Company K., 23rd South Carolina Volunteers,
In the Civil War, from 1862-1865.
By W. J. Andrews

The prime object of this is to leave with our descendants a correct account of our services gathered from the storehouse of memory refreshed at a meeting of nine survivors, coupled with data furnished by others who were not present. At the solicitation of W. J. Andrews, a remnant of Company K. Twenty-third South Carolina Volunteers met in Sumter Courthouse, May 18, 1909. We organized with Capt. D. R. McCallum as chairman and J. Grier White as secretary.

List of members present from oldest to youngest:

Years Old

Joseph H. Lewis


D. R. McCallum


J. GrierWhite


F. M. Brown


D. W. Josey


Albert H. Week


Ervin J. Player


Weluurn J. Andrews


Samuel R. Fraser


Company K organized in Sumter, S. C, in the fall of 1861 with the following officers:

Captain, Thomas D. Frierson;- First Lieutenant. Lucius P. Loring: Second Lieutenant. Francis H. Kennedy; Third Lieutenant. David R. McCallum: First Sergeant. Stephen D. M. Lacoste: Second Sergeant, H. N. Browne: Third Sergeant, J. Crier White: Fourth Sergeant, Priestly Colclough; Fifth Sergeant, Leighton B. Wilson; First Corporal. J. L. Norton; Second Corporal, A. G. Murphy: Third Corporal, S. M. Dinkins; Fourth Corporal, Charles A. Stiles. In rank and file we numbered over 100 men.

Colonel Hatch had raised a battalion for coast service in South Carolina. It was composed of men and boys from the city and county of Charleston. By the addition of companies from other counties (districts then) it was increased to a full regiment of ten companies. Our company (K) completed the regiment. Company K left Sumter for Charleston via Florence, in November, 1861. The first night was spent at Florence, awaiting transportation. We reached the city the next day. Spending one night there, Company K took steamer for Long Island (now Palm Island), where we did picket duty, being daily drilled by Captain Whilden, of Company B (a Citadel graduate). Our picket post was an inlet between Long and Caper's Islands. Company K continued to perform this duty till some time in December, 1861.

We came back to Charleston and were formally mustered in for State coast defense. As we had not regularly signed up before, it was deemed necessary. This left a loop-hole through which to escape. Tom Pack left us, returned to Sumter and did service as keeper of poor house in lieu of military duty. Our enrollment being completed, we went to Mount Pleasant. Thence marched seven miles on Georgetown Road and camped near Christ Church.

In addition to camp guard, we sent a detail weekly, under sergeant and corporal, to Long Island for picket duty. Having little to do, the boys (all soldiers were called boys) sought amusements of different kinds. There were a number of them less than twenty years of age, who formed a hunting company. We had moved our camp into a large oaken grove. The woods were full of life; squirrels were scampering about on all sides. Henry Anderson was leader of this band. It often captured as many as six squirrels in one outing. They barked as they pursued the game and used sticks as weapons, making the woods ring with their shouts. While at that camp a large enclosure was made, circular in shape, with seats sufficient to accommodate the greater part of the company, having a hole in center eight feet long, four feet deep, and four feet wide, into which logs of wood were placed to warm up the whole enclosure. Many congregated there every night, cracked jokes and swapped lies till late bedtime. The rations furnished us were diversified and bountiful. We frequently received boxes of nice things from home, with (sometimes) a coop of chickens. In addition to this, we found fish and oysters in plenty near by. We feasted on the fat of the land, warring only on tilings that tickel the palate, surfeiting thereon.

The deprivation of home comforts and the daily communion of those we held most dear was keenly felt by all, especially those who left life partners and little ones at home. Otherwise our camp life was unexceptionally pleasant.

We remained in Christ Church Parish until the latter part of April, 1862. We then broke camp, marched to Mt. Pleasant and took steamer for Morris Island. Before we left the Parish measles broke out in our camp. The affected were carried to a commodious, vacant dwelling near by and there treated by our surgeon. All the patients were soon well except Alfred M. Osteen, as fine a specimen of young manhood as you would see; he contracted cold while convalescing and in a few months passed over the river. He cheerfully performed every duty and bid fair to become a soldier of whom the whole country would be proud.

