History and Genealogy
Crook County, Oregon
HISTORY OF CROOK COUNTY
PASSING EVENTS—1843 TO 1889.
Aside from Nomadic trappers it is quite probable that the first white men to cross the territory now comprising Crook county were General John C. Fremont and Kit Carson. They explored a section of this country in 1843. The route of this party was as follows : Entering the county at the northwest corner, between the Warm Springs and Shilike rivers, they proceeded southward on the west side of the Des Chutes river, crossing the Matoles about three to six miles up from its mouth. Thence they continued in a southerly direction, passing about three miles east of the present town of Sisters, crossed Tornello creek and came to the Des Chuts river near the present site of Bend. They still continued on the west side of this river in their journey on south until reaching a point about opposite the present post office of Lava, when they crossed the Des Chutes and entered the Big Meadows. Continuing their journey southward they passed where Rosland now stands and entered the territory now embraced in Klamath county. About four miles above the town of Bend can be found to this day evidences of the visit of the Fremont party, where there are logs they used in building a causeway.
The Warm Spring Indian Reservation was made by a treaty between the United States and the Indians in 1855. In this treaty the Indians gave up all claim to the land between the Cascades and Blue mountains of Oregon. They also gave up their claims on the Columbia river. Another treaty was entered into between them in 1856 in which they gave up the fisheries on", the Columbia river. This reservation was established as a home for the different tribes of Indians. By this the government could protect them from the encroachment of the whites, while it secured an undisputed right to the rest of the land claimed by the Indians. This reservation covers 464,000 acres which lies along the Des Chutes river. Much of this is farming land and already under cultivation while the balance is suitable for stock raising. There are parts of four different tribes living there, known as the Warm Springs, Wascos, Piutes and Teninos.
The principal occupations of these Indians are farming and stock raising while some go into western and southern Oregon for the purpose of picking fruit and hops. When the work is over they often go into the Cascade mountains to fish and hunt for their winter supply of meat. When there is any work to be done, the men direct it, while the women do most of the hard work. All that the men are required to do is to keep the family supplied with meat.
The population of the reservation is 855, including seven police officers and 116 school children. While the school of this place is the same as any public school, the children have different games from the white children. The boys enjoy the outdoor sports of fishing and hunting. They use bows and arrows and some are as good shots as the older ones. The religion of the Indians is United Presbyterian, although one may follow the old Indian religion known as the Shaker. Some of the people will not give up their old Indian customs. The most important buildings of the reservation are the one school building and three churches. There are many fine residences. Out in front of their houses they have their old wigwams in which they lived. These Indians are very patriotic. When the Fourth of July comes along they celebrate for a week at a time instead of one day at a time as do the white people.
Each year the government sets aside a sum of money with which they purchase rations for the Indians on the reservation: If the Indian fails to be there when the agent divides the goods he does not get his share. Many of the Indians do not, however, depend on the government for their clothing, but have taken up land and have become citizens with a right to vote. Some of the older men have done good service in the Indian wars when white soldiers have been unable to fight hostile tribes. Therefore it is no more than right that the government should support these Indians.
In the early sixties while the Civil war was in progress Major Stein of the United States army, built a road from The Dalles to Fort Harney, which crossed the present Crook county, in a northwesterly and southeasterly direction. This: road passed east of Pilot to Butte and left the present Crook county and entered what is now Harney county at Buck's creek. The supply trains from The Dalles to Fort Harney passed over the road in the early days.
The first settler in Crook county was Marion Scott, who came here in 1863 and located on Trout creek. Scott's party crossed the Cascade mountains that year, carrying with them horses, wagons and a band of cattle. They stopped at Hay creek, and for a time lived in a cave, grazing their cattle on the surrounding hills. In.1867 Howard Maupin of Lane county, settled on Trout creek. He had fought in the Mexican war under Zachary Taylor, and became subsequently a brave pioneer and faced many perils from the Piute Indians. He was not allowed to enjoy his home until he had slain Paulina, chief of the tribes.
In 1868 Henry Coleman, also of Lane county, engaged in the cattle business in which he acquired quite a fortune and returned to his home. In 1869 and 1870 John Luckey, John Toms. Anthony Webdell and E. G. Conant came later and settled in Ochoco valley where is now the town of Prineville. In 1871 Monroe Hodges removed with his family from Benton county and laid off the present town of Prineville. He built the first hotel and engaged in the business five years.
A historical sketch of the territory now forming Crook county from its earliest settlement up to 1884 was published in the Crook County Annual of 1901 as follows:
The first white men who ever came to that part of Oregon now known as Crook county were Felix and Marion Scott, who crossed the Cascade mountains over the McKenzie Pass in 1863, bringing with them their teams, wagons and a drove of cattle. They located on Hay creek and it is said lived in a cave in the cliffs of the Hay creek canyon for a time, while they herded their cattle on the surrounding hills.
A short time afterward Howard Maupin, of Lane county, settled on Trout creek where he lived until his death a few years since. Maupin encountered many perils from the Piute Indians in those early days and he was a man of great personal courage and held his ground against the thieving and murderous savages. He was not, however, permitted to enjoy his wilderness home in peace until he slew Paulina, the war chief of the Piutes. He was a veteran in the Mexican war, and served under Zachary Taylor. He was at the storming of Monterey, and the battle of Buena Vista. Maupin was a typical western pioneer, brave as a lion and the soul of gentlemanly honor.
Some time in the latter part of the 'sixties Henry Coleman, also of Lane county, established himself. on Hay creek, near its junction with Trout creek, and engaged in the cattle business. After many years of prosperity, through an unfortunate venture he lost his once princely fortune and afterward went back to his own home near Eugene where he still lives. In 1868 the first settlement in the Ochoco valley was. made by Wayne Claypool, William Smith, Ewen Johnson and Lou Daugherty, near the mouth of Mill Creek and by Elisha Barnes, Thomas B. James and Abraham Zell, Ochoco Creek. Barney Prine also settled on the Ochoco in 1868, on the present site of Prineville, and after him Prineville took, its name.
In 1869 John Luckey, John M. Toms, Anthony B. Webdell, Edward G. Conant, J. W. McDowell and J. H. Snodderly settled on the Ochoco. They were followed in 1870 by Alexander Hodges, James P. Coombs, S. R. Slayton, William Heisler and Lake Vanderpool, all of whom, with the exception of Coombs and Slayton, located on the present site of Prineville. With the advent of these people began the existence of Prineville. William Heisler was the pioneer merchant of the Ochoco valley and Barney Prine the first saloon-keeper. Heisler established his store in Prineville in 1871 and continued in business for seven or eight years. In the fall of 1871 Monroe Hodges removed his family from Benton county and laid out the present townsite of Prineville. He also built a hotel and engaged in that business for five years. About 1873 a postoftice was established in Prineville and Daniel E. Thomas was appointed postmaster. Within a few years Prineville became a thriving business town and increased rapidly in population. It was then, as now, the center of trade for almost a hundred miles around and in fact was the only business point south of The Dalles in what was then Wasco county.
Among the earliest settlers of this county may be named Jerome LaFollette and Samuel M. W. Hindman, who took up claims on Squaw creek in about 1869. Hindman kept a station for several years and still lives on the tract of land upon which he settled over thirty years ago. Willow Creek was one of the earliest settled portions of Crook county. James Blakely, Perry Read, Can. Montgomery and S. G. Wood were among the first settlers there. Blakely was the first elected sheriff of Crook county, and served in that capacity two years.
Williamson G. Allen, formerly of Lane county, settled on Hay creek on a tract of land which he afterward sold to Dr. D. M. Baldwin, of Oakland, California, who engaged in the sheep business on a large scale. Dr. Baldwin sold his interests to the Cartwrights and Van Houtens, who organized the Baldwin Sheep and Land Company, now the most extensive concern of its kind in the state. Among other early settlers on Hay creek were S. G. Thompson, the first judge of Crook county, and his two brothers William and Duorey Thompson. William, or "Bud," as he was better known, was once editor of the Roseburg Plaindealer, and afterward editor of the Salem Mercury. He was a prominent character in the early history of Crook county, and was a colonel in the state militia in the Bannock war of 1878.
Some thirty years ago the first settlements were made along McKay creek. Among these settlers were David Templeton, Calvin Pell, B. F. Allen, J. A. Guiliford, George Mellican, John Latta, Daniel Hale, Joel Long, James Mackey and Andrew Lytle. William Foster, who came from Benton county, was also one of the early settlers of this region. He became a wealthy stockman and was known as Crook county's cattle king.
The Crooked river valley was settled first in the latter part of the 'sixties. Among the first to locate there were John Powell, who took up a claim immediately west of Prineville, and Abe Kenkel, who settled on what is now known as the A. J. Tethrow place.
The southern and southeastern portion of Crook county was not settled until a few years after the settlements which have been mentioned. Among the pioneers of this section are Abe Hackleman, John Davis, John Jaggi, William Noble, James and Charles W. Elkins, and William Adams. Among other noted pioneers of Crook county was Dr. James R. Stites who took up a piece of land at Lone Pine in the Haystack country in 1875. He afterward lived at Prineville for many years, and then returned to Dallas, his old home, where he died. He was a veteran of the Mexican war and was with Colonel Doniphan in his famous march through New Mexico, known as the "Journey of Death."
Two young men who came to Crook county in 1878, who have since been very prominent in the upbuilding of the country were T. M. Baldwin and J. W. Howard.
The Dalles Times-Mountaineer of October 15,. 1898, said:
Christian Myer and wife, of Alkali Flat, Crook county, were Saturday, on their way to visit their two married daughters in Portland. Mr. Myer is a California pioneer of 1849. He settled on his present home near Bridge creek in 1863, and for years had Frank Hewot (Alkali) Frank, of Eight Mile, for partner. At that time Myer & Hewot kept one of the only two stopping places between The Dalles and Canyon City. The other was Burnt Ranch on the John Day.
Every traveler over the long and wretched road between here and Canyon City made it a point to stopwith Myer & Hewot. They lived in an adobe mansion which was a marble palace compared with some of the frontier residences of those days, and they had the reputation and deserved it, too, of furnishing the best meals to be had east of the Cascade mountains. Both were bachelors and as the years rolled on and household cares increased with increasing travel the hearts of the two bachelors felt an aching void for the touch of a woman's hand and the companionship and ministry that a woman alone can render. But which of them should go wife hunting? That was the question, for each was perfectly satisfied that the other should be the matrimonial victim. At last the controversy was settled by the two bachelors agreeing to play a game of seven-up, the loser to go and hunt a wife. The game was played and Mr. Hewot won and Mr. Myer a short time afterward started for California, where he found the woman that has shared the joys and sorrows of Alkali Flat for more than thirty years.
The Willamette Valley and Cascade Mountain Wagon Road Company was formed in 1865.-This organization was conceived by A. Hacklemer and the organizers were Jason Wheeler, the first president of the company, Luther B. Ellis and John Powell. This company was granted every other section for a distance of six miles on either side of the road across the state. This amounted to about 400,000 acres in Crook county. The company never attempted to build roads and the road that was constructed was the work of immigrants passing through the country. The road company did not carry out their part of the contract and it should never have been accepted or the charter granted. The United States government made the governor of the state receiving agent, but through carelessness or willful neglect he did not do his duty and accepted the road as it was. In this manner the company received their charter for the immense amount of land which they have neither earned nor paid for. It is considered one of the most brilliant fakes ever perpetrated on the American public. The road was sold later to T. Edgerton Hogg, who in turn disposed of it to the present owners, a Paris banking house, with Charles Alchul, the nominal resident owner. They have a resident owner at Prineville who attends to the business of the company and sees that the road is maintained in good repair. The route of the road was through what is now known as Crook county, and was as follows : Entering Crook county about two miles south and about four miles west of Black Butte to Crooked river, it followed this stream to Prineville, thence almost due east up to the Ochoco Valley forty-eight miles to Paulina, thence south from Paulina thirty miles and leaving the country in the extreme southeastern corner.
Of Indians and Indian warfare Miss Gertie. Sharp most interestingly writes:
Crook county's Indian history begins as early as 1867, when a band of Piutes raided the upper Ochoco, under command of thier chief Paulina, and drove the inhabitants from the valley. With the sacking of this district as a whet to the savage blood, Paulina led his savage brothers to every white settlement to be found, and for the space of twelve months after the first plunder, lives were sacrificed, houses and barns burned, cattle stolen and driven away, and the country generally laid waste to the fiendish desires of a brutal and treacherous band of savages.
