Medical Association. December 16, 1903, at a special election the doctor was elected without opposition to fill the position of state senator made vacant by the resignation of United States Senator Fulton and served in the special session of the legislature held in December, 1903.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Alona Planca


JAMES J. ROBINSON. On the little island of Fyen, forming a part of Denmark and adjoining Schleswig Holstein to the east, James J. Robinson of Astoria was born February 6, 1869, being the eldest in a family of four children, two sons and two daughters. The father, who was a machinist by occupation, died in early life, but the mother is still living and makes Fyen her home. From the age of eleven years Mr. Robinson had to earn his own livelihood. Few advantages of birth or fortune were his. In fact, all that he is and all that he has may be justly attributed to his persistence in the face of obstacles. When but a boy he did a man's work on a farm. Of schooling he had little, yet he has ever been a careful observer and a thoughtful reader, so has gained a broad knowledge of men and things.

    Hoping to find better opportunities in America, in 1889 Mr. Robinson crossed the ocean to New York, thence preceded to Nebraska, where he spent two months at Plum creek, near Dawson. In September of the same year he arrived in Oregon. At first he was employed in a box factory in Portland, then worked in a logging camp on Clatsop creek, but was forced to abandon such work in 1890 on account of having accidentally cut his foot with an axe. He was taken to St. Mary's hospital and there, after his recovery, he remained for six years as a steward. Following this he was for two years employed as clerk with Ford & Stokes. In 1898 he embarked in the furniture business on Commercial Street, Astoria, where he has a building. 25x100, two stories in height, equipped with all the stock necessary to a first class store of this kind. Among the people of Astoria Mr. Robinson has built up a reputation for reliable work, honorable dealings with all and courteous treatment of customers. His ambition is to conduct a business that will win the confidence of all, and no pains are spared in the attainment of this end. Since coming to Astoria he has married, his wife being Mathilda Carlson, who was born in Westrejutland. Sweden. They are the parents of three sons, Leo, James and Francis.

    Since becoming a citizen of the United Stales Mr. Robinson has been stanch in his allegiance to the Republican Party, and since identifying himself with the business interests of Astoria he has been a member of the Chamber of Commerce. In religion he is connected with St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church. Fraternally he is a member of the Modern Woodmen of America and the Scandinavian Benevolent Society, in the work of both of which he is warmly interested. In December of 1902 he was elected to represent the second ward of Astoria in the city council for a term of three years and entered upon the duties of the position in January, 1903, since which time he has been an influential factor in the work of the council and a member of the street committee. When it is remembered that he started out for himself at eleven years of age and has since worked his way, alone and unaided, the measure of success which has come to him proves that he is a man of energy, industry and determination, eminently worthy of whatever prosperity the future may bring to him.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Alona Planca


CHARLES WILSON. That part of Russia known as Finland has been the native home of some of the most industrious, enterprising and respected residents of Clatsop county. Noteworthy among this number is Charles Wilson, a prominent and popular citizen of Astoria. Endowed with mechanical ingenuity and skill, he has developed his natural tastes and talents in that line, and has been identified with the building up of many of the foremost industries of this part of the state. He was born May 7, 1861, in Gamla Carleby, Finland, which was also the birthplace of his father, Wilhelm Kankkonen. His paternal grandfather, Gustav Kankkonen, a native of Gamla Carleby, was master of a vessel, and while on a voyage was drowned in the North Sea, his ship being wrecked.

    Learning the miller's trade when young, Wilhelm Kankkonen built a flouring mill at Pyhajaki, and operated it for a number of years, giving it up at a time of great financial depression. He subsequently worked as a contractor and carpenter, and also as a ship builder, resuming work in which he had previously been engaged. As a boy and youth, he was an expert in the use of tools of all kinds, and when but eighteen years old built a full rigged ship. He still resides in Finland, a hale and hearty man of seventy-six years. He is a man of great integrity, and a consistent member of the Lutheran Church. He married Breta Ripe, who was born in Kalvia, Finland, sixty-seven years ago, and of the eight children born of their union, six are living, four being residents of America, namely: Charles, the special subject of this sketch, has had his surname changed from Kankkonen to Wilson; Franz, of Astoria; Fritzof, a carpenter and builder, of Astoria; and Milga, wife of Leander Lebeck, of Astoria. Franz Kankkonen served in the army of Finland for three years, and subsequently assisted in the building of the government railway through Finland, being the mechanical engineer in its construction. Immigrating to Oregon in 1893, he has since been associated in business with his brother Charles as a contractor and boat builder, and is general foreman of the Fishermen's Union Company.