Having reached Morris Island, we encamped near the foot of the sandhills. The regiment was united for the first time. Our duty at first was to place a nightly guard on the beach and at the light-house at southwestern point of island, near inlet separating Morris and Folly Islands. In a short time our regiment furnished a guard for an harbor steamer, plying between Fort Sumter and James Island. One day a schooner, in attempting to run the blockade (the Yankees had placed gun-boats so as to prevent any vessel coming in that port), ran aground. Members of the Twenty-third Regiment waded out in the surf and helped to save many things, notably shoes. The next break in our quiet was the firing of gun-boats. A few shells were hurled at harbor steamer containing guard from Twenty-third Regiment. No one was hurt, but all were shaken up a little by the unexpected and unacceptable greeting.

We had thought that in Christ Church Parish we had become thoroughly acquainted with a troublesome insect called sandfleas, for they induced many to secure pipes and smoke them frequently, and old smokers increased their consumption of tobacco much; but when we came to Morris Island we very soon found out that our's was only a passing acquaintance. The Morris Island fellows, unless there was a stiff breeze at night, would force one to bury his head in a blanket to ward them off, then, sometimes, they worked their way through the blanket and bit you. We obtained drinking water by digging holes at the foot of a lull. When we tried it, we found it brackish. In May we re-organized, enlisting for the War in Confederate service. We became the Twenty-third South Carolina Volunteers. Under the new regime Company K's commissioned officers were Captain Lucius P. Loring. First Lieutenant D. R. McCallum. Second Lieutenant H. N. Browne, Third Lieutenant J. H. Cooper. Non-commissioned officers : Sergeants, First (orderly), J. Grier White; second. Priestly Colclough; third. Moultrie Wilson; Fourth, Legrand Jove. Corporals, first, J. L. Norton; second, Samuel M. Dinkins; third. Charles A. Stiles; fourth. Thomas W. McDonald.

Within a few days we were treated with our first shelling and it caused quite a commotion in camp. Many left their quarters and ran out near the beach to see what was going on. Seemingly inapprehensive of danger. We lost one man as the result of the shelling. Name less let him be.

The following Sunday afternoon the Twenty-third Regiment drew up and planted the first gun at Battery Wagner.

The 1st of June. 1862. the Twenty-third Regiment was relieved by the Twenty-sixth Regiment and the next day left for James Island. On arrival Company K was detached, marched to Charleston and took our quarters in the Second Presbyterian Church Yard (Dr. Girardeau's) near the Citadel. We were subjected to the mayor's orders. The orderly sergeant had to report to him every morning at 9 A. M. A guard, consisting of sergeant, corporal and privates, was sent to an harbor steamer. The guard was so well pleased with their position, that they, at the time they were to be relieved, expressed a wish to remain and were permitted to do so. A camp guard was daily appointed. This lasted several weeks. Orders were issued from headquarters for the speedy return of all absentees, sick or well, and on furlough. The nine companies of our regiment left on James Island were brought to the city and Company K uniting, encamped on Citadel green. One of Company K's absent men (Joseph Cummings) came to Charleston to report. Having taken his abode near our camp, notice was given of his arrival. The orderly was sent to him. When Cummings was seen, he looked like a living skeleton, so emaciated, his face colorless, on crutches and bandaged up. He was pronounced totally unfit for any duty and sent back home, where he stayed till end of war.