The memorable winter of 1867-8 has never been duplicated in Crook county so far as any authentic reports record. Evidence of a fearful massacre in the northeastern part of the county is found in Skull Hollow, where many human skulls have been hauled away at different times. But Paulina's record as a brutal devastator has always held the foremost place in the bloody annals of the county. Lest his name, which once struck terror to old and young alike, be forgotten, a range of mountains, a valley and a stream in Crook county are named for him. Paulina was killed by Howard Maupin, the year following the former's raid in 1867. With his death came a time of comparative peace and it was not until the gold rush to Canyon City several years later that any serious disturbances occurred. At that time many packers, traveling overland to the mines, were attacked and the parties killed. But whether these murders were the work of whites or Indians will never he known ; although it is more than probable that the latter were as guilty, if not more go, than the former.
Prior to the murderous attacks attending the gold rush to Canyon City, a small detachment of the Hudson's Bay Company was massacred at Powell's Buttes, about eight miles southwest of the present site of the county seat and during many years following, both during and after the bloody career of Paulina, there were occasional outbreaks of the savages at which times the whites were mercilessly slaughtered. Such in brief is the early Indian history of Crook county. Today the former troublesome chiefs with their warriors are under the watchful and painstaking eye of Uncle Sam at the Warm Springs reservation. Here the major part of the older ones live a life of indolence, the younger ones attend the government .schools for a short time, then if nature's call, which is strong in the breasts of many of them, does not take them back to the tepees and blankets, they enter into any of the various occupations for which the government endeavors to fit them.
But the old stock will never change. The deep seated aboriginal ideas, the superstitions that rule their lives, the implanted customs and rights handed dowrn to them since the first generation of their kind, all of these for a part of their lives of too much moment to be entirely removed in a few decades of years by their white-skinned guardians. But the governmental influence of the whites, nevertheless, has had its effect and some of the more barbarous customs of these first inhabitants have been abolished through the enlightenment given them. On the Warm Springs reservation among the Piutes and Warm Springs, there is found no longer the custom of buying and selling women, nor is it now customary, as in earlier years, to kill the medicine men who fail to effect cures. These are perhaps the two most notworthy changes that have been brought about in the ordinary lives of these savage races of people.
But neither time nor schooling can bring about a change in the minor details of their every day life. The ground is never too warm or too cold to squat upon ; their faces are never so attractive as when smeared with oil and paint ; the heavy labor of the camp is never done except by the hands of the squaws; the living still hire the howling, wailing mourners for the dead ; the tiny papoose is better cared for strapped to a board than in the mother's lap—all these and a hundred more furnish food for the feeling that only with the total extinction of the race itself will there come an end to the primitive, and still barbarous methods and customs that have lived for centuries with these first inhabitants and are destined to exist as many more if the life of this peculiar race shall endure to that end.
The first "Indian fight" in Crook countv occurred in the summer of 1866 on Dry creek, about thirteen miles from the present site of the town of Prineville. Dr. McKay, a half breed Indian, who afterward became quite noted as a surgeon, was camped on what is now known as McKay's creek, with a band of Warm Springs Indians. With him was "Billy Chinook," who had formerly served as a scout and guide for General John C. Fremont and Kit Carson, when they passed through this territory in 1843. Mc-Kay ordered Billy Chinook to take twenty-five men and reconnoiter for any other Indian bands. The following day they discovered a band of Piutes on Dry creek. After counting their fires and wigwams they decided that there was not more, so far as numbers were concerned, than they had themselves. Their orders were not to attack, but return and if Indians were found to give the alarm. But the opportunity, however, was too favorable and they disobeyed orders. The first fire in the morning was to be the signal for attack. Accordingly as the early fires appeared a rush was made. Although surprised the Piutes made a gallant detense and the whole band numbering thirty-two, bucks, squaws and children, were killed or captured.
The first house erected in Ochoco valley was built by David Wayne Claypool. He was married to Miss Louisa Elkins October 8, 1857, remaining in Linn county until 1867 when he removed to what is now Crook county. The Indians burned his home and run off his stock present dwelling stands ; this was burned by the Indians the next spring. One was built on William Smith's place on Mill creek, and one in the timber where is now the old Swarts' sawmill. These last two are still standing, "Billy Smith's" doing service as a dwelling house, or perhaps more properly as a "bachelors' roost." It is historical as the oldest house in the county.
The Burkhart's selected the place where the Rev. C. S. Pringle now lives. Wayne Claypool and William Smith settled on their present homes; Captain White the land now owned by Mrs. E. A. Freeland, and Elisha Barnes the swamp land in the lower Ochoco. Although cut off from all communication with the outside world, and especially their families, these men passed the winter cheerily enough, enlivened once or twice by a visit from the Luckey boys—John and Jim— who were then employes on the reservation at the Warm Springs, and as the creek bottoms were swarming with mule deer, one could more easily guess that the sports of the chase were a part of their recreation that believe the yarns they told to their neighbors on their return home about the size of these deer. Burkhart owned a Henry rifle, one of the first ever made, and it had a surprising habit of "scattering." It was liable to hit anything under the sun except the object at which it was pointed, and its idiosyncrasy in this respect was apt to throw the shooter into a state of mind not altogether conducive to moral perfection. An Indian stole the gun and I ever afterward felt perfectly safe. He couldn't hit me with that gun if I were in sight, and if I were not he would not be apt to shoot. But the stories told of the surprising shots made by this gun, the size and number of the animals slain, are embalmed in my memory alongside with the tales of "Robinson Crusoe" and "Jack, the Giant Killer."
They broke some ground on the Claypool place, planted a garden and in April, I think, moyed their remaining teams and personal property to Camp Polk, which they left with Captain White and the rest of the company. Returning to their families they crossed the mountains on snow shoes.
The Burkharts had had enough of Ochoco, and on their return home announced their intention of staying there, but Claypool and Barnes commenced making preparations to remove their families so soon as the mountains were passable. The flattering reports they gave of the country soon induced others to join them in their intention to make a home here. Two weeks after their arrival home, E. Johnson, William Elkins, myself and another man, whose name I have forgotten, started for this country bringing with us two horses. We had to cross over snow twenty feet deep, but we arrived at Camp Polk without any mishaps and found Captain White in good spirits and the cattle safe. The following day we loaded up and started for Ochoco, arriving at Wayne Claypool's in two and a half days. This was, certainly, as fine a country then as a stock man could wish to see. The bottoms were covered with wild rye, clover, pea vines, wild flax and meadow grass that was waist high on horseback. The hills were clothed with a mat of bunch grass that seemed inexhaustible. It appeared a veritable paradise for stock. E. Johnson located the place now known as the James Elkins place, the little farm just across thelane north of Wayne Claypool's farm. Elkins and the other gentleman did not take places and after a stay of four years they went home, taking all the horses our little crowd had, leaving us afoot, in a manner, for we had only ox teams. Johnson and I went to hauling rails, and I have always believed that if untoward events and the Indians had not interfered I would have reached the top round of the ladder of fame as a bull whacker. For even now I look back with feelings of pride and longing regret to those bright sunny mornings when we arose with the lark and sage tick and joyously ambled down to the spring branch, bathed our expansive brows, scoured our pitch-covered hands and with appetites that passed all understanding, did ample justice to the ability of our cook, and blythly took our way to the rail patch with an ox gad in one hand, a trusty United States gun on one shoulder, and two Colt's revolvers swung to our belts, and let our fine soprano voices ring out on the morning air. Bull-whacking is not work; it is only recreation. But that is all over for me now; I can never be a bull-whacker. And, thinking of what I have missed, I can only moan, "It might have been."
As before stated, four days after our arrival here Elkins and the forgotten man left us, leaving three people in all this country, Johnson, White and myself. Johnson and myself were employed in making a trip to the timber each day. We were stopping at the Claypool place. Captain White worked the garden and did the cooking. On the sixth day as usual Johnson and I went to the timber, and while loading the wagons we noticed a huge smoke down the valley; but as thecaptain was almost daily engaged in burning the heavy crops of wild rye that covered the bottom, we thought but little of it. But when fifteen minutes later we saw the captain coming up the bottom, hat off, and as if he had half a notion of breaking into a run, we knew something was wrong. When we got within yelling distance he shouted, "Boys, the Indians have broke out and' killed every damn one of us and burnt the house," we knew exactly what was the trouble. And when the captain came up and gave us the particulars, how, while he was absent from the house they had taken all our guns, blankets and provisions, and what they could not carry off they had burned, leaving us destitute, we felt lonesome. That morning Johnson and I both, contrary to our usual custom, had omitted to bring our guns with us. We had only an old six-shooter of the cap and ball style, and this we had emptied at a bunch of sage hens, and as we had not brought any ammunition, it was about as valuable as a knot-hole. We held a council of war and' then and there organized the first while he was out at work. But by indomitable will power he stayed with his claim, and eventually became one of Crook county's wealthiest and most respected citizens.
Paulina, a mongrel chief of the Piutes, who had terrorized residents and freighters between the Des Chutes and John Day rivers for many years, was killed by Howard Maupin, the details of which killing will be found in the "reminiscence" portion of this work. The tragedy occurred near Paulina Butte, about four miles northwest of what is now Ashwood, in 1867.
Henry Coleman, who settled on lower Trout creek in 1868, was the first settler who raised cattle extensively in what is now Crook county. In 1880, before the advent of the railroad, he drove 2,000 head of cattle over the mountains to Kansas and hired a man to winter them. During the winter they all died and Mr. Coleman was sued by the man who had charge of them for his pay. The court gave the plaintiff a judgment for $75,000 for wintering 2,000 head of cattle. This completely bankrupted Mr. Coleman and he abandoned the business.
Among the settlers on upper Trout creek in 1869 were Z. B. Offat, James M. Grater, John Atterbury and James Cox. It may be said that they were the first settlers on upper Trout creek.
In 1869 Lieutenant Watson with a party of soldiers and Stokatly, a Warm Springs Indian chief, with a band of Indians, soldiers and Indians numbering about 150, encountered a party of Piutes at what is now known as Watson's Springs. The Piutes hid themselves in the rocks on the hillside and Watson, finding he could get at them in no other way, decided to charge the whole band. In the preliminary encounter Watson was killed and his men retreated. Stokatly was attached to Lieutenant Watson and would not allow the Piutes to scalp him. Calling his men to follow he again charged and rescued Watson's body, but was so badly wounded himself that he died a few days later at the Warm Springs reservation.
In the Prineville News of June, 1887, Mr. George Barnes writes interestingly of the Ochoco valley:
Settlement was first directed to this valley by the report of a surveying party sent out by the S. V. & C. M. road company in 1863 or 1864, though the country had been visited by adventurous miners on prospecting tours, and Uncle Howard Maupin, the pioneer of Antelope Valley, and his boys had passed through in pursuit of the Snake Indians who, under the noted Paulina, were waging relentless war upon the early settlers of Wasco years before this. Major Stein, an officer in the United States1 army, had even built a road through the country connecting The Dalles by way of Camp Harney with the government post in the northern part of California, over which government supplies were hauled and troops passed from one post to another. Years before this the government, to keep the Indians in check, had dotted the country east of the Cascade mountains with military posts. One was located at Black Butte at the place that bears its name—Camp Polk; one near South Crooked river just above the fords of that stream, called Maury ; one on Silver creek, called Curry, and one in the Harney Valley took its name, and many were the hard, bloody fights fought with the Indians on the valleys and plains now dotted with settlers' homes. In fact the country was well known long before the road company's surveying party passed through it; but the glowing report of this party of the beauty of the country, of the inexhaustible wealth of grass that covered it ; the richness of its soil, and its pure, dry, healthful atmosphere first attracted the attention of the people of the Willamette valley who wanted homes and were willing to brave the dangers of the Indian country to secure them.
The first attempt at settlement was made in the fall of 1867 by D. Wayne Claypool, William Smith, Captain White, Raymond Burkhart, George Burkhart (then a boy), and Elisha Barnes, then residents of the vicinity of Lebanon in Linn county, who came to the valley that fall and selected lands upon which they proposed to build themselves future homes, and who regained here during the following winter. They occupied themselves in hewing house logs, making rails and building houses on their claims. One house was erected on Wayme Claypool's place near where his militia company ever organized in this county. We each got us a willow stick six feet long, which we shouldered as guns and marched down to where our house had stood. In fact they had burned up everything we had which they did not carry away. We were completely stripped and it looked to us that evening that the next bite we would get to eat would be found somewhere on the west side of the Cascade mountains. As we were afoot and would have thirty or forty miles of snow to wade through, the prospect did not seem very cheerful ; in fact, to attempt to cross the mountains seemed so hopeless that we finally concluded to attempt to find the Canyon City road which we knew lay somewhere to the north of us. How far it was we did not know. In fact our ignorance was so dense that it seems foolishness now. So we gathered together a few traps, such as were not burned, hitched up our oxen and started for '"grub."