    Brought up in his native land, and attending school in his earlier years, Charles Wilson began to learn the trade of a boat builder when twelve years old, afterward working for his father and uncle a number of years. Coming to America in 1879, he lived a short time in Muskegon, Mich., and was subsequently employed in lumbering and building in Whitecloud, Mich. Migrating to Oregon in 1883, he helped build the old Washington cannery in Astoria, now owned by Tallant & Grant, and then embarked in the fishing business. Having his own nets, he has since fished more or less every season, excepting in the year 1902, when he erected the Taylor school building, and built the launch "Elk." He is a man of executive ability, and was one of the organizers of the Fishermen's Cooperative Packing Company of Astoria, of which he has been the president, and one of the directors, since its incorporation. This company erected the Union Fishermen's Cooperative cannery, and also built a warehouse, and the net racks in Upper Town. In 1887 Mr. Wilson began working at his trade of a boat builder, and in one winter built thirty-five fishing boats, and two gasoline launches. He has also carried on a good business in contracting and building, as senior member of the firm of Wilson Brothers taking all kinds of building contracts. In 1893 Mr. Wilson accompanied by his family, visited his old home in Finland, and after spending nine months with his parents and friends returned to Astoria.

    Mr. Wilson married, in Astoria, Susan Niemela, who was born in Finland, and came to this country with her father, Olaf Niemela, when but six years old. Her parents settled in Clatskanie, Ore., where Mr. Niemela is still engaged in agricultural pursuits. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson are the parents of six children, namely: Fritzof, Jalmar, Fannie, Ellen, Martha and Adolph. Politically Mr. Wilson is a strong Prohibitionist. In the spring of 1903 he was appointed councilman from the First ward, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. Jaltrom, and is a member of the committees on wharfs, waterfronts, health and police. He is a member of the Finnish Brotherhood, and of the Fishermen's Union. He belongs to the Finnish Lutheran Church.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Alona Planca


SAMUEL SCHMIDT. The canning and packing of salmon along the Columbia river and its tributaries is now one of the leading industries of the Northern Pacific states, and its development has increased to such an extent during the past few years that it is no longer confined to individuals, but the numerous curing and packing plants are controlled mainly by heavily capitalized stock companies. Prominent among the salmon packers and shippers of Clatsop County is Samuel Schmidt, head of the firm of S. Schmidt & Co., of Astoria. Keeping well abreast of the times, he makes use of the most modern methods and the latest approved machinery in his plant, and his massive cold storage building, 225x400 feet, is equipped with a Thirty-five-ton ice machine, which was manufactured by the Pennsylvania Iron Works, in the curing of fish pure English salt is used, and the mild cure given the salmon by this firm is unexcelled. A native of New York City, he was born on West Nineteenth Street, March 17, 1857, and is the third in direct line to bear the name of Samuel. His grandfather, Samuel Schmidt, first, was a lifelong resident of Germany, and a tiller of the soil.

    Samuel Schmidt, second, was born in Elsheim, Germany, on the picturesque Rhine, in 1823. Attending the public schools during the days of his boyhood and youth, he afterward worked on the home farm until twenty years old. Immigrating to America in 1850, he located in New York City, and soon afterward, with the limited capital of $1.75, he embarked in the retail fish trade. Enlarging his operations, he began curing and smoking fish, in 1864 locating at No. 148-150 West Nineteenth Street. The business proved profitable, and he continued it until his death, in 1869. He married Eliza Hose, who was born and bred in Homburg, Hesse Cassel, Germany. In 1851 she came to the United States to join her brother, Henry Hose, who established a cooper's shop in New York City in 1844, and afterward brewed the first beer manufactured in that locality. She bore her husband seven children, five sons and two daughters, and these sons arc all members of the firm of S. Schmidt & Co., namely: Samuel, Frederick, Jacob, Charles and Christian. The sons Samuel and Christian reside in Astoria, while the mother and the other three sons are residents of New York City, and have charge of the firm's New York establishment.

    After completing the course of study in the Eighteenth Street Grammar School, Samuel Schmidt, third, began to assist his parents in the curing and smoking of fish, his brothers also helping as soon as they were old enough. On the death of his father, in 1869, he and the other boys, although not one had then entered their teens, assisted their mother in continuing the business so well established, and in the course of a few years greatly enlarged their operations. The firm of S. Schmidt & Co. was incorporated, and after erecting a cold storage plant in New York City carried on a large business in curing and smoking sturgeon, which was obtained in Delaware Bay and the Hudson River. When the fish in that locality became scarce Mr. Schmidt came to the Pacific coast, and found that there were plenty of fish of that kind in the Columbia river, but he had no way of shipping them across the continent to the Atlantic coast. Buying a car load of preserved sturgeon in Chicago in 1886, he realized the advantages of freezing the fish, and the following year, in 1887, the senior member of the firm came to Oregon, and, in company with C. B. Trescott, built a plant, and began shipping the fish east by the carload, having them frozen. Between September, 1887, and April, 1888, five or six carloads were shipped to Chicago and New York. Mr. Schmidt, whose partnership with Mr. Trescott was then dissolved, went to the Eraser River in search of sturgeon, the Columbia River being depleted, and for two years was engaged in freezing sturgeon there, and shipping them east, being in company with his brothers. As sturgeon became scarce in that locality, he turned his attention to salmon, being a pioneer in freezing them and sending them to his brothers in New York, who in turn shipped them to Germany, being among the first exporters of this fish. Since 1896 the firm of S. Schmidt & Co. has carried on an extensive business in packing salmon and in pickling and curing it. Removing from Portland to Astoria, Mr. Schmidt erected his immense cold storage plant in 1898, and ships large quantities of both canned and pickled salmon to the New York house, which disposes of it in the domestic and foreign markets. The products of this firm are favorably known at home and abroad, and on three occasions the firm has been awarded premiums, receiving medals and diplomas at the exposition held in Berlin, Germany, in 1880; at the Fish Produce Exposition held in London, England, in 1883; and at the Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago, in 1893.