After two or three days the Twenty-third Regiment left for Petersburg, Va., going by Columbia, S. C, and Charlotte, N. C. It encamped on the outskirts of the city. After we were settled in camp. General Daring (commander of the post) planned an attack on Fort Harrison (a Yankee fort) near James River and under the protection of gun-boats. The Twenty-third Regiment, South Carolina Volunteers, being the only infantry under him, was ordered to support a battery of artillery- in the attack. We had to go several miles before we came up to our battery. We were filed to the left into an oak grove and halted with orders to rest. After much firing on each side and no damage done, all became quiet and we returned to camp, reaching it at nightfall. A short while after this the Twenty-third Regiment went to Richmond and marched seven miles to Taylor's Farm, where we encamped, Sometime after (the exact time not remembered) we were ordered to Malvern Hill to assist General Longstreet in his attack on the. Yankees holding the hill. Reaching a spring of good water near noon (soldiers dote on good water) we rested several hours. That afternoon the Twenty-third Regiment formed in line of battle; right-half wheeled and halted. General Evans approached, and after the usual salutation, commanded Colonel Ben bow (of Twenty-third Regiment) to deploy as skirmishers, advance through a piece of woods in our front and drive the Yankees out. Just before the left wing of the regiment had wheeled into line, we left two men behind. Near the edge of the woods we crossed a low rail fence, and deployed as skirmishers as ordered. Before we were through the woods the right wing of the regiment (the flag or center company being the dividing line between the right and left) became separated from the left and was (as reported) in a sure-enough skirmish. Several of Company K got lost and turned up in a Mississippi regiment next morning. The flag company (Captain Seabrook), Company K, and rest of left wing, found no enemy in their front. We halted; a detail was sent forward. On return they reported no enemy between us and public road in front. After a rest, the senior captain (Murdon, an old sailor) ordered our return to the spring we had left, which we tried to do; hut. being unfamiliar with our surroundings, we lost our barings and were forced to remain in the woods during the remainder of the night. After sun-rise we left our impromptu couches (oak leaves for beds and oak limbs for pillows) and hastened to the temporary spring camp, no worse for sleeping in the woods. Towards noon we took the line of march for Taylor's Farm, and on reaching it, occupied our old camping ground. This was in July, 1862. We soon settled down as was our custom.

We were suddenly aroused one day out of our lethargy by the order to leave. Five days rations were issued to each man. and two hours given to cook and be ready for departure. Every available utensil was brought into use. Flat rocks were heated on which to bake bread. He was the lucky one who secured a piece of flour barrel head to place wheat dough on and lean it before the fire. Even ramrods were brought into use. and the famous ramrod bread was the result. The process was, viz., pull out the dough into a long strip, wind it around the ramrod as a climbing, clinging vine encircles a bush or tree; then one end of the ramrod was stuck into the ground in a reclining or oblique position before the fire. It is necessary to turn the ramrod around during the baking that the bread may be evenly cooked brown.

That all may understand our rations, will state it in full: Beef, good, bad. or indifferent. Occasionally a little bacon instead ; flour and salt (coffee played out); sometimes hard tack (a cake of flour and water minus salt and soda) and poor beef composed the ration.

While preparations for departure were being made, the orderlies (first sergeants) were busy bringing up the sick to the regimental surgeon. The sick list was very large, and many were sent to the hospitals in Richmond.

Details were made to bring ammunition for the companies from the ordnance wagons, sufficient in quantity to distribute fifty rounds to each man. The Twenty-third Regiment marched to Richmond. As soon as the dilatory authorities saw fit to get together a train of platform cars we jumped aboard. As we journeyed along cinders from the engine fell upon us in profusion.

We landed at Gordonsville, Va., and there we first glimpsed General Jackson's men. Their uniforms looked like the men had been wallowing on the clay lulls while wet. the clay adhering and drying. They were of medium height, their faces bronzed.

From Gordonsville we marched to Martin's Cross-roads and camped in a delightful oak grove. We were daily drilled both morning and afternoon for several hours at a time for the space of a week. About mid-afternoon the drill was speedily stopped; we were marched into camp and dismissed after receiving marching orders. Twenty-five additional rounds of ammunition were procured and distributed. The regiment left after sunset enroute for Manassas. There were quite a number of small streams crossing the road we traveled and, being unaccustomed to wading, we were harrassed no little. The narrow crossing admitting only single file, it necessarily consumed much time and frequently a delay of half an hour was thus occasioned. After a while we became restless, the streams were passed, yet no quick advance.

Some of us concluded that the right of the regiment was gone. By permission several of Company K went about a company's length beyond the flag company, and peering into the darkness (it was a dark night) neither saw nor heard any one. On their return they reported and stated their belief that the right wing was far ahead. Striking a double-quick we (Company K) were soon far on our way. When we tired, we came down to quick-step, alternating for hours.