Not a drum was heard, not a bugle note, As our course down stream we worried; But like a boy caught in a melon patch, We whooped, and humped and hurried.
We perhaps looked very brave as we marched down the valley with our make-believe guns on our shoulders, but as a truthful historian I am compelled to say that we did not feel that way. Two days and a half afterward we found the Warm Spring Agency by an accident. There were no roads in the country then, and our course was guided solely by canyons and ridges. At the agency we were welcomed by one of the best women even Oregon ever knew, Mrs. Captain John Smith, wife of the agent of the reservation at that time. We were fed and made to feel at home. Two days afterward Johnson and I started for home. Mrs. Smith furnished us with enough provisions to run a small Methodist camp-meeting at least a week. We hired an Indian to guide us to Cache creek from whence we proposed to "hoof it" home. At Cache creek the Indian left us and Johnson and I started across the snow. Traveling was very slow and tiresome, and every few hundred feet we would stop and eat. In fact, we stopped and ate so often that the next morning we had only enough left for a scanty breakfast. That evening after a fatiguing day worrying over and through the snow we were so fortunate as to meet James M. Blakely who was camped on the Santiam at what is known as "The Elephant" with a band of cattle, which he was taking to Wild Horse, Umatilla county. Jim gave us our supper and breakfast, for which I am certain the pack horse was ever after thankful, for we certainly lightened his load. Next day we arrived home, safe and sound and hungry.
A few weeks later James McDowell, his two boys, Bill and George, Haley Anderson, Billy Smith and John Miller came here. The McDowells settled on the upper place now owned by J. P. Combs ; John Toms and J. Miller taking claims up where C. S. Pringle now lives. Shortly afterward they were followed by James Slater, A. Zell, Uncle Jackay Rose, Harry Smith, William Pickett, Charles Brotherhead and James Mackey. A. Zell located on the place where he now lives ; Harry Smith on the place that now bears his name on Mill creek ; James McKay on McKay creek, the Millican ranch, I believe, and A. C. Belieu on the place Ewen Johnson now owns. Soon afterward Reason Hamlin moved here, bringing his family now with him. Mrs. Hamlin was the first white woman in the valley. They settled on the old James Bent place arid built their house on the creek near the center of where the Stroud boys have their field. In October, E. Johnson, W. H. Marks and William Clark brought out their families, and they were followed a week or so later by the families of Wayne Claypool, Lew Daugherty and George H. Judy. Johnson moved his family into the cabin in the timber; Marks onto the place just above where John Claypool now lives, which he took up and improved. W. Clark settled on what is now the Freeland place—Captain White's old claim—Wayne Claypool into the house he had built in the place of the one burnt; Lew Daugherty stopped in the timber above the Jim Miller place and Judy took up what is now the John Todd place, building his house on the creek.
About this time Barney Prine and I. N. Bostwick came to the Valley bringing their families with them. Barney settled on the present site of Prineville; Bostwick took the place now owned by Dan Powell jnst above town. Later John Crabtree and his family, accompanied by John Claypool, moved here, and lived during that winter in E. Barnes' house, Crabtree taking up the place Webdell now owns.
That summer James McKay brought out a band of cattle, and E. Barnes, E. Johnson and W. H. Marks each a small band of sheep. These were the first stock brought here, and I have a painful recollection that the sheep had the doubtful honor of having the first case of scab in the settlement, though at that time we did' not know what it was. We thought it was the mange,, the same disease that the hogs have in the Willamette valley, and we lost all our wool and nearly all our sheep before we learned what ailed them. Greasing: the measly things with a bacon rind did not cure them, and some of us retired from the business with disgust. Why, the scab is a native of this section. I have seen the coyotes perfectly naked with it; the rim rocks had it; the sage brush had it; it was in the grass, in the, rocks, in the air and our sheep caught it and had it: bad.
I think I omitted the names of Arthur Veazie, Joel' Long and John Latta, who also came here during the summer of 1868. Veazie settled upon the place now owned by J. H. Miller; Joel Long upon the Powell place on McKay creek, and Latta on what is now known as the "old Millican ranch."
During the summer of 1868 the settlers were busy in building their houses ; Johnson erecting the old house that now stands just north of the old Claypool school house ; William Clark a log cabin near where now stands the Freeland residence; G. H. Judy on the creek south of where now stands the John Todd house; W. H. Marks near the point of rocks that juts out to the road on the place now claimed by John Claypool ; Hamlin on the old Bent Jones place; the McDowells in what is now J. P. Combs upper field; E. Barnes on his meadow ranch; H. Smith on his place; Haley Anderson on the place known as the John Davis place, now owned by Billy Smith, and during the following winter John Cra'bt'ree the old log house that now stands on A. B. Webdell's place ; A. Zell on the place he now occupies. During the summer J. Narcross and Vining located and settled upon the place now owned by S. J. Newson, now 'Newson's Addition to Princville," building two houses on the creek just east of the lane leading north from town. Vining did not long remain here, disposing of his interests to Narcross and moving away. He was afterward lost on the steamer General Wright when she foundered off our coast several years ago.
During the winter of 1868 the Vining cabin was occupied by M. B. Fry, now of Albany, whose chief ambition was to get up a race between a thoroughbred greyhound he brought out with him and one of the fleet-foted mule bucks that were then so numerous -on 'our valleys and plains. But before he succeeded in this desire he made the grand mistake of turning his slim-waisted, long-legged racer loose after a mangy coyote that looked fully as hungry as his dog. There was an exciting race for about a quarter of a mile and the greyhound overtook the coyote who proceeded then and there to give it the worst whipping a high-bred town' dog ever got. Then there was another quarter race back to where Fry stood in open astonishment, the greyhound in the lead, but the coyote a good second arid every few jumps he would nip a piece out of the fleeing dog's hams. That race ruined the dog as a hunter, for from that day on Fry could never induce it to chase a. jack-rabbit, and the howl of a coyote drove it under the bed. After that it pined away and died.
That winter was a busy one to all of us ; making rails, boards, hewing house logs and, surprising as it may seem, I was inveigled into accepting the position of pitman in a whip-saw mill, where we sawed lumber for the 'floors of our cabins at the rate of fifty feet a day, working sixteen hours. Sundays we washed and patched our clothes, and right here I want to say that along toward spring our wardrobes got to be very threadbare ; we thought we had come with clothes enough for a year, but three months' ranting around over the rimrocks and through the juniper trees after the mule deer had left us barefooted and naked. There were no stores that we could possibly reach where we could obtain a new supply and toward spring we were the nakedest lot of white men in Oregon. The makeshifts we utilized to hide our skins from the biting winds— we didn't care a cent for the public gaze—was but another illustration that "Necessity is the Mother of Invention." Newt Bostwick capped the climax in the footwear line by soling a pair of moccasins with a piece of bacon rind. We all wore moccasins and before spring buckskin breeches and shirts.
That winter Uncle Jim Slater who, with Abe Zell, had been stopping with the McDowells, becoming tired of bachelor's cooking and venison, went up and hired out to W. H. Marks, stipulating that he was to have beef once a day and a yard and a half of the first cloth woven to patch the seat of his pantaloons, provided the latter held together that long. The long winter evenings were passed in dressing buckskin, learning the copper trade under A. Zell's tuition, and in solving the most complex mathematical problem the fertile brain of Uncle Jim Slater could conceive, using a shingle for a slate. Once a week the settlers on lower Ochoco would meet, first at one cabin and then another, turn about, and have a debate. Even at that early day the W. V & C. M. road company's claim to the lands in this section was questioned by the settlers, for we often had the company and its "road" as the subject of debate. Many were the eloquent denunciations of their staking out old Indian trails and calling them "wagon roads," but little did we dream that these same old Indian trails would become by the venality of two of Oregon's governors, a "Military Wagon Road," or that the improvements on which some of the settlers were working so hard that winter would be taken from them and given to this company, or perhaps our speeches might have rung with even yet more bitter denunciation that they did.
The forepart of the winter the young people had several "bussing bees" and dances. Along toward spring we let up on them ; in fact we got skittish of the girls. Not that we were naturally diffident or bashful, but because our trousers were more conspicuous by what was absent than by what remained.
James McDowell was an odd genius ; he went by the name of "Governor of Canada," derived by having been at one time the laziest man in that part of the Forks of the Santiam known as "Canada." Though it was told of "Bill," the Governor's oldest boy, married on the strength of his being a son of the 'Governor of Canada," the girl had never heard of the Forks or seen the "Governor." If he could get enough to eat and plenty of tobacco, he did not care if he was ragged or dirty. He was always happy, and during our ragged period the Governor was in his element. He shaved once a week with a butcher knife, and stood ready to back his "mar" against any horse in the country for fifteen buck hides.
Jim and A. H. Marks, Uncle Buford's boys, were born hunters and this country was to them all that could be desired. Deer were plenty everywhere ; not little, runty white tails like they have in the Willamette, but big. mule deer, animals as large as an elk. Elk and bear could be found in the mountains ; wild sheep on the high, rocky buttes ; big grey wolves once in a while and coyotes everywhere. And above all was a conscious' feeling that one might find an Indian; just enough of this latter feeling to give a zest to a hunt away from the settlement. One evening night caught Jim and A. H. several miles from home, and the darker it got the greater their anxiety to get home. Finally it became so dark Jim could not see his way or feel over a rim-rock. He stumbled over one and after dropping some six or eight feet he caught on a narrow ledge that projected from the wall some two feet, just far enough for him to maintain a precarious footing. He soon ascertained by experimenting that it was impossible for him to climb back from where he had fallen, and it was too dark to see how far it was to the "bottom, and how to climb down, his imagination conjecturing that it was hundreds of feet down and the wall perfectly smooth, that he would hold on to the narrow ledge until his strength was gone and then fall down and be dashed to pieces on the rocks below. He felt that he was doomed; he would hang there until starvation would loosen his hold, or perhaps an Indian would find him perched there, caught like a rat in a trap, and from the ledge above take mean advantages of him. Then he would think of home, and how they would miss and hunt for him and never find him. Amid such gloomy thoughts he passed the night and the first streak of light showed him that the ledge upon which he stood with within two feet of the bottom.
Charley Brotherhead was the son of a rich banker in New York ; he had enlisted in the army during the war and after its close he had been discharged on this coast and had drifted here, why, I could never imagine. He did not need any of this country and it certainly did not need any of him. He wouldn't work, and could not if he had wanted to, but he could and did raise a quarrel with Captain White, and the way these two worthies laid for one another; how they quarreled; how Captain White to avoid meeting Charley would go across the mountains instead of traveling through the valley when he wished to go from one point to another; how Charley would lie on the old Captain and bluster about what he would do if he could only lay hands on him, gave evidence that even in frontier places where the settlers were mutually dependent upon one another for safety, they could be fools.
The winter of 1868 was a fine one; no snow or rainfall. The ground and streams of water froze hard, and the settlers ran around over the country with only moccasins and with, comparatively, dry feet. The few stock in the valley kept fat, and the teams engaged in hauling rails and timber with no better feed than to be turned on the bottom at night kept in good working order. It did not storm any that winter; the days were clear and warm and the nights clear and coid. I find it necessary to add another name to the list of settlers in the year 1868 that I inadvertantly omitted in its proper place; that is George Millican. He came here in the spring of 1868 in company with John Latta and Joel Long, and brought out the first band of cattle driven here. He stopped awhile on Mill creek, the site of Prineville, he being some three months ahead of Barney Prine, but by the solicitation of Millican, he soon abandoned the place, and he, Millican and Latta went over on the McKay and took the place now owned by Millican and Powell.
In 1869 the little settlement here received quite an addition to its numbers, the Gulliford boys, Jake, Willram and Jasper came, bringing with them quite a band of cattle, and settled upon the head of the McKay, up where William Gulliford now lives. Albert Allen also that year settled on the McKay on the place B. F. Allen now owns. Then came J. C. Davis, Bluford Marks and, his two sons, Jim and Att, Dr. L. Vanderpool, A. Hodges, Charley Hodges, the irrepressible ''Bud" Hodges, Lizzie Vanderpool, now Mrs. Jake Gulliford, J. H. Snodderly and family, D. H. Hale and S. R. Slayton and family, the two Foster boys, William and "Jap," and their sister Mrs. Nancy Leach, A. B. Webdell and E. G. Conant ; A. Zell brought out his family; Jake Narcross and wife ; Hardy Holman, John Holman, John D. Lee, A. Hinkle, Bill Davis and Abbott.