    In his political affiliations Mr. Schmidt is a stanch Republican. Socially he belongs to the Irving Club, and to the Astoria Progressive Commercial Club; and fraternally is a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks; and of the Ancient Order of United Workmen.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon
Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present
Chapman Publishing Company
Chicago - 1904
Transcribed by Alona Planca


N. A. Eberman - This still vigorous and erect gentleman of sixty-eight years is a perfect representative of the daring, athletic and pioneer Western men who crossed the plains nearly half a century ago.  He was born in Henry county, Tennessee, in 1821, and at the age of ten went with his parents to settle in Madison county, Illinois.  In Warren county of the same state he saw something of the Black Hawk war.

In 1840 he left home for Missouri, stopping in that then unsettled region until, in 1843, the eloquence of Burnett and the exertions of others resulted in forming the company to cross the plains to Oregon.  Joining himself to this body, young Eberman rode on the plains, shooting deer, antelope, elk and buffalo for the company, meeting many adventures and being in the midst of wild Indians.  Being strong and daring and a good swimmer, he was of great service in crossing streams and setting the guide lines for the fording of the train.  He was quite promiscuous, acting principally as hunter and scout, and after a time, with Burnett’s division, joined himself to Applegate.  Being acquainted with Hunt, who was bringing our a sawmill, he went down with that gentleman, after his arrival in Oregon, to the site chosen on the south side of the Columbia river opposite Cathlamet, and worked in the mill.

The following spring he went on to the Clatsop Plains, taking up an elegant ranch on the grassy lands, and there raised potatoes and got a start of cattle.
In 1848 he joined the forces under Colonel Nesmith to punish the murderers of Doctor Whitman, and shared in the desultory but severe campaign that followed.  In the fall of 1848 he went with the rest to California, and was very fortunate - or unfortunate - in locating on the rich diggings of the place afterwards called Murderers’ Bar.  Here the company were taking out one hundred dollars a day to the man.  Eberman was sent, after a time, for provisions to Coloma, and was gone two weeks.  On his return he found not a living soul at the camp, but everywhere dead bodies, ashes and scattered wreckage.  The Indians who had thus visited the camp with destruction and murdered all his partners had left plain tracks; and their trail to the mountains was evident.  With the indignation of the frontiersman, he went back and got up a company to punish the savage butchers; and most terrible, and fully satisfactory, and indeed almost sickening, was the result of the campaign, in which Spanish lancers took part and rode down and speared the Indians without respect to age or sex.  These bloddy scenes left him little taste for life in California; and, abandoning the mines, he returned to our state and took up once more the quiet occupation of the pioneer and settler on the Clatsop Plains, giving his services betimes to the government in its dealings with the Indians, as he has a perfect knowledge of their character, and can speak their language like a native.

He now owns a fine farm on the little stream Ohanna.  He was married to Miss Emma, the youngest daughter of Mr. Hobson, the pioneer of 1843, and has raised a family of fifteen children, three of whom are deceased.  Hearty, genial and intelligent, Mr. Eberman is a very interesting man to meet.

History of the Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington, Volume II, 1889, compiled and published by the North Pacific History Company of Portland, Oregon
Transcribed & Contributed by Maaike Kortleever


William H. Gray-This pioneer of pioneers, and historian of events in which he took so conspicuous a part, was born in 1810 at Fairfield, New York, of Scotch descent.  While but a lad of fourteen, he lost his father and was apprenticed to learn the cabinetmaker’s trade, and even before finishing his time became foreman of the shop.  Upon attaining his majority he studied medicine, and being a member of the Presbyterian church, and known as a promising young man, he was sought and intrusted by the American board with the work of going as missionary in company with Whitman and Spaulding to the Columbia river.

His life on the Pacific coast is so intimately connected with the early history of our state that it is unnecessary to give the details here, as they will be found in the first volume of this work.  We will mention, however, the circumstances of the three climacteric events of his life, the first trip back East, his services in establishing the Provisional government, and his trip back East once more for sheep in 1852.

Having come with Whitman in 1836 across the plains in company with Sublette to the Green river; having assisted the other missionaries in the journey to Vancouver, and in establishing themselves at Waiilatpu; and having himself gone to Alpona among the Flatheads, he determined to return the next year for reinforcements.  To defray the expenses of his journey, he drove a band of twenty horses, and also had as companions in his company three young Flathead Indians, one of whom was the son of a chief.  All went well with the party until Ash Hollow on the Nebraska was reached.  There they were attacked by a war party of three hundred Sioux.  The Flatheads being desperate fighters, although vastly outnumbered, kept the enemy at bay for three hours, laying fifteen of them dead on the sand.  Gray himself took a hand in the fight, having two horses shot under him, and receiving two bullets through his hat.  The Sioux having lost a war chief among the slain, and seeing no likelihood of overcoming the doughty little band, proposed a truce.