Just a little before daybreak we (a handful of Company K), the rest having giving out on this our first forced march, came up to the right wing of regiment. Chickens were crowing for day when we halted, worn out. We fell on roadside and were soon fast asleep, our heads pillowed on rocks. We slept soundly until the sun was shining on us. Those of Company K, who gave out in the night, put in an appearance next morning. Our resting place was about three miles from Rapidan River.

We remained there until to A. M., fell into line and advanced.

At the river bodies of soldiers were plainly seen on the hills beyond. We waded the shallow stream, then hurried some hundreds yards to the right, halted, remaining in line of battle two or more hours awaiting the enemy. The beaming rays of the sun at noon on a July day on our heads were severe. Some almost fainted from the excessive heat. A detail of men (Joe Lewis and others) were sent for water. As the enemy did not advance against us, we leisurely advanced towards the Rappahannock River. We came to a residence on a hillside and spent the night near the enclosure. Next morning we were ordered to leave all our baggage, over which a guard was placed, W. J. Andrews, of Company K. being one of them. Some hesitated about leaving all their luggage. We were told that we would return that night and get everything. While we were absent, our belongings were sent to Brandy Station and stored away. Yankee cavalry, on a raid, went there and burnt it. Picture to yourself a body of men forced to wear the same clothing day after day, week after week, and month after month, without change, trodding daily along dusty roads, at times sloppy, the rain wetting and the sun drying them, will give you some idea of our condition and looks.

We were ordered forward to support our battery, in sight of the Rappahannock River, which was trying to silence and drive off a Yankee battery across the river. The enemy shelled us on our way. Adolphus Frierson was wounded by a shell on his collarbone and sent to the rear. At the foot of the hill we halted and Colonel Benbow ordered every man to lie down in line and thus screen himself from the canister and grapes hot hurled at us. The Colonel exposed himself, continuing to walk the space between us and our battery. After several hours' combat the enemy ceased firing and drew off their guns.

We returned to our camp of the previous night to find our baggage gone, as explained above. The next day we slowly advanced; the enemy continued to retreat. We crossed the Rappahannock River and halted about midday.

Rations were two days behind, and many had nothing to eat and no prospects of food for the day, so far as we knew. Colonel Benbow sent orders to each captain to detail men to go into an adjoining cornfield and pluck mutton corn for their men. The corn was gathered, brought and distributed. The orderly of Company K counted out nine ears of corn to each man. The Colonel further said that if the corn was not sufficient to go into a large apple orchard near and fill themselves with green apples. Soon the orchard was reached and some ate immoderately and paid the penalty.

Ben Weeks (one of the best foragers in Company K) learned that corn-bread and fried bacon could be bad near our halting place (corn-bread was a great rarity then). The orderly went with Ben Weeks. We found others there seeking same. We secured each a corn-cake and fried bacon. We enjoyed that treat—we were hungry for it.

Our ration (poor beef and hard tack) arrived during the afternoon, Thursday, 28th July. 1862. We rested at the foot of the mountain until the day was far spent.

Taking up our line of march we went to Manassas Gap and bivouacked for the night. The noise of the tramp of horses aroused us from our sleep. We were soon under arms, looking for an enemy. It proved to be only the breaking loose of horses belonging to mounted officers. Quiet being restored, we resumed our rest.

When day approached we saw a large iron pipe emptying water into a railroad tank (the railroad ran through the gap). We tried the water and found it excellent. Casting the eye upward we soon saw the spring about 50 or 60 feet upon the side of a mountain spur. General Longstreet had driven the Yankees from that position the day before. On our forward route bodies of unburied Yankees were seen on the roadside. The Twenty-third Regiment proceeded for several hours and rested. That afternoon we went to the edge of an oak grove near Bull Run and remained there until after nightfall. We then advanced to Bull Run.

About half way across an open field (the night was dark, the stars obscured) an officer came up in a hurry, ordered us to halt and go back. Directly several of our men cried out: "Yankee ! yankee!" By the dim light we could not tell the color of his uniform.

Upon the reiteration of Yankee, coupled with many guns being discharged, he turned and fled. The Twenty-third went forward with a yell. We waded Bull Run waist deep and halted.