John Davis moved on the place on Mill Creek that Haley Anderson had been holding for him. Uncle Bluford Marks took up the place where John Claypool now lives, and his two boys built the old log cabin that now stands on that place; it was one that Alex Hodges took up, and he and his boys went to improve the place he now lives upon. Dr. Vanderpool brought out a band of sheep and his first corral was about where Duncan'^ law office now stands. He afterward took up the place where he now lives. J. H. Snodderly took up the place where he now lives ; the Foster boys the place now owned by Dan Powell. A. B. Webdell bought John Crabtree's right to the swamp land just above town and thereby bought a nineteen years' fight with the Road Company. He soon after left E. G. Conant in charge of the place and went to the Willamette Valley to buy horses, and while there married a Miss Wiley, whom he brought out next summer. But their wedded life was not destined to last long, for that dread disease, consumption, had her in its clutches and she died. May 6, 1871, I believe her death was the third in the valley, R. Streithoff who died in December being the first, and Emily Powell on March 9, 1871, being the second.
R. S. Slayton settled in the lower Ochoco on the meadow land he now owns ; he also brought out quite a large band of cattle.
Jake Narcross settled upon the land just north of town, embracing the claims of S. J. Newsome and Mrs. Lafollette. Hardy and John Holman and John Lee and Orange Morgan settled on the creek above Abe Zell's place on the land now owned by E. N. White, and— yes, I have almost forgotten a Mr. Smith who settled somewhere near where Billy Tomlinson now lives. He should not be forgotten, for his wife that summer gave birth to the first child born in the new settlement. Though this child should be to this county what Virginia Dare is to America, I have forgotten whether it was a boy or a girl.
The settlers were dependent upon the kindness of John and Jim Luckey for an occasional letter from their former homes, as there was no communication with any mail routes, and the Luckeys, who were employes on the Warm Springs reservation, would always kindly gather and forward the mail that came by the way of The Dalles, and a letter was an event in those days. I remember that once the boys sent up a batch of mail, which came to Barney Prine's—the place was not then Prineville—and Joel Long who happened down that way undertook to deliver the mail to the upper Ochoco settlers and, on the way up he lost one for John Claypool and the whole settlement turned out to hunt for it. The search was continued until the letter was found. It contained the startling information that one of the Smith family had obtained a divorce. I do not now remember whether the divorcee wrote the letter or not.
In the spring of 1868, while these men were busy with their work, they were rudely startled by a raid made on them by the Snake Indians who captured and carried off three yoke of cattle and Billy Smith's only horse. This action was a rude reminder that their stay here would not be unmixed with danger. As the whites were few in number and without horses they, of course, did not follow the Indians very far, leaving the settlers to content themselves with keeping a better lookout, and more carefully guarding against a repetition of such a raid. At that period, 1869, there were no roads connecting this country with The Dalles, or in fact anywhere else. During the summer of 1869 William Clark and Lew Daugherty built a road from the valley of Bakeovenv The road went direct to Cow Canyon following the creek bed, and the reef of rocks that obstruct the creek was overcome by a bridge. These men were paid for their work by the merchants of The Dalles. At that time there were no houses between the valley and Bakeoven, except one at the Coleman ranch, on Trout creek. C. C. Mailing came to Crook county in 1877 and located on Willow creek, where he erected a steam sawmill, the first one in the county. In 1863 Bristow Brothers were taking a pack train from Eugene to Canyon City, and they encamped on Trout creek, where they were joined by another pack train returning from Canyon City. At night they were raided by Indians and every horse was stolen. Until the following afternoon the freighters could do nothing when another pack train came along. The men at once mounted and gave chase, finding the Indians on the bank of the Ochoco, where now stands Prineville. Seeing them the Indians hid themselves in the tall rye grass and made no attempts to defend themselves. The freighters gathered in their horses and, naturally, those of the Indians, returned to their camping grounds and eventually gained their destination.
Camp Polk was named by Captain Charles La Follette, who in the early sixties camped there with a company of soldiers. It was located in Squaw creek, about forty miles west of Prineville and about four miles northwest of where Sisters is now located. A few log huts were thrown together to form a temporary camp.
The name "Ochoco," Indian for willow, was, in the days of the earliest settlement, given to nearly all the territory within the boundaries of Crook county. Present settlers limit it to the valley along the creek of that name. When the whites first visited the stream it was called Ochoco, pronounced O-chee-co, and such, since then it has remained.
Mr. Miller was a teacher at the Warm Springs, and during a visit to the future Prineville he preached at the old Claypool school house, about ten miles east of Prineville. It »s considered highly probable that this was the first sermon preached in the county.
J. P. Combs, D. Wayne Claypool, S. R. Slayton and J. H. Snodderly were the first to raise grain in Crook county. This was in 1870. It was grown for hay in the Ochoco valley. The first notes of the "new county" symphony were heard September 16, 1880, when a Prineville correspondent of The Dalles Times wrote as follows:
The question of the division of Wasco county is being generally agitated here. This question was discussed to some extent two years ago, but at that time met with serious opposition, not only from your part of the county (The Dalles) but from many of the citizens here. Now, however, there seems to be but one unanimous opinion and that is, "A new county of our own we should have, and that immediately!" Citizens of The Dalles hardly understand how little real protection or advantage to this part of the county our present organization is. Were it not for our local officers crimes might be committed daily and the criminals escape long before the arm of justice could be stretched across the 125 miles that intervene between us and the judgment seat at The Dalles. And as it is, the few cases that we are compelled to take to The Dalles for trial cost the county such enormous sums that we are ashamed to make the balance against us any larger, and many offenses are allowed to shock the moral sense of the community without any attempt to visit punishment upon the heads of offenders.
In the fall of 1880 the conditions of the little town of Prineville were considered prosperous. Especially had it prospered during the two preceding years. At that period the principal industry was stock raising. The large droves of cattle which were driven from Crook county in 1879 greatly lessened the amount of horned cattle on the range, and since that time particular attention has been paid to horses and sheep, of which the farmers have the finest grades. So. early as 1880 some of the best thoroughbred horses for all purposes had been imported ; there is no kind of a graded animal of that species but can be found at, or near, Prineville. Large bands of sheep ranged the neighboring hills and kept fat the year round. The winter months were slightly more severe than at The Dalles, but the snowfalls were usually light. Large accessions to the population were made in 1879, and mainly of a thrifty, industrious class which is always acceptable to every community. Heretofore very little agricultural projects had been entered upon. Yet at that time it was popular opinion that the valleys of the Ochoco and Crooked river could be made quite productive. McKay creek, six miles from Prineville, had been farmed for a unmber of vears and quite successfully. The quantity and quailty of grain raised compared favorably with any section of Crook county. Such were the industrial conditions in 1880.
In the histories of other counties published in this work we have told of the severe weather prevailing in 1880-81, and of the hardships endured by settlers in caring for their stock. In that portion of Wasco, which is now Crook county, then known as the "Prineville country," this winter was not so severe as in the country further to the north. ' Large herds of stock were wintered on the Ochoco, beyond Prineville, and there was very little loss.
ORGANIZATION OF CROOK COUNTY.
Crook was created out of the southern portion of Wasco county in the fall of 1882. The bill was introduced by Hon. B. F. Nichols, then a representative of Wasco county. Prineville was made the temporary county seat. Following is' the enabling act:
Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the State of Oregon:
Section 1. That all that portion of the State of Orergon embraced within the following boundary lines be, and the same is hereby created and organized into a separate county by the name of Crook, to-wit : Beginning at a point on the western boundary line of Wasco county where the same is intersected by the line between townships eight and nine south ; from thence east on said line to the John Day river ; thence up the main channel of said river to the west line of Grant county; thence on the line between Grant and Wasco counties to the southeast corner of Wasco county; thence on the line between Wasco and Lake counties to the east boundary line of Lane county; thence 'on the line between Lane, Linn and Wasco counties to the place of beginning.
Section 2. The territory embraced between said boundary lines shall compose a county for all civil and military purposes, and shall be subject to the same laws and restrictions and be entitled to elect the same officers as other counties of the State: Provided, that it shall be the duty of the governor as soon as convenient after this act shall become a law to appoint for Crook county, and from her resident citizens, several of the county officers allowed by law to other counties of this state ; which said officers, after duly qualifying according to law, shall be entitled to hold their respective offices until their successors shall be duly elected at the general election of 1884, and shall have duly qualified as required by law.
Section 3. The temporary county seat of Crook county shall be located at Prineville in said county until a permanent location shall be adopted. At the next general election the question shall be submitted to the legal voters of said county, and the place, if any, which shall receive a mapority of all the votes cast at such election shall be the permanent county seat of said county ; but if no place shall receive a majority of all the votes cast the question shall again be submitted to the legal voters of said county between the two points having the highest number of votes at said election, and the place receiving the highest number of votes at such election shall be the permanent county seat of saidcounty.
Section 4. Said county of Crook shall for representative purposes be annexed to the 17th representative district. And for senatorial purposes said county shall be annexed to the 16th senatorial district.
Section 5. The county clerk of Wasco county shall send to the county clerk of Crook county, within thirty days after this act becomes a law a certified transcript of all delinquent taxes, from the assessment roll of 1882, that were assessed within the limits of Crook county also a certified transcript of the assessment of all persons and property within the limits of Crook county for 1882, and the said taxes shall be payable to the proper officers of Crook county. The county treasurer of Crook county shall, out of the first money collected for taxes, pay over to the treasurer of Wasco county the full amount of state tax on the assessment of 1882, due from the citizens of Crook county. Provided, That the citizens of Crook county shall not be exempt from, but shall pay their due proportion of the indebtedness of said Wasco county for the year 1882. The said clerk of Wasco county shall also make out and send to the clerk of Crook county, within the time above limited, a transcript of all cases pending in the circuit and county courts of Wasco county between parties residing in Crook county, and transfer all original papers in said cases to be tried in Crook county.
Section 6. The county clerk of Wasco county shall, within forty days after the passage of this act, ascertain the proportion of the amount of money expended by Wasco county for building a court house in the year 1882 ; collected in taxes from the inhabitants now to be embraced in the county of Crook, and make a certificate thereof and deliver the same to the treasurer of Crook county; and that the treasurer of said Wasco county pay over to the county said amount so paid by the inhabitants of said district on the presentation of said certificate.
Section 7. The said county of Crook is hereby attached to the Fifth Judicial District for judicial purposes.
Section 8. The county court of Crook county shall be held at the county seat of said county on the first Monday of every alternate month, beginning on the first Monday of the next after the appointment by the governor of county officers as provided in this act.
Section 9. Until otherwise provided for the county judge of Crook county shall receive an annual salary of four hundred dollars, and the clerk and sheriff of said county shall be entitled to receive the same fees that are now allowed by law to the clerk and sheriff of Wasco county.
Section 10. The county treasurer of Crook county shall receive an annual salary of two hundred dollars.
Section 11. As early action in virtue of the provisions of this act is important, this act shall take effect and be in force from and after its approval by the Governor.
Approved October 24, 1882.
The first officers named by Governor Moody as officials of Crook county were the following
County judge, S. G. Thompson ; county clerk, S. T. Richardson ; sheriff, George H. Churchill; commissioners, B. F. Allen, C. M. Cartwright assessor, S. J. Newsome ; school superintendent, H. A. Dillard ; treasurer, G. A. Winckler ; coroner, Richard Graham. .
The fact that the senatorial fight of John H. Mitchell in the legislature of 1882 came near defeating the bill for the creation of Crook county is not generally known. Had it not been for the work of Hon. B. F. Nichols, at that time a member from Wasco county, the measure would have failed. Mr. Nichols went to the legislature pledged to the creation of Crook county and against John H. Mitchell for United States senator. Almost at the beginning of the session Mr. Nichols introduced house bill No. 65, which was"' for the creation of the new county. This measure passed the house by a large majority, but was tabled in the senate without discussion. This was done to force Mr. Nichols to vote for John H. Mitchell which he refused to do. About this time an opportunity occurred for the state treasurer to pay out about $100,000 on the state's indebtedness, and thus save a large amount of interest. Edward Hirsch, the state treasurer, with the sanction of the governor and attorney general, paid out $100,000. A bill was introduced in the lower house to legalize this act-Through the efforts of Mr. Nichols it was tabled. Solomon Hirsch, senator from Multnomah county and brother of the state treasurer, was quite anxious that this bill should become a law. He was also chairman of the committee orr counties. Mr. Hirsch interviewed Mr. Nichols and was informed that the bill to legalize his brother's act would be passed after the Crook county bill had become a law. Consequently the senate was compelled to pass the bill creating Crook county in order to legalize the payment of the $100,000 of state indebtedness.