But, while the chiefs were parleying with Gray, others of the Sioux treacherously attacked his young men, shooting down one Iroquois, one Snake and three Flatheads, one of whom was the chief’s son.  The French interpreter then declared that the others were prisoners and must give up their guns.  This Gray refused to do, and told the rest of his squad to sell their lives as dearly as possible.  At this show of determination the Sioux gave back again and proposed a talk, and over the slain of both sides smoked the pipe of peace.  It has been said variously that the death of this young chief alienated the Flatheads from Gray, and that it was one of the causes of the Whitman massacre.  Neither of these statements is correct nor even reasonable.  After his return to his mission, the Flatheads allowed Gray to live and teach among them until 1842; and his final withdrawal seems to have been due not to the disaffection of the Indians but to lack of agreement with his missionary companions.  To suppose that the death of a Flathead in company with Gray in 1837 would cause another tribe, the Cayuses, two hundred miles off, to kill Whitman in 1847, is very peculiar.

Gray’s services in establishing the Provisional government were as that of originator of the scheme.  His Americanism found no vent nor scope in the Oregon of the old Hudson’s Bay rule; and, shut off from the national life which had been a part of his own, and learning to hate the plans and expectations of the British, he was no sooner in the Willamette valley than he conceived the idea of the American settlers establishing a government of their own.  He took the responsibility of agitating the matter; of interesting Le Breton and Matthieu and others; of getting up the Wolf meetings, and of pushing the scheme which seemed constantly on so slender a basis as to be ready to fall to the ground either on this side or that.  With admirable tact, address, shrewdness and force, Gray led the column, and carried the mater through to the most pronounced victory.  The cunning of Le Breton would have had no effect without the moral earnestness and direct force of Gray, who did the talking, made the appeals, wrote the resolutions and closed the debates.  This detracts nothing from the merits of Griffin, Meek, Smith and others, who were not simply followers, but co-laborers.  It is to be regretted that no record remains of the secret sessions of these American agitators.  But the reason is obvious: The settlers were performing a part for the immediate time, not for future publication; they were moreover too discreet to have their plans in such form as to be easily discovered by the opposite party.

After the full establishment of the Provisional government, Gray went to Clatsop Plains, and in 1852 went East one more for the purpose of getting sheep for the young settlement.  The scheme had been original with him for some time; and it even was a favorite theory with Whitman and himself that sheep were of more value than soldiers to the early settlers and also to the Indians.  Colonel James Taylor was interested in the same line, and formed a partnership with Gray for the purpose.  Gray made the arduous journey in safety, bringing his flock by boat down the Columbia; but at Tanzy Point a heavy south wind coming down Young’s Bay prevented a landing.  The scow was caught in a storm and blown out upon the sands, and was wrecked on Chinook Spit; and the whole almost invaluable flock was drowned.  He assumed the entire responsibility of the loss, and gave up his farm and home to meet the obligation, yet was not disheartened by this reverse.

He was early engaged in many business operations, being in California in 1849 to dig gold.  We find him also in the Frazer river mines at Fort Hope and Okanagan in the sixties.  In the winter of 1860-61 be built a boat at Assooya’s Lake on the British border.  This was a craft ninety-one feet keel and twelve feet beam.  It was constructed with no tools but a saw, hatchet and chisel, and was caulked with wild flax mingles with pitch gathered from the pine trees.  She was brought down the Okanangan and Columbia rivers to Celilo.  Mr. Gray was also one of the earliest navigators of the violent Snake river.

For many years he lived at Astoria, and during part of that time was government inspector of the ort.  He has also greatly enjoyed life in his later years on the farm of his son-in-law, Jacob Kamm, on the Klaskanine.

It is a matter of justice, which he has never been forward to claim for himself, to say here that his reason for not going to the Cayuse war was on account of the prevalence of a dangerous epidemic, the measles, then prevalent on Clatsop Plains, to prevent the ravages of which he was particularly desired to remain by those who were going to the scenes of war, and who wanted someone upon whom they could rely to care for their families in this sickness.  He was the only physician in that region.  For a number of years he was thus practicing medicine on the plains, and was ever successful.

He has ever been a friend of churches and schools; ever has borne  his hand in politics and public affairs; has been representative and county judge and justice; and has found his chief interest in public improvements.  He has been exceedingly active in the promotion of temperance, and holds the most advanced views upon this subject.  He has reared a large family; and his sons are known up and down the Columbia.  Captain J. H. D. Gray is one of the most progressive business men at Astoria, and has been an active legislator at Salem.  Captain William P. Gray, long one of the boldest pilots and captains of the Upper Columbia, is at present interested in the advancement of the city of Pasco, having large proprietary interests at this place.  The daughters, Mrs. Kamm, Mrs. Abernethy and Mrs. Tarbell have long been known in the social circles of our state.