Soon the sound of horsemen in front, advancing in our direction, caused Colonel Benbow to order fix bayonets, the front rank to kneel and, at the command fire, the front rank to fire and the rear rank to reserve fire. The men, however, in the excitement of the moment, forgot and guns were fired promiscuously almost in the faces of the adversaries, they were so near. Not one in our front reached our line. (A Texan, of Hoods Brigade, told the orderly of Company K "that both horse and rider were killed and made a pile on the slope of the hill as high as a house.") The Texan had viewed that position the next morning. After learning that Hood's Brigade was on our right and an Alabama Brigade on our left, the orderly concluded that the Texan might be correct in his statement. The Yankee squadron was longer in line than our regiment, and those beyond passed our line on right and left. As soon as their horses could be checked, they wheeled about and left. Many guns were fired at them in their retreat.

Quiet being restored, the Twenty-third Regiment recrossed Bull Run and moved back a hundred yards or so, halted and rested on their arms, with orders not to speak above a whisper. We held that position until near day, then returned to the oak grove and sought a little sleep, which we needed, having been awake during the night. After a little needed rest we moved to our right and halted until about u A. M. General Evans (our brigade commander) ordered us back a mile or two to intercept Yankee cavalry, said to be prowling in our rear on a raiding expedition.

A part of the road we traveled over had been so tramped that the surface was covered with fine powdered dust. It was a very dry-time and this clay-dust, rising became very troublesome—almost suffocating. Not finding any Yankees we returned to the oak grove.

About 2 P. M. Saturday, July 30, 1862, General Evans, commanding our division, and Colonel Stevens our brigade. Hood's Brigade was sent to skirmish in our front. They met Yankee zouaves dressed in red. Hood's men wore dark-green uniforms.

The red furnished a bright, shining mark at which to shoot, and, judging from the number of red-clad bodies left on the ground, their slaughter must have been great. We advanced over the same ground soon after, hence our knowledge of the skirmish.

We followed Hood's Brigade, but had not gone over fifty yards before Colonel Benbow was wounded. He called to Major Whilden to take charge of the regiment, for he (Colonel Benbow) was wounded. Just then Lieu tenant-Colonel Roberts came up and commanded. In our advance Colonel Stephens rode in front of the Twenty-third Regiment. As soon as Colonel Stephens saw the flash of the enemy's cannon, he immediately gave command.

"Lie clown!" The men had scarcely fallen down ere the grape and canister whizzed over their heads. Then, "Up! Forward, March" was given in a clear, ringing voice. These alternate commands were repeated until we reached the opposite side of the woods. We found a very high rail fence with stake and rider in our immediate front, enclosing an open field. This we scaled; right-half wheeled and marched up a hill. Just as we were descending the opposite side Anderson Mills was shot in the thigh.

The orderly sergeant (J. Grier White) saw but one more fire of the enemy's infantry. He was shot in the fulness just below the curvature of the ribs. The ball came from the left, cut its way through vest, pants and drawers, both coming and going and passed on, leaving it's mark about five inches above navel, making him unconscious for some time. He had fallen forward and was thought to be killed, according to the memory of our captain, D. R. McCallum. We continued to advance. After going about one-half mile we charged and captured the enemy's battery which was trying to prevent our advancement. The Confederates pressed forward; the Yankees continued to retreat. Hood's Brigade, after skirmishing, flanked to our right and came to our assistance after our line had passed a house on a hill, where many of our wounded were afterwards carried. We were hard pressed and to avoid a galling artillery fire. Colonel Stephens ordered a flank movement to the right, down a hill. Then it was that Hood's Brigade came up. After that the Yankees did not even halt to return our fire but steadily and rapidly retired. Three of Company K were killed—Tom Britton, George Josey and John Scarborough. Nineteen were wounded—Anderson Mills, J. Grice White, H. N. Browne, Stephen M. D. Lacoste, Alonz. G. Murphy, James L. Norton, Leonard W. Dick., James F. Joye, William Y. Mathis, Samuel J. Windham., Dwight Shaw, James Richbourg, Joseph Windham., Robert Copeland, Ed. Scarborough, Lem