During the second session of the county court, December 5, 1882, the members appointed Elisha Barnes justice of the peace, and T. S. Mealy constable for Prineville precinct. These were the first officers appointed by the new county court of Crook county. February 6, 1883, A. Aldridge was appointed road supervisor of District No. 1, also the first appointed in the county.
The area of the new county was about 8,600 square miles, and it contained a population of about 2,500.
March 15, 1882, a messenger arrived at Prineville from Willow creek, who announced the news of the killing of two men named A. H. Crooks and S. J. Jory, a son-in-law of Crook's. The name of the supposed assassin was Lucius Langdon. The murderous deed, by shooting, was committed just over a small knoll at the rear of Langdon's residence, and out of sight of the road. Mr. Garrett Maupin, passing the road at the time, heard two shots. He went immediately to the place and found the two men dead, and saw Langdon leaving on a horse and armed.
It appears that Langdon had had some difficulty with Crooks and Jory concerning a piece of land. (The land office afterwards confirmed Langdon's title to the property).
The coroner's inquest was held by Justice Towers and the following verdict rendered:
the jury, empaneled to inquire into the cause of the death of A. H. Crooks and Stephen Jory, find from the evidence that the deceased came to their death by gunshot wounds inflicted by Lucius Langdon. "(Signed.) "H. A. Belknap, "J. H. Garrett, "S. S. Brown, "S. G. Wood, "J. W. Page, "C. A. Newbill."
The following is a letter from Deputy Sheriff J. L. Lukey at Prineville to Sheriff Storrs at The Dalles on the lynching of Langdon.
Friend Storrs—I wrote you in my last of the beginning of a terrible tragedy, and to-day I will give you, as I hope, the end. The people turned out and went in several directions looking for Langdon. He had a brother working on Mill Creek, about seventeen miles from here, and six men went there the same night after the shooting. At one o'clock in the night they approached the cabin where his brother was stopping, saw a light, but before they could surround the house the dogs gave the alarm. Our boys were so near they saw him run, but it was very dark and he got away; so a runner was sent back to town and every available man able to bear arms turned out determined to get him if possible. They scoured that whole country and guarded all the avenues where it was thought he was likely to escape. J. M. Blakely and a party of men thought he would return home, as the boys at Mill Creek had captured his horse and gun. They were stationed just south of Langdon's house, when they saw a man approaching on horseback. They were not certain of their man, however. James B. covered him with his Winchester before he knew he was near any one. He surrendered and they started immediately for town. In the meantime Justice Powers had issued a warrant for a man by the name of W. H. Harrison who had been stopping at Langdon's, and when the inquest was held on the bodies of Crook and Jory, gloated over it and said it served them right, striking his breast and saying, "Big Ingin Me !" They were trying to make him accessory after the fact.
They all came over to town together, Harrison and Langdon prisoners, arriving here about two o'clock. Blakely woke me up, saying they had captured Langdon and wanted to turn him over to me. I went down to the stable office where they had him, put the shackles on him, took him into the hotel, had a good fire built and told Langdon to take some sleep on the lounge. I sat down by the stove to guard him. The town was soon aroused ; at least quite a number of men came in to see Langdon, as I suppose through a morbid curiosity. Mr. W. C. Foren, deputy marshal, came in and stayed with me. Harrison went to bed and at about four o'clock got up and sat by the stove in charge of L. Nichols. At about five o'clock in the morning, as I was sitting at the stove with my back to the front door, the door was suddenly opened and I was caught and thrown backward on the floor and firmly held, while my eyes were blinded and immediately a pistol was fired rapidly five or six times. I heard some one groan just about the time the firing ceased. Harrison was hurried from the room. I could tell it was him by his cries. The doors were closed and I was allowed to get up. I went to Langdon and found him dead. I looked around and a masked man stood at each door, warning by ominous signs for no one to undertake to leave the room. So soon as they were satisfied that Langdon was dead they quietly left the room. At daylight I took some men and began the search for Harrison, and found him hanging from a banister of the Crooked river iron bridge.
The town is quiet today. Powers held inquests upon the bodies. I am not informed what the verdict in either case was. I feel conscious of having done my duty as an officer, so there I let the matter rest.
It is quite probable that the murders of Crooks and Jory were the incentives for the formation of a vigilantes committee, which organization was subsequently opposed by a party calling themselves "Moonshiners." The latter, it is understood, represented an element standing for legality as against the court of Judge Lynch. At least the Vigilantes was organized, secretely, in the winter of 1881 and 1882, ostensibly for the protection of the county against outlawry and especially for the detection and punishment of horse thieves. It is not recorded that a horse thief was ever captured or punished by this organization, although a number of suspects were ordered to quit the range and leave the country.
But in addition to the various acts of illegal vengeance the Vigilantes are stated to have carried their operations to extremes. Through active or quiescent sympathizers they secured political control of the county government. . It is stated also that few were punished legally, although evidence was overwhelming. Grand juries were hampered in their actions by active sympathizers of the Vigilantes who were picked upon for jurymen. The first act of this organization was the killing of Langdon and Harrison, as heretofore related. Their second enterprise was the shooting of Al Swartz while he was playing a game of cards in Burmeister's saloon. Swartz, it is reported, had openly defied them and was always in danger of an ambuscade. On the night of December 24, 1882, he entered the saloon and seated himself at the card table facing the door that he might not be taken unawares. At about ten o'clock some one walked up to the window behind Swartz and shot him once in the back of the head, killing him almost instantly.
The same night they proceeded to the house of W. C. and J. M. Barnes and shot and then hanged two young men named Sidney Huston and Charles Luster. The reason assigned for the killing of Huston was that he was planning to, steal a band of horses. The real object in killing Luster was that he was a jockey who had agreed to throw a race, but had bet $60 on his own horse, which he rode and won. The next tragedy was the killing of Mike Mogan in Burmeister's saloon by J. M. Barnes. This was in the spring of 1883. As reported at the time Barnes walked up to Mogan and demanded $6 which, he claimed, Mogan owed him, stating at the same time that if he did not pay him he would shoot him. Barnes shot him through the lungs killing him almost instantly.
The last act in this series of tragedies was presented December 18, 1883, when Frank Mogan, a brother of Mike, was killed by Colonel William Thompson, colloquially known as "Bud" Thompson. Mogan had worked for Thompson and there was a disagreement between them in the settlement. They quarreled in Kelley's saloon and in moving about Thompson got behind Mogan and shot him in the back of the head causing intant death. "Not a true bill" was the verdict of the grand jury in the Thompson case; he was never punished. The widow of Mogan sued him for damages and received a judgment for $3,600, but this was never satisfied. Thompson was a bright newspaperman, and at one time was on the editorial staff of the Morning Oregonian, a newspaper published at Portland, Multnomah county, He had also been editor of a number of other papers throughout the state. He received his title of "Colonel" in the Modoc war.
The "Moonshiners" organized in the winter of 1883-4 for the purpose of putting a stop to the rather too industrious work of the Vigilantes and incidentally to gain political control of the county. Comprising it were some of the leading citizens of the county ; organization was perfected in three precincts, but the party at Prineville was the leading one. Quietly they worked, but it was work that was noticeable in all portions of the county. Little, if no attention was paid to politics and they worked in unison against such men as were in sympathy with the Vigilantes.
The "Moonshiners" were successful at the polls and elected nearly their whole ticket. A strong undercurrent exists among the old timers who still reside here, but it seldom appears on the surface. Some ex-members of the Vigilantes live in the county, honored and respected citizens some have left the county ; some have committed suicide and some have gone via the "booze route," and some have gone insane.
February 6, 1883, the county court allowed its first bill. This was in the amount of $40 for chairs, and was in favor of Fried & Company. The members of the first jury empaneled in the new county were: T. B. James, J. Hampton, Stephen Staats, John Powell, H. Hennigan and Monroe Heisler. S. J. Newsome made the first assessment of Crook county in the spring of 1883, the amount of taxable property at that time being $1,263,000.
The first term of the circuit court was held in May, 1883, with Hon. A. S. Bennett on the bench and Hon. T. A. McBride prosecuting attorney. Elisha Barnes, one of the first justices of the peace appointed, performed the first marriage ceremony six days after the organization of the county, the high, contracting parties being Barney D. Springer and Miss Ann Todd. This ceremony was performed at the Occidental hotel. Justice Barnes also was the first mayor of the city of Prineville.
In October, 1884, the total assessment valuation of property in Crook county was $1,612,323, one-half of which was represented by cattle, horses and sheep in nearly equal proportions. It was then one of the foremost stock regions in the state. Beginning with the creation of the new county there was noticed a more permanent settlement. Strangers came into the county and secured valuable claims along the many streams debouching into the Des Chutes and Crooked rivers. Substantial buildings were erected and the agricultural and stock industries were rapidly increased. An unusual degree of prosperity prevailed and as taxes were low and the farming and stock business profitable. Crook county soon.became one of the wealthiest according to population in the state.
At the general election of 1884 the following county officials were chosen : F. A. McDonald, county judge; A. C. Palmer, county clerk; J. M. Blakely, sheriff ; J. H. Garrett and G. L. Frizzell, commissioners; M. D. Powell, assessor; J. T. Bushuell, treasurer ; W. R. McFarland, surveyor ; D. W. Aldridge, school superintendent; J. R. Stites, coroner.
Mr. McDonald was appointed register of the United States land office at The Dalles in 1885, and Charles A. Van Houten was named as his successor in the office of county judge.
In the autumn of 1885 tne county court accepted the bid of H. A. Belknap of $S.474 to build a county court house under which contract the structure was accepted and completed December 28, 1885. The bidders for this edifice were J.-R. Marshall, $5,880; W. S. A. Johns, $5,667 ; H. Belknap, $5,474. The legislature of 1885 detached the Beaver creek country from Grant, and made it a portion of Crook county. This district proved a very valuable addition and it is one of the wealthiest parts of the county, adding a large amount of taxable property. The severe winter of 1884-5 proved a severe blow to Crook county. Cattle, horses and sheep perished by the thousands from lack of food and shelter ; financial losses to stockmen were enormous. From the Ochoco Review of September, 1886, it is learned that the total valuation of taxable property in Crook county in 1886 was $1,347,-722. September 8, 1887, a contract was entered into between the Crook county court and the Pauly Jail Building & Manufacturing Company for the construction of a county jail for the sum of $4,200. This building was accepted and paid for November 17, 1887. The taxable property for 1888 was $1,455,165. Roads paved with wool may appears rather expensive in these days of economic industry. Yet such was the result of exorbitant freight charges in the spring of 1894. We read from the Antelope Herald of April 9th: "We are reliably informed that the citizens •of the Hay creek community are grading and repairing their public roads with wool, preferring to utilize it in this way rather than haul it to The Dalles and lose money on it. Three loads were emptied into a mudhole near Hay creek last week and covered with earth." In April, 1894, many of the ranches along the Ochoco, especially in the upper valley, were more or less damaged by high water, in some cases largely impairing their value. In November, 1895, fire bugs appeared in northern Crook county. On the second the destructive torch was applied to about 180 tons of fine hay belonging to James Connolley on Cherry creek, and in a remarkably short space of time all of his winter's feed had ascended in smoke. This was the fourth lot of hay that had been destroyed in that section within a few weeks. It was plainly evident that unlawful efforts were being made by certain persons to drive the sheepmen out of business. The same year the population of Crook county, according to the Oregon state census, was 3,212. The livestock assessment of 1897 was : Sheep,.320,000; hogs, 1,500; horses, 10,500; mules, 250; cattle, 40,000. January 1, 1898, Mr. J. N. Williamson said : "I will make the statement, truthfully as I think, and without any pretense of booming the.county, that Crook county has withstood the pressure of the recent hard times as well as any community on the Pacific coast. There have been fewer business failures, less enforced idleness and want than elsewhere. This statement of facts simply proves the assertion that a stock raising country is the best country on earth for a poor man." January 1, 1898, the population of Crook county was estimated at 5,000. September 10, the same year, Assessor Shown exhibited the following statement of the financial condition of the county:
Of all the Des Chutes river projects the Des Chutes Reclamation & Irrigation Company had, in 1898, proved the most successful in its aim to accomplish the purposes of its promoters. To this enterprising company must be given the credit of being the pioneers of irrigation on the Des Chutes river. The originators of the scheme were G. W. Swalley and James R. Benham. In 1898 they succeeded in interesting others in the project. In October of the following year the company was incorporated. At that period the stockholders were : W. H. Gaun, C. B. Swalley, W. R. McFarland, W. H. Birdsong, William Johnson, B. C. Low, G. W. Swalley and James R. Benham. Mr. Gaun later sold his share to the company, and some time afterward Frank Glass purchased it, making him one of the share holders.