Mary Augusta Dix, who became his wife, was one of the most intelligent, amiable and devotes Christian women who ever lived in Oregon.  She was a lady of culture, and was abundantly able to make her own way in the world as teacher of schools, but, being deeply imbued with the missionary spirit, was attracted to Mr. Gray no less on account of his work than of his personal character, and cheerfully assumed all the hardships and humble labors that went with life in Oregon fifty years ago.  She became her husband’s mentor, improving his defective early education, and was his inspirer and guide in the production of his history, always sustaining his interest in and revising his work.  Her death occurred in 1887 at the Klaskanine farm.  On her monument are the simple words, “We loved her;” and these express not only the feelings of her own family but of all her friends, and even of the now old Indians whom she once taught under the pine trees of the Nez Perce country.

Mr. Gray’s history of Oregon is so well known and so important in its sphere that it is fitting to devote some space here to its special consideration.  This history was published in 1868.  Though more or less obnoxious to superfine criticism, it yet exhibits flashes of dramatic power throughout.  Although not easy to read, and not strictly a popular work, many of its pages remind one of the common-sense, honest and withal intensely interesting descriptions of Livingstone, the African missionary and traveler.  It is a work written in the vein of a polemic, an exoneration of the party to which he belonged, and “a great part of which he was,” and as a burning attack upon the opposite party.  To those who have no interest in the contests of old times, and to whom it is somewhat offensive to read of plots, charges and counter charges, the book ceases to please.  There is indeed no doubt but that the intensity of Gray’s opposition, and the severity of his criticism, sometimes even awaken sympathy for the British; and his invariable practice to refer all the evils of early times to the English monopoly, and the inclusion in his charges of nearly all Americans as at one time or another the tools or dupes of their rivals, suggests that the author does not always preserve discrimination.

But while these elements awaken the opposition of the reader, and prevent the circulation of the volume, they give to the history its lasting worth.  To the scientific or philosophical inquirer into the early conditions of our state, it is invaluable as resenting the feelings of all parties, not only of Gray himself, but of the Presbyterians, Methodists, the non-mission people, and even of the English.  This makes Gray’s history the most useful work that has yet appeared upon this subject, and far in advance of the hazy and bombastic pages of Bancroft.  Gray discards nothing as unimportant, and makes little use of the cloak of charity, but tells everything with reckless truthfulness.  He caters to no one, writes nothing for the sake of popularity, and never changes a word for the sake of rhetoric.  While some of his statements have been called in question, and the book is not without more or less error of fact, it is on the whole the most exact of any complete work of the kind hitherto published.

In his political career, as well as in all his enterprises, W. H. Gray has ever been inflexible, blunt and direct, hard to manage, a good hater, but keen and faithful to his cause.  When he had some great object to accomplish, he showed address and appreciation of the circumstances, and in the early days was without doubt the Achilles of the American party.  He was an honest friend, moreover; and his personal relations with Doctor McLoughlin were most kindly, although for many years they were firm political opponents.  Taken all in all, W. H. Gray is one of the most remarkable characters of North Pacific history.

***Just as these volumes are being put on the press, word comes that Mr. Gray died on the 14th of November, 1889, at the residence of his daughter, Mrs. Kamm, who resides in Portland.  His remains were taken to Astoria, and were laid to rest beside those of his loved wife.

History of the Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington, Volume II, 1889, compiled and published by the North Pacific History Company of Portland, Oregon
Transcribed & Contributed by Maaike Kortleever


John Hobson-Mr. Hobson, with his father and brother Richard and three sisters, came to Oregon as early as 1843, being members of the first large immigration.  The story of their trip and the influences which directed their footsteps hither is one of the pleasantest and most romantic among our early annals; and there is no novel nor history more fascinating than to listen half a day as we did to the recital of his adventures.

He is a native of England, having been born in Derbyshire in 1824.  His father was a hatter, and, losing his wife by death, sought a new region to bring up his children under better conditions than his means would allow in the Old Country.  He determined therefore to emigrate to America, and chose Wisconsin as his objective point.  In order to cross the ocean, he found it necessary to join a party of Mormons, who were under the leadership of a bishop and were going in a ship chartered by him.  Leaving Liverpool January 11, they reached St. Louis in March following, but here found progress impeded by ice in the river.  While waiting several weeks for the breakup, they made the acquaintance of Miles Ayers, who was one of the movers in the organization of a company to go to Oregon; and the father was persuaded by him to join the train.  Doctor Whitman was also there and confirmed their resolution.

Mr. John Hobson, then a young man of nineteen, well remembers the Doctor, and the assistance which he rendered in procuring for them a dog, and later, at the Kaw mission, a yoke of cattle.  The experiences of the trip of 1843 embrace a wide variety of details, according to the different portions of the train to which the various individuals belonged, and according to the scenes or exertions which impress different persons most forcibly.  Mr. Hobson remembers distinctly the efforts of Doctor Whitman at the crossing of the Platte river; and that the danger of the cattle stopping and sinking in the quicksand was avoided by chaining the entire train together, and passing on en masse.  A crossing of the Snake was effected in the same way; but at this point Miles Ayers was drowned.

Upon arriving at Waiilatpu, Whitman’s home, the travelers were disappointed by finding the gristmill burned, but procuring a little wheat made flour with their coffee mills.  They also left their cattle there on the range, by advice of Whitman, and making a large canoe out of a cottonwood tree, with an Indian guide procured by the Doctor, proceeded down the Walla Walla river, and made the descent of the Colubmia four hundred miles in this frail shell.  At the falls of Celilo their experiences were thrilling and, indeed, terrifying; and a canoe following was overturned and one man drowned.  At Vancouver they were generously accommodated by McLoughlin for goods, for which they gave a note.

Leaving their families at Vancouver, a company consisting of G. Summers, Thomas Owens, Holly, Harogus and Hobson went on down the river in their canoe looking for claims, spending nine days for the trip.  Stopping at Chinook they met with the loss of their craft by its being dashed upon the shingly beach as the tide and sea swell rose.  They were, however, put across to Tanzy Point by the Indians, and found the following white men there: Solomon Smith and Mr. Tibbetts, of Wyeth’s expedition, Elbridge Trask of Wyeth’s ship, and William T. Perry.  Trask went to the mountains in 1836 to trap.  On his return in 1842 he met and married Mrs. Perry’s sister.  Mr. Perry, his wife and her sister were immigrants of 1842 with Mr. Crawford.  Mr. Parrish and W. W. Raymond were living at the mission.  After selecting claims they returned for their families, and with a bateau made the trip down the river once more.  Five days on the river returning, it was Christmas night when they camped on the shore by the little cove at Astoria.  One experience illustrates the shifts of the early times.  After crossing over Young’s Bay to Tanzy Point, their canoes sank; and all their flour became wet.  They saved this dough by baking it, and had hardtack for months.

The season of 1844 was nearly as eventful as the preceding to John Hobson.  It was necessary to go back to Walla Walla for the cattle; and by the time they were collected from Whitman’s range, and brought over the Cascade Mountains north of Mount Hood, and crossed over the Willamette to Linnton, and driven over the Portland hills, and across the Tualatin river, and through the gap by way of Chehalem Mountain to the riffles of the Yamhill at the farm of Amos Cook, and in short over the Coast Mountains to the ocean beach, and past Tillamook to the Clatsop home, the summer was well consumed.

The matter of living at all in those early days was accomplished with much labor.  Potatoes for seed must be got of Birnie at Astoria, and paid back in time; and it was not until 1846 that this return could be rendered.  Wheat must be taken a hundred and forty miles by canoe to Oregon City to be ground into flour; and eventful were the trips of Hobson in getting his canoe loads there and back again.

In 1845 young Hobson felt the desire to go into a region still more remote than the now comparatively well-settled Clatsop, and with John R. Jackson, Moore and Gardiner passed over to the Cowlitz prairie, but returned before winter to his place on Clatsop.  The succeeding years, until 1848, were spent in the improvement of his home, and in various expeditions up the Columbia and up and down the beach, in wrecking the schooner Shark, the whaler Maine and the bark Vancouver, which were driven ashore on the Clatsop sands or upon the beach below Tillamook head.

It was early in 1847 that the people of Clatsop vindicated their love of order by breaking up saloons at Astoria, which were running unlawfully and corrupting the Indians.  A posse comitatus, under Sheriff Caples, embracing nearly all the men on the plains, with Captain James H. McMillen, who was at work on a boat at the mouth of the Skippanon creek, ran down and nearly drowned one George Gear, who was selling “Blue Ruin,” and had taken to the river to elude pursuit and to escape to Chinook.  As the Clatsop party, who were in a large canoe, came near to seize him, he made an effort to strike Hobson with a hatchet, and perhaps to overturn the canoe in which his pursuers were seated, being prevented only by McMillen’s covering him with a revolver, and declaring that he would shoot if he made a motion.

In 1848 Mr. Hobson with his brother and many other Oregon friends, such as Marcellus, Jeffers, Latty and Bradbury, went down to the mines; and all met with excellent success.  The stories which are told of taking out $5,000, $10,000 or even $25,000 in a single season to the man seem almost fabulous.  Hobson saved his money, and, returning to the green peninsula at the mouth of the Columbia, bought the quitclaim of Perry for the handsome place now owned by Mr. Wingate, paying therefor $3,000.  He was induced to sell for $3,500 to Governor Gaines, who was delighted with the sea beauties of this region.  The Governor, however, losing his wife by a distressing accident, sold it back again at a thousand dollars advance.  Marrying Thomas Owens’s eldest daughter, Diana, who was wont to be called the Clatsop belle, and who was indeed a very beautiful and attractive young woman, Mr. Hobson made his home on this place for many years.

In 1855 he saw a touch of the Indian trouble.  Going with his wife and child and his wife’s sister, Jane Owens, now Mrs. Hyman Abraham, to the Umpqua valley on a visit to Mrs. Hobson’s people, he passed through Tillamook and the Grande Ronde.  On the Upper Yamhill they passed by a cabin that was laid in ashes; and the calcined bones of human beings were distinguished.  These, they learned afterwards, were the remains of an old lady, Mrs. Clark, and her son, whom the Indians had killed, and had then burned the cabin over them.  Coming back a few weeks later, Mr. Hobson discovered that the murderers of these white people had seen himself and his little family, with some fifteen cattle, pass by, and that they had been practically at their mercy for some time.