C. M. Elkins of Prineville, also acquired a half interest in Mr. McFarland's share after an organization had been perfected. The original intention of the promoters was to select land under the Desert Land Act and encourage settlers to come in and acquire an interest in the canal by doing an equal amount of work, or by purchase of rights from the company. The appropriations of lands immediately contiguous to theirs by large concerns that afterward came inforestalled their plans, however, and caused the little company to select a small area of its own and carry out the work without further aid They had a segregation of 1,280 acres.
PASSING EVENTS— 1889 TO 1905.
Another prosperous year for Crook county was 1899. From the stock and wool sales of this year the people realized $1,010,000 which, divided among a voting population of 1,200 made $842 in money that came into the county for every male citizen over the age of twenty-one years, from the stock industry alone. During this year the county was for the first time connected with the outside world by telephone ; a line was constructed between Prineville and The Dalles. Another element making for the good of Crook county was the extension of the Columbia Southern railway. This considerably lessened the distance to markets.
Nearly all the threshing done in the county in the fall of 1889 was of rye with about enough oats and barley to furnish seed for the following year. Nearly, or quite, all the flour was imported from Webfoot and other successful wheat growing localities. And yet this country was not in the midst of calamity or threatened famine. The inhabitants were as well, or better off than those of the most favored agricultural region of Oregon. They were not in an agricultural community and stock was their wealth. They had a sufficient number of horses, cattle and sheep to sell to purchase such breadstuffs they required for a decade to come. They had no worn out agricultural machinery that was not paid for, and but few were under mortgage. The poorest man in their midst could spare the price of a horse for flour.
Ten years subsequently, in 1899, it may be said thar the great measure of prosperity was due to the marked conditional improvements of the past two years which had afforded ready sale for the products of the range. Probably 75 per cent- of the business of the county was conducted 011 a credit basis, but it was a noteworthy fact that no business failures had been recorded in the history of the county. The money holdings of the people were 33 1-3 per cent greater since November 1, 1897, and fully 200 per centgreater than November 1, 1896. Gold was the principal medium of exchange ; silver for change being nearly always scarce, continually making: its way back to the centers of trade.
At a special meeting of the county court of December 11, 1899, there were present: W. C. Wills, judge; T. S. Hamilton and D. E. Templeton, commissioners ; Arthur Hodges, clerk, and the following proceedings were had:
It was ordered that Crook county be divided into the following election precincts, with names and boundaries as follows : Prineville No. 1—The whole of that part of Crook county embraced within the corporate limits of the city of Prineville, shall be known and designated as Prineville Precinct No. 1.
Ireland No. 2.—Commencing at a point on the west' boundary line of Crook county, where a line running due east and west through the center of township 18 south, crosses said boundary, running thence east to a point three miles north of the southeast corner of township 18 south of range 14 east, thence south to the southern boundary of the county ; thence west to the western boundary of the county and thence north along the western boundary of the county to the place of beginning, and it shall be known and it is ordered by the court that this precinct be designated as Ireland Precinct No. 2.
Bend No. 3.—Commencing at a point three miles north of the southeast corner of township 18 south of range 14 east; thence north to a point three miles south of the northeast corner of township 16 south of range 14 east ; thence west three miles ; thence north three miles; thence north three miles; thence west along the township line between townships 15 and 16 south to the northwest corner of township 16 south of range 11 east thence south six miles ; thence due west twelve miles ; thence south six miles ; thence west six miles; thence three miles to the place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that this precinct shall be known and designated as Bend No. 3.
Montgomery No. 4.—Commencing at the southwest corner of section 18 township 16 south of range 15 east of Willamette Meridian ; thence east to the southeast corner of section 13 ; thence north to the northeast corner of the same section; thence west to the northwest corner of same section ; thence north to the southwest corner of section I, township 15, south of range 15 east, thence east to the southeast corner of section 6, township 15, south of range 16 east; thence north to the southern boundary of the city of Prineville thence west and north to where the north and south line crosses Crooked river; thence down Crooked river to its junction with the Des Chutes river; thence south up the Des Chutes river to the township line between townships 15 and 16 south; thence east to the northeast corner of section 14, township 16 south of range 14 east ; thence south three miles ; thence east three miles to the place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that this precinct shall be known and designated as Montgomery No. 4.
Black Butte No. 5.—Commencing at the southeast corner of township 16 south of range n east of Willamette Meridian ; thence east to a point where the Des Chutes river crosses the township line between townships 15 and 16 south ; thence north along the Des Chutes river to the mouth of the Matoles ; thence at the Matoles at a point where the Matoles crosses the township line between townships 11 and 12 south; thence west to the northwest corner of township 12 thence south thirty miles to the point of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that this precinct shall be known and designated as Black Butte No. 5.
Haystack No. 6.—Commencing at the southeast corner of township 13 south of range 14 east of Willamette Meridian; thence west to intersection with Crooked river; thence down Crooked river to the junction with Des Chutes river to the mouth of Willow creek ; thence up Willow creek to a point where the north and south line between ranges 14 and 15 crosses said creek ; thence south to place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that this precinct shall be known and designated as Haystack No. 6.
McKay No. 7.—Commencing at the southeast corner-of township 13 south of range 14 east of Willamette Meridian ; thence north four miles ; thence easl twelve miles ; thence south seven miles ; thence south three miles; west four miles; thence south three miles; thence west to the city of Prineville ; thence around the city of Prineville, following the corporate limits thereof to Crooked river ; thence down Crooked river to a point where the township line between townships 13 and 14 south crosses said river ; thence east to place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that said precinct shall be known and designated as McKay Precinct No. 7.
Hay Creek No. 8.—Commencing at the southeast corner of section 1, township 12, south of range 16 east of Willamette Meridian; thence north seven miles; thence west 4 3/4 miles ; thence north 2 1/4 miles ; thence west to line between range line of 14 and 15 E; thence north four miles ; thence west to the Des Chutes river; thence down the Des Chutes river to a point where the said Des Chutes river crosses the boundary line of Crook county; thence west to the summit of the Cascade mountains ; thence south on summit of Cascade mountains to a point where the township line between 11 and 12 crosses said line; thence due east on said line to where said line crosses Matoles ; thence down Matoles river to its junction with Des Chutes river;, thence down the Des Chutes river to the mouth of Willow creek ; thence up Willow creek to where the range line between 14 and 15 east crosses said creek ; thence north to the southeast corner of section 1, township 12 south of range 14 east of Willamette Meridian ; thence east twelve miles to place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that said precinct shall be known and designated as Hay Creek No. 8.
Willow Creek No. 9.—Commencing at a point twomiles south of northeast corner of township 13, south, of range 16, east ; thence north seven miles ; thence west to southeast corner of section 1, township 12 south of range 14 east ; thence south seven miles ; thence east to place of beginning and it is ordered that said precinct be and is hereby known as Willow Creek Precinct No. 9.
Cross Keys No. 10.—Commencing at the southeast corner of section 33, township 10, south of range 16 east of Willamette Meridian ; thence due north twelve miles to the boundary line of Crook county; thence west to a point where the boundary line crosses Des Chutes river; thence up the river to where the township line between townships 9 and 10 crosses said river; thenceeast to the southeast corner of township 9, south of range 14 east ; thence south four miles ; thence east 7 1/2 miles ; thence south 2 1/2 miles ;. thence east 1 3/4 miles to the place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that said precinct shall be named and designated as Cross Keys Precinct No. 10.
Upper Trout No. 11.—Commencing at the southeast corner of section 1, township 12, north of range 16, east; thence due east six miles; thence due northto the county line nine miles; thence due west on the county line nine miles ; thence due east three miles; thence due south seven miles to the place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that said precinct shall be named and designated as Upper Trout Precinct No. 11.
Cherry Creek No. 12.—Commencing at the southeast corner of section 1, township 12, south of range 17 east, thence due east twelve miles to the east boundary of the county; thence north along the boundary of the county to the northern boundary of the county thence west twelve miles ; thence south nineteen miles to the place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that said precinct shall be named and designated as Cherry Creek Precinct No. 12.
Johnson Creek No. 13.—Commencing at the southeast corner of section 13, township 14, south of range 16 east of Willamette Meridian, thence due west four miles; thence due south three miles; thence west to the eastern boundary of the corporate limits of the city of Prineville; thence south and west to intersection of section line between sections 5 and 6. township 15 south of range 16 east ; thence west two miles ; thence south seven miles ; thence east one. mile ; thence south three miles ; thence east eight miles ; thence north four miles; thence east four miles; thence north 5 1/4 miles; thence west five miles; thence north 11 3/4 miles; thence west one mile; thence south to place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that said precinct be and is hereby named and designated as Johnson Creek No. 13.
Mill Creek No. 14.—Commencing at the northeast corner of the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 5, township 15, south of range 17 east; thence east five miles; thence north 18 3/4 miles; thence west six miles ; thence south seven miles ; thence east one mile; thence south 11 3/4 miles to the place of beginning, and it is ordered by this court that said precinct be and is hereby named and designated as Mill Creek Precinct No. 14.
Ochoco No. 15.—Commencing at the southeast corner of section 25, township 15 south of range 17 east; thence east twelve miles ; thence south twenty-two miles to the place of beginning, and it is ordered by this court that said precinct be and is hereby named and desig-nated as Ochoco Precinct No. 15.
Summit Prairie No. 16.—Commencing at the southeast corner of section 24, township 15, south of range 19 east ; thence east to eastern boundary of the county thence north four miles ; thence west twelve miles; thence north six miles ; thence north to the boundary of the county; thence west thirteen miles to the place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that said precinct be and is hereby named and designated as Summit Prairie Precinct No. 16.
Bear Creek No. 17.—Commencing at the northeast corner of section 36, township 16 south of range 17 east ; thence west twelve miles ; thence north two miles; thence west six miles ; thence south to southern boundary of county; thence east to intersection of range line between 18 and 19 east ; thence north to northeast corner of section 24, township 17 south of range 18 east thence west six miles to the place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that said precinct be and is hereby named and designated as Bear Creek Precinct No. 17.
Camp Creek No. 18.—Commencing at the northwest corner of township 18 south of range 19 east thence south to the county line ; thence west 18 miles thence north to the place of beginning, and it is ordered by this court that said precinct be and is hereby named and designated as Camp Creek Precinct No. 18.
Hardin No. 19.—Commencing at the northwest corner of township 18 south of range 22 east ; thence east twenty-four miles ; thence south six miles ; thence west six miles; thence south six miles, thence west twelve miles to place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that said precinct be and is hereby named and designated as Hardin Precinct No. 19.
Beaver No. 20.—Commencing at the northwest corner of section 30, township 15 south of range 23 east; thence west 18 miles ; thence south fourteen miles; thence north to the place of beginning.
Maury No. 21.—Commencing at the northeast corner of section 25, township 15 south of range 22 east; thence due west twelve miles ; thence due south fourteen miles; thence due east twelve miles; thence due north fourteen miles to the place of beginning, and it is ordered by this court that said precinct be and is hereby named and designated as Maury No. 21.
Newsom No. 22.—Commencing at the southeast corner of township 17 south of range 20 east; thence west twelve miles ; thence north three miles ; thence west six miles; thence north ten miles; thence east twelve miles; thence north one mile ; thence west six miles ; thence south fourteen miles to the place of beginning, and it is ordered by the court that this precinct be and is hereby named and designated as Newsom Precinct No. 22.
In 1873 Dr. Baldwin settled about twentyfive miles north of Prineville at a place now known as Hay creek and engaged in stock raising. At that period he owned 160 acres of land. From this small beginning there has grown up a stock ranch which is not only the largest in Oregon, but is famous the nation over for its accomplishments in raising thoroughbred sheep. Mr. Edwards was at that time manager of the company. He erected a residence costing about $7,000. In the year of the St. Louis Exposition two car-loads of the best sheep were sent there which received favorable consideration and were not brought back but were disposed of in the east. On the ranch is an extensive shearing plant the motive power of which is a gasoline engine. Tt has forty patent shearers and from twenty to sixty men are required to conduct it at the shearing season, and sometimes as many as a hundred men are employed.
In 1900 what was known as the "'Desert country" underwent a marked and distinctive change in the way of developing into a thickly settled farming country. It was remarked by many retired owners that the days of wool growing were coming to an end ; that it was then impossible to get them on to the summer ranges on account of fences. "We had to go out of our way to get through lanes" they said.
There was considerable truth in this pessimistic attitude. Sheep were increasing in numbers and fences were increasing on every hand. Yet they were only a forrunner of what soon took place in eastern and southern Oregon. While thousands of acres were barren and known as "desert land," yet within easy access to every section of this country were mountain streams with a sufficient flow of water to irrigate every section. There were every summer, prospectors, surveying parties, and capitalists looking over the field ; irrigation companies were formed and ditches dug. There was scarcely a stream in the whole country that had not been explored. There were many filings on rights on streams purely for speculative purposes, and there were, also, many who had begun serious work and were already irrigating large areas of land.