Of late years Mr. Hobson has occupied a prominent position in business and society at Astoria, and is at present collector of customs at the port, having been appointed by President Cleveland.  He is a remarkably upright and sincere man, of strong character and purposes, and of exceptionally firm mental and physical fiber.

History of the Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington, Volume II, 1889, compiled and published by the North Pacific History Company of Portland, Oregon
Transcribed & Contributed by Maaike Kortleever


Mrs. Harriet Jewett-A mournful personal as well as historic interest lingers about those who survived the dreadful affair at Waiilatpu in 1847.  Many of these feel that those who died were the happier; and no sympathetic friend, as every reader of this book must be, will care to inquire more minutely than is given in the pages of the general history of this work.  But all will be glad that these sufferers from Indian atrocity outlived their great sorrow, the butchering of a husband or father or friend, and have for all these years been useful and contented citizens.

Mrs. Jewett was born in Lower Canada in 1809, and at the age of twenty moved with her parents to the United States, where she was soon married to Nathan Kimball.  The young couple removed to Indiana, and in 1847 joined a company bound for Oregon.  Mr. Kimball was ambitious, a good mechanic, and had considerable money. 

Purchasing an excellent outfit, two ox-teams, milk cows, and clothing for two years, the journey was undertaken with high hopes and good cheer.  What extra money was on hand was sewed up in belts, and worn by the older members of the family.

On the journey misfortune overtook the family (there were seven children) in the death of a girl of three and a boy of fourteen.  On no place than the plains is death more gloomy.  The loved ones must be buried and left.  The graves must be guarded against the prowling of wolves on the scent of blood, and of Indians ready to rifle even the dead of their clothes.  In this case the children were buried in the road; and the wagons were driven across the spot to obliterate all traces of the sepulture.

Upon arriving at Doctor Whitman’s in the autumn, the Kimballs were attracted by the pleasant mission station, by the school which the children might attend, and by the endless pasture of the hills.  As the teams were worn and the weather was growing cool, and as Mr. Kimball himself had a chance to work on some buildings which the Doctor was erecting, he concluded to remain until the following spring, and then drive through to the Willamette, with what fatal result is but too well known.  We will not here dwell on the dreadful scenes of the massacre, nor of the sorrows of the captives.

Upon the release of the survivors in December, through the efforts of Peter Skeen Ogden, of the Hudson’s Bay Company, Mrs. Kimball came to Oregon City.  After a residence there of some time, she was married to Mr. John Jewett, who then removed to Clatsop Plains, where they lived for many years.  They improved their place, and reared and educated their family, the five children of Mr. Kimball, and two others born after arrival.

Mrs. Jewett survives her husband, who died some ten years ago; and, although in very advanced age, she enjoys good health.  She has never been reimbursed for her losses in the Cayuse war, and feels that she has a just claim on the government.  She certainly has suffered very severely from a massacre against which the government should have protected its citizens.

Of her children, Mrs. Susa Wirt, who was born in 1831, is living with her husband, A. C. Wirt, at the pleasant village of Skippanon, doing a prosperous farming, gardening and merchandising business.  Mrs. Munson, the wife of J. W. Munson, well known as a pioneer shipbuilder and light-keeper, resides at the government stations at Point Adams, where Mrs. Jewett now lives.  Mrs. Meglar is the wife of the well-known proprietor of the Occidental Hotel at Astoria, and of the salmon cannery at Brookfield.  Nathan Kimball is a farmer in Clatsop county.  Byron Kimball is likewise a prosperous farmer.

History of the Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington, Volume II, 1889, compiled and published by the North Pacific History Company of Portland, Oregon
Transcribed & Contributed by Maaike Kortleever


B. C. Kindred-The immigration of 1844, although on the track of that of 1843, had a much more troublesome time.  Mr. Kindred belongs to that company.  He is a native of Indiana, where he was born in 1818.  His parents were early settlers of Kentucky, of the days of the historic Boone.  In 1836 the young man found Indiana growing stale, and went out to Iowa and in 1840 came on to Missouri.  Here he met Miss Rachel Mylar; and the meeting resulted in their marriage.

The Oregon fever was then devastating the land; and by 1844 Captain Gilliam was forming his company.  Kindred was one of the number enrolled.  There were about a hundred wagons, and twelve hundred or fifteen hundred head of stock.  The start was bad, the weather being very rainy; and the progress of the first month was very slight.  Many of those on the road could not for the life of them tell what brought them there, other than a frontiersman’s impulse to go West; and it would have been the verdict half the way to the Rockies that they would all have been more comfortable on their fat farms in Iowa or Missouri.  But the destiny of our state and nation was more truly interpreted by the unaccountable Western impulse than by any heartsick misgivings that overtook the pioneers on the way.  That travel on the plains was an education which has made of the Oregonians an improved stock.