Something like a stampede was made along the Des Chutes river in the western section of Crook county. This stream courses through a mountainous country and in many places on both sides, lie vast areas of rich valley lands that have been called "desert" along with all other vast sections of the country. The Oregon Irrigation company was organized in 1901 by C. C. Hutchinson. He obtained 35,000 acres of land under the Carey Act. This company afterward obtained another segregation making its holdings 56,000 acres.
In October, 1900, there was organized in Crook county and incorporated under the laws of the state, The Butte Development Company.
The main object of this corporation was to obtain water from the Des Chutes for the reclaiming a vast amount of what is commonly known as "desert" land ; to lay out the two of Pilot Butte, thirty miles southwest of Prineville, on the Des Chutes ; to build dams and in other ways develop the vast water power of the Des Chutes river which, at the present time, runs its entire course without turning a single wheel. At the head of this enterprise was Mr. A. M. Drake, formerly of St. Paul, where he had been interested for years with his father in railroad and land business. Ill health compelled Mr. Drake to leave St. Paul. Hearing of Central Oregon, its pure water, vast pine forests, clear, bracing air, they, Mr. Drake and his wife, passed several months in carefully looking over the advantages of Crook county. How well pleased they were may be taken for granted when it is known that they built a log house for their winter quarters at Pilot Butte.
The work, as planned by the company was thoroughly and carefully considered. An up-todate sawmill with modern appliances for the manufacture of commercial lumber of all kinds was constructed ; an electric light plant, general store and school house were among the plans for the future. The company had a segregation of 85,000 acres. Outside of the Cascade reserve Crook county contains over 6,000,000 acres of land. Of this at least 5,000,000 are vacant public lands.
Crook county has not a foot of railroad track within its borders. The nearest railroad point is Shaniko, the present terminus of the Columbia Southern, sixty miles north of Prineville, from which all goods and merchandise for the interior are handled by freight teams. Formerly all shipping was from The Dalles, 150 miles distant. This condition will not, however, long prevail. A road has been surveyed south from The Dalles following generally the course of the Des Chutes called The Dalles Southern. This would tap the best farming sections as well as the vast fields of yellow pine on the Des Chutes and further south.
After entering the Des Chutes canyon near the mouth of White River in Wasco county, it will follow up the Des Chutes to the mouth of Trout creek, thence up Hay creek to divide east of Agency plains and the Haystack country, tnence south, crossing Crooked river at Carmichael's, thirteen miles northwest of Prineville,. thence southwest across the "desert" back to Des Chutes river at or near Pilot Butte where it would strike the timber belt and from which point it could be extended south or southeast indefinitely to a southern or eastern connection. The Corvallis and eastern is more than a probability. It is now built to within ten miles of the western^ boundary of the county, at the summit of the Cascades from whence eastward through Crook, Harney and Malheur counties the route has been surveyed and definitely located, crossing the Des Chutes at Pickett island, twenty-five miles west of Prineville, thence taking a southeast course across the "desert."
This line, when built, will afford Crook the advantages of a direct route east for shipments of wool, cattle, sheep, horses and lumber. Either road will penetrate the great stretch of "desert" soon to be brought under irrigation, and the timbered portions of the county, thus opening up and aiding the development of two most important resources. With the completion of these roads as indicated and then extension of the Columbia Southern from Shaniko eastward up the John Day valley to the Sumpter and Grant county gold fields, and a connecting link between. Shaniko down Antelope and Trout creeks to a junction with The Dalles Southern at the mouth of Hay creek, Crook county and the interior of eastern Oregon will have all the transportation facilities necessary for their proper development.
January 1, 1902, the estimated population of Crook county was 7,500. A history of the early days of the territory now within the boundaries would comprise a volume as interesting as these stories of the early settlement of the Atlantic states that have delighted the past generations and will continue to fascinate more strongly the generations yet to come. The trials, the vicissitudes, the thrilling adventures, of dangers from savage foe, and his brothers, the four footed savages of forest and "desert" these themes will charm and warm and hold captive those who come after us as long as the love of adventure for hardy manhood and deeds of daring warm the blood in human veins.
In 1902 the total valuation of taxable property in Crook county was $1,852,281. In 1903 it had increased to $2,379,020. The Crook county census of 1903 showed 1,297 children between the ages of four and twenty years. It was claimed at the time that this signified a gross population of 6,985. This increase in the county's population was quite perceptible, especially in the eastern and central portions. In the year 1893 Crook county made a most substantial showing. The semi-annual statement of the officials showed that the county was wholly out of debt, owing liabilities of only $1,501.65, while it had in the treasury $39,378.61. The county owned a block of land on which the court house stands and all its improvements were warranted. Few counties in the state were in as good condition as Crook.
In 1903 the Columbia Southern Irrigation Company, capital $100,000, had been incorporated by W. H." Moore, E. E. Lytle, and W. A. Laidlaw. In May of the same year was incorporated the Central Oregon Irrigation Company, the capital stock of which was placed at $5,000. E. E. Lytle and Newton Killen were the incorporators. In 1904 was organized the Squaw Creek Irrigation Company, by William Wurzweiler, and it has a segregation of 11,766 acres. The Buck Mountain Irrigation Company was organized in 1904. After negotiating for the sale of its property for a period extending over a year, the Pilot Butte Development Company disposed of its contract to W. E. Guerin, J. O. Johnson, W. J. Turney, for a consideration of $70,000. The Hutchinson rights on the Des Chutes river were also included in the purchase and the sum received was about half that paid the Drake interests. The new Des Chutes Irrigation & Power Company, which now had charge of the work on the Des Chutes river had applied for 80,000 acres more land making a total appropriation of 210,000 acres. It is the intention of the present company to take out the main canal some eight miles further up the river than had been contemplated by the Pilot Butte company, thus securing 100,000 acres of land which is susceptible of cultivation. The total length of the main canal will be about 120 miles, and it is the precurser of a plan to bring 25,000 acres under these conditions.
June 23, 1904, a special meeting of the state land board apportioned the Des Chutes Irrigation lien for irrigation of the 84,600 acres of land lying under its ditches in Crook county, Oregon. This amount practically appraised the land. The rush of homeseekers had begun. About 12,000 applications for the land was made within a week by actual settlers.
In 1904 the total taxable property in Crook county was $2,688,783. In February, 1904, fire, beginning in the roof partially destroyed the second story of the court house at Prineville. The offices on the first floor and the county court room were not damaged. Damage to the upper story amounted to $2,000. It was in June, 1904, that a most desperate engagement begun in Crook county. The following letter from Prineville to The Dalles Times-Mountaineer is apropos to this subject
Prineville, Oregon, June 17.—Conflicting range territory in Crook county led to the first open slaughter of sheep last Monday (June 13) when masked men shot and killed sixty-five head belonging to Allie Jones, a sheep owner residing about fifteen miles east of this city. The killing occurred on Mill creek in the vicinity of the "dead lines," the men threatening a greater slaughter if the herds were not removed instantly from the district.
The sheep were in charge of one herder who was taken unawares and was unable to offer any resistance to the attack. He was compelled to stand quietly a short distanoe away, guarded by one man, while the others went about their work. After sixty-five of the band had been killed the herder was told to turn the remainder back and keep them out of the territory in which they had been found.
The first outbreak in tine sheep industry in this county recalls vividly th& wanton slaughter which has recently occurred in Lake county and marks the first steps in the range difficulties which are likely to be encountered here during the coming season. The scene of the killing is in the territory where an effort was made a short time ago to establish lines for the sheep and cattle. Three weeks ago the district was visited by a party of sheep owners from Antelope and a meet southeastern part of the county. The matter of ranging stock in the Blue mountains was gone over thoroughly, but a decision relative to the establishment of limits failed to be reached. The sheepmen went home and the slaughter this week is the result of their futile efforts to come to an understanding.
While it is not believed that open hostilities will break out between the sheepmen and cattle owners in this territory during the summer ranging months, it is asserted that an encroachment upon this disputed region by nomadic sheep will be the signal for forcible resistance. The "dead lines" of last year will be strictly enforced, which means that stockmen will not be occupying a peaceable neighborhood.
The Des Chutes Echo of June 18th, contained the following:
"The first depredation as a result of the conflicting territories occupied by the cattlemen and sheep owners in this county occurred last Monday, when sixty-five sheep belonging to Allie Jones were shot and killed on Mill creek by masked men, who threatened greater slaughter if the band were not removed from that locally * * * * -pile first outbreak against the sheep marks the first step in the range difficulties. The scene of the killing is in the district in which an effort was made a short time ago to establish lines, but nothing definite was decided upon."
A meeting of the Oregon Wool Growers' Association, with a large attendance of prominent sheepmen, was held at Antelope, Tuesday, June 2 1 st. The object of the discussion was the long continued range trouble between the cattlemen and sheepmen. As a result of the debate a reward of 500 was offered by the local association in addition to the $1,000 reward offered by the state association "For information leading to the arrest and conviction of any person or persons guilty of shooting, killing or maiming any member of the above association, or any employe of such member while engaged in his duties or the herds of such a member while engaged in his duties." A committee consisting of J. D. McAndie and H. C. Rooper, president and secretary of fhe local association, and Joseph Bannan, a prominent sheepman, was appointed to go to the scene of the troubles in the Blue mountains, for the purpose of conferring with the cattlemen with reference to making lines for a summer range. The tone of the meeting was positive and emphatic. The Wool Growers' association was determined that the slaughter of sheep should stop, and each member present readily subscribed his quota of the reward offered, which was placed in the hands of the association.
These range disputes culminated in the summer of 1904 in the slaughter of 1,000 head of sheep belonging to Morrow & Keenan, owners of about 12,000 head of sheep, whose home ranch was on Willow creek, fifteen miles north of Prineville.
Morrow & Keenan were ranging a band of sheep on Little Summit Prairie, forty miles east of Prineville, and on Friday on that week twenty horsemen, with their faces blackened, over powered the herder, bound him hand and foot and then began shooting sheep, continuing the slaughter until 1,000 were killed. The herder was alone when assaulted, but young Keenan was nearby and hearing the firing crawled through the underbrush at a safe distance, from which point he was an eye witness to the work of the mob. He made no attempt at retaliation, although it was understood that both he and the herder were armed with the latest automatic rapid-firing Colt's revolvers. No clue to the guilty parties could be obtained as the various disguises worn by the mob made identification impossible.
In default of a steam railway it was decided that an automobile route should be established in Crook county. Accordingly in January, 1905, the Central Oregon Transportation Company was established with the following officers : A. E. Hammond, president; D. P. Rea, general manager.
This company constructed a sixteen-foot roadway from Cross Keys, a stage station twenty-three miles south of Shaniko, the present terminus of the Columbia Southern railroad, to Bend, a distance of seventy-five miles. The largest automobile of its kind on the Pacific coast was especially constructed by a machine firm in Portland for use on this road, for 'the purpose of hauling passengers and freight. This machine will seat sixteen passengers and sometimes it, also, hauls a trailer in which about two tons of freight are carried.
This company was organized to provide means of transportation for the many settlers coming into Crook county to locate upon the newly irrigable lands of the Des Chutes Irrigation & Power Company. The latter company has selected some 300,000 acres of semi-arid lands in Crook county, lying contiguous to Bend, under the provisions of the Carey Act. Until the organization of this automobile company there were no means of egress into this region except by stage from Shaniko via Prineville, a distance of nearly 100 miles. The roadway was first plowed, then scraped, leveled and rolled with a ten-ton roller, after which it was treated with a coat of petroleum and again subjected to a thorough rolling. Up to June i, 1905, the south half of this road from Forest, on Crooked river to Bend, a distance of twenty-three miles, had not been completed so that the automobile could run over it, but it is expected that by August the entire route will be in condition for travel. The company was capitalized for $50,000 and the seventy-five miles constructed cost in the neighborhood of $25,000. It is quite probable that when this chapter is read the remaining twentythree miles of road to the northward will have been completed.
At the date of the completion of this work the terms of the Carey arid land grant, Oregon, applied for 424,616 acres of land in Eastern Oregon, of which 100,000 acres had been approved by the interior department. This, it is understood, will be reclaimed by private enterprise. In the Valley of the Des Chutes river, in Crook county, the most extensive works have been undertaken and the greatest progress has been made.