Gilliam’s company “fell out by the way,” partly from the necessity of driving the cattle in separate bands, and partly from an edginess developed on the part of some which made division desirable.  Captain Morrison led the column to which Mr. Kindred was attached.  From the lateness of the season and the hard marches on this side of the Rockies, the company was much worn, broken into small parties, and nearly out of provisions.  They were on short allowance from Boise to Doctor Whitman’s. George Bush, the well-known mulatto and settler near Olympia, was very generous with his flour, of which he had a very liberal supply.  Without this help Mr. Kindred’s family must have suffered.  At Whitman’s they sold lean cattle for fat ones and obtained flour.  The journey down the Columbia was accomplished during the month of December.  It was Christmas eve that they came to their final camp at Milwaukee; and that night their second son, James was born.

Mr. Kindred discovered that there was iron in the hills at Oswego; but no one at that time supposed that the deposit was of any great value.

In 1845 he took his family down the Columbia to live on the place at Clatsop which he now owns.  On the way he stopped over winter at Cathlamet, working in Hunt’s mill, his wife cooking for the company.  About the 5th of November, 1846, they began making their home on Point Adams near Fort Stevens, Oregon.  They have there raised a family of twelve children, all of whom but the two oldest were born on the place, and all of whom are living but one boy, who shot himself while hunting.  Mr. Kindred’s business has been farming and stock-raising, and also navigating on the Columbia with the canoes and bateaux of the early days, the scows and sloops of a later period, and the steam craft of modern times.  He is there yet, possessing a comfortable fortune, and living out a green old age, and within a day’s reach of any of his children.  His youngest daughter, Sarah, is still at home conducting the affairs of the house with her parents.


History of the Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington, Volume II, 1889, compiled and published by the North Pacific History Company of Portland, Oregon
Transcribed & Contributed by Maaike Kortleever



Mrs. Rachel Kindred-The experience of mothers in crossing the plains is one of those historical wonders which will never be forgotten.  It adds much to the value of this volume to incorporate within its pages the story of one of these women, and to present her portrait.

Miss Rachel Mylar was born in Kentucky in 1821, and is a grand-niece of Daniel Boone.  While quite young she removed with her parents to Missouri, and there was married to Mr. B. C. Kindred in 1842.

It would quite naturally seem that a mother with a child of a year old should not be obliged to endure the severe hardships of a journey across the plains; but in making this trip there was no alternative.  Thus on the lonely heights of the Blue Mountains, where the cattle were nearly exhausted, and the road was simply a rocky bed of a canon, or wound around the stony ridges, it was necessary for her to perform the crossing of the divide on foot.  Also at the Cascades, where everything must be transported, she was obliged to walk from the upper to the lower landing of the portage.  Her clothing had grown thin and ragged, and her shoes were worn out.  Hose were the only covering for her feet; and these were soon cut to pieces upon the rocks and gravel.  The simple, ordinary, every-day wear and tear of the trip, and the care and anxiety of mind, would seem astonishing enough; and numberless were her shifts to make scanty food and apparel perform the offices of necessity.  Her boy, however, born at the end of the trip, the Christmas gift of 1844, seemed no worse for the time of his advent, nor was his mother.

After reaching a permanent home on Point Adams, near Fort Stevens, Oregon, her labors were not diminished.  There fell to her a large if not the larger share of making a home.  Her husband’s business made frequent absences necessary; and the care of a farm as well as that of the house was hers at such times.  Many were her experiences there.  The following was characteristic: Going down to the beach in front of her house one day, she found a soldier cast away on the shore and apparently about to die.  She got the poor fellow to her house, and recognized him as a discharged veteran who was then living with the Indians.  He had been cast away by them in his sickness, according to their custom.  Mrs. Kindred, however, nursed him back to life through a severe fever.  He had no money, and gave her a shotgun as his only way of discharging the debt.  Recovering, however, and going back to the Indians, he began to want his gun once more, and while his benefactress was gone from home entered her house and stole it.  Incensed at this outrage and breach of gratitude, Mrs. Kindred upon her return took her little boy, and Mr. Schwatka’s little girl, and with this escort repaired to the Indian camp, explained matters to the chief, and upon his requisition recovered the piece.  The Indians highly disapproved of the soldier’s way of doing.

On another occasion, when the Woodpecker was wrecked on the bar, the flour and provisions with which the schooner was loaded were drifted by the tide up stream.  Mr. Kindred being away, his wife put out with a rowboat, securing barrels enough of the articles to last her three years.  Some of her neighbors, however, happening by with a wagon, supposed it was a “free haul,” and helped themselves to a portion while the lady was still out in the stream getting more.  This is not an altogether pleasant commentary upon the early times; but we may suppose that the neighbors made the seizure in full innocence of heart.

It was amid the scenes of such a wild and solitary life, surrounded by good but not enchanting Indians, that Mrs. Kindred made her home, reared her family, and created the conditions for her husband from which a competency has been drawn.  Women such as she have been the mothers of the state, and deserve no less credit than its fathers.

History of the Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington, Volume II, 1889, compiled and published by the North Pacific History Company of Portland, Oregon
Transcribed & Contributed by Maaike Kortleever


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