The federal law grants to the state not more than 1,000,000 acres upon condition that it be reclaimed. The state law authorizes the state land board to grant contracts to corporations for the reclamation of specified tracts to companies to secure their compensation from actual settlers. The total cost is fixed by the state land board for reclamation and this is apportioned among the forty-acre tracts according to their relative value, and becomes a lien upon the land in favor of the reclamation company. Persons desiring to secure this land must pay off the company's lien whereupon the state issues a deed conveying the state's title to the applicant. The title is derived by patent from the United States whenever reclamation has been proven and then by deed from the state to the settler.
As the state law accepting the terms of the Carey Act was not enacted until 1901 and considerable time was necessary to get it into practicable operation and secure contracts with the department of the secretary of the interior, very few irrigation enterprises have progressed so far that water has been turned upon cultivated land. About 5,000 acres have already been put under cultivation and water is available for the irrigation of over 60,000 acres the coming season. Twenty reclamation enterprises have been started in Oregon under this law ranging in area from 600 to 85,000 acres. The smaller tracts will be reclaimed by individuals who will take the land themselves. The larger enterprises have been undertaken by corporations. The state land board fixes the rate to be charged for the use of water. The cost of construction in the larger enterprises is placed at $10 per acre, and the annual charge is $1 per acre, which, also, goes to the company. When apportioned to the several forty-acre tracts the liens range from $2.50 to $14.75 Per acre, the amount being determined by the area of irrigable land in each forty-acre tract.
In January, 1905, 500 more sheep were ruthlessly slaughtered. They were the property of Fred Smith, of Paulina. The event occurred New Year's day, and almost in Mr. Smith's dooryard, and entirely without the limits of the cattle range of the country. The deed was committed by six masked horsemen. They surrounded the herder in the afternoon while the sheep were resting near Grindstone, and he was bound and blindfolded. The sheep were then driven a short distance away, and the horsemen began a terrific fusillade until 500 lay dead on the ground. About 500 more scattered in all directions to become food for coyotes, and other wild animals. July 16, 1905, the Morning Oregonian published the following:
The following anonymous communication was received yesterday from the "Crook County Sheep-Shooters' Association," with an enclosed report which it, to say the least, terse and to the point. Just who compose this remarkable organization or whether the communication is genuine is not known to the Oregonian. This is what it has to say regarding the enforcement of so-called laws in Crook county:
"Mr. Editor.—Seeing that you are giving quite a bit of publicity to the sheep-shooters of Crook county, I thought I would lend you some assistance by giving you a short synopsis of the proceedings of the organization during the past year. We have not been accustomed to making unusual reports of the doings of the 'order,' but we have made such a respectable showing during the closing year that I think a brief summary of some of the most important transactions of the associations will be of interest to your readers. Therefore, if space will permit, please publish the following report :
" 'Sheep-Shooters' Headquarters. Crook County, Oregon, December 29, 1904—Editor Oregonian: I am authorized by the association (The Inland Sheep Shooters to notify the Oregonian to desist from publishing matter derogatory to the reputations of sheep-shooter* in Eastern Oregon. We claim to have the banner county of Oregon on the progressive lines of sheepshooting and it is my pleasure to inform you that we have a little government of our own in Crook county, and we would thank the Oregonian and the governor to attend strictly to their business and not meddle with the settlement of the range question in our province.
" 'We are the direct and effective means of controlling the range in our jurisdiction. If we want more range we simply fence it in and live up to the maxim of the golden rule that possession represents nine points of the law. If fencing is too expensive for the protection of the range, dead lines are most effective substitutes and readily manufactured. When sheepmen fail to observe these peaceable obstructions we delegate a committee to notify offenders, sometimes by putting notices on tent or cabin, and sometimes by publication in one of the leading newspapers of the county as follows : " 'You are hereby notified to move this camp within twenty-four hours or take the consequences.
"These mild and peaceful means are usually effective, but in cases where they are not, our executive committee takes the matter in hand, and being men of high ideals as well as good shots by moonlight, they promptly enforce the edicts of the association.
"We have recently extended our jurisdiction to cover a large territory on the desert heretofore occupied by sheepmen, and we expect to have to sacrifice a few flocks of sheep there this winter. Our annual report shows that we have slaughtered between 8,000 and 10,000 head during the last shooting season, and we are expecting to increase this respectable showing during the next season providing the sheep hold out and the governor and Oregonian observe the customary laws of neutrality. We have burned the usual number of camps and corrals this season, and also sent out a number of important warnings which we thing will have a satisfactory effect.
"We have just received a shipment of ammunition that we think will be sufficient to meet any shortage which might occur on account of increase of territory requiring general protection. In some instances the wool growers of Eastern Oregon have been so unwise as to offer rewards for the arrest and conviction of sheepshooters and for assaults on herders. We have heretofore warned them by publication of the danger of such action, as it might have to result in our organization having to proceed on the lines that 'Dead men tell no tales.' This is not to be construed as a threat to commit murder, as we do not justify such a thing except when flock owners resort to unjustifiable means in protecting their property.
"Mr. Editor, please excuse the lack of systematic order in preparing this, our first annual report. Our office is not yet supplied with the necessary printed forms so useful in facilitating reports. We have thought of furnishing the names of our officers, and also those of honorary members of the order, but as your space will probably not admit of a supplementary report at this time, we will not be able to furnish a roll of honor that will be complimentary to the cause.
'"Corresponding Secretary.' "Crook County's Sheep-Shooting Association of Eastern Oregon."
"The New Year was duly observed by our brave boys by the slaughter of about 500 head of sheep be-, longing to a gentleman who had violated our rules or laws. The names of the active participants in this last, brilliant action of the association have not yet been, handed in. When they are we will take pleasure in recording them on the roll of honor above mentioned.
"The Crook county papers have recently said some uncomplimentary things about our order which may invite attention later on. Our work is now of too much importance to justify a diversion from the regular order. of business. "Cor. Sec. C. C. S. S. Association.".
Concerning the railway outlook the Cline Falls Press of April 22, 1905, said
"The prospects of a railroad being built into Crook county and Cline Falls looks brighter from day to day. Among the several roads which have their objective points centered in Crook county, the Great Southern seems to be the most likely to reach us in the least possible time. John Heimrick, president of this road, says it will be built from The Dalles to Bend with as little delay as possible, and as more than thirty miles of the road is already graded it would appear that he means what he says. But this is not the only reason why things are looking a bit brighter. The business men of Portland are getting in earnest and are using every means at hand to force those who are responsible for the delay in building into this county, to act. They want the trade of central Oregon and know that their only hope lies in getting it well established before others arrive to dispute it and direct it into other channels."
In April, 1905, the D. I. & P. Company had thirty men at work on the Pilot Butte flume, and , would have hired more good carpenters at $3 a day if they could have been secured. The flume was intended to send water down the canal by May 1, 1905. Ten miles out on the desert it was found necessary to build a flume 720 feet long. Lumber for their construction was hauled there from the High-tower Smith Mill, beyond the Tumalo. The D. I. Sj P. Company has completed fifty miles of ditch and laterals and has under water about 50,000 acres. The Bend Bulletin of April 28, 1905, said:
"W. E. Guerin, Jr., Mayor Goodwillie, G. C. Stennemann and Tom Sharp drove over to Prineville Monday and set on foot there a scheme to irrigate 37,000 acres of rich land in the valley to the eastward of the town. About 6,000 acres are deeded; 15,000 belong to the railroad company, and the remainder, 16,000 acres is open government land.
"As outlined the plan is to dam the Ochoco river twice and Mill creek once. Survers that feasibility of leading the water out of those streams to the thirsty acres that are now only half cropped at best. It will take between $600,000 and $700,000 to install the reclamation enterprise.
"The Prineville Business League has taken the matter up in earnest. There was a large attendance and free discussion of the project at a meeting held last Monday night and T. M. Baldwin, Thomas Sharp and C. Sam Smith were appointed a committee to visit Portland and see what can be done with the wagon road people in the way of securing encouragement for the work. Mr. Guerin will leave for New York next week in the interest of the new development project."
Meanwhile rumors had been freely circulated that the D. I. & P. Company had made arrangements to dispose of their enterprise in Crook county. The main portion of these pessimistic reports emanated from the columns of the Morning Oregonian, published at Portland. The appearance in Prineville of J. O. Johnston, of the D. P. & I. Company at once put a stop to these rumors.
"It is not an unusual rule," said Mr. Johnston, "for men who are financing a scheme of such proportions as that in the Des Chutes valley, to look over their ground thoroughly and know the exact amount which will have to be expended before an enterprise is brought to a successful termination. Our company is no exception to that rule, and there are ample funds to provide for everything in the undertaking. It is true that we laid off a force of men some time ago ; but that was made necessary by the delay in the rock work at the end of the flume. Until that was finished it was necessary to haul water some twelve or fifteen miles on to the desert 'to the crew working on the ditch and we found it to be to our interest to lay off the latter force until the rock-work was completed and water flowing in the ditch so far as construction of it permitted. The report of a prospective sale may have gained ground by this action of ours, but it was, nevertheless, without foundation. We have paid cash and a lot of it for everything a-; we went along and we expect to continue this course in the future until every detail of the reclamation work is completed. There is a check ready and waiting for anyone who is dissatisfied."
May 4, 1905, the scheme promoted by the Citizens' Business League to irrigate 40,000 acres of land lying north of Prineville was practically assured. Sheriff Smith, who was a member of the committee appointed to confer with Mr. C. E. S. Wood, the Portland representative of the Willamette Vally & 'Cascade Mountain Wagon Road Company stated that the conference was satisfactory in every respect, and Mr. Wood assured the road company's co-operation in the undertaking. This signified that the latter corporation would agree to a disposal of its lands as soon as water had been brought to them.
During the absence of the committee M. E. Guerin, Jr., who had been a prime mover in the project and who had assured the league financial backing in the event of favorable action by the road company, received a telegram from New York stating that the necessary funds were available with which to construct the reservoirs and canals necessary to reclaim the tract. The Crook County Journal said May 4, 1905 :
Sheriff Smith while in Portland was approached by others who offered enough funds to complete the project, as it is certain that the money will be forthcoming with which to carry the scheme to a successful and early termination. The amount of money necessary for the reclamation work is placed at $500,000 and it is believed considerably less than that sum will eventually finish all details of the scheme.
Inside of a few days the financial matters will be definitely arranged and preparations will then be made for the engineering work, after which the reservoirs and canals will be constructed. Sheriff Smith expressed the belief that the final surveys can all be complete by the first of July, in which event actual construction will begin soon afterwards. With the latter work pushed ahead rapidly almost the entire tract can be brought under irrigation before the present year has elapsed.
The first definite move toward securing transportation facilities for the Crook county section of Eastern Oregon was the filing of a water right on the falls at the mouth of Willow creek. This was in May, 1905, Negotiations were then, too, pending with the Willamette Valley & Cascade Mountain Wagon Road Company to secure a lease or the right to purchase from them Steel Head Falls, below the lower bridge on the Des Chutes river. At these two points sufficient electrical power can be developed to supply a current capable of running electric cars from the Columbia to the Central portion of Crook county. The action taken was in line with the proposition outlined by Archie Mason some time ago when he visited the city. In representing Portland and eastern capitalists he was in a position to state that if the business men here advanced enough money to build the first ten miles of road south of the Columbia and secured right of way the balance of the distance to Prineville, the necessary funds would be forthcoming with which to take up the bonds. When here Mr. Mason stated that only the securing of right of way was now necessary to enlist the necessary capital, and steps were immediately taken to seal the agree prospective line will touch the Columbia at The Dalles or some point on the Portage road and will continue southward through the canyon of the Des Chutes river to the mouth of Trout creek, thence eastward across the agency plains to Crooked river, and up the latter stream to this city.
Early in 1905 the Columbia Southern Irrigation Company, which succeeded the Three Sisters Irrigation Company, had completed about thirty-five miles of ditches and laterals, and had nearly all of its segregation of 30,000 acres reclaimed. They took the water from the Tumalo river and the land lies in the Tumalo basin, west of the Des Chutes river.
Tuesday, May 23, 1905, was the day set for opening to entry a large area of land south of Bend which had been withdrawn for forestry purposes. This land had been open to settlement since January 5, 1905, the purpose of the department being to offer every facility to those who wanted lands for homes—to give them every advantage over scrippers or others desiring the land for other purposes. Of thirty-five applications filed in the Bend office on the first day for 3,400 acres, all but six were homesteads. The homesteaders do not have to hurry. Those who have made bona fide settlements and improvements and occupied the land on the twentythird had ninety days in which to get their application on record at the district land office.
An Illustrated History of Central Oregon
Western Historical Publishing Co 1905
Submitted by Friends for Free Genealogy BZ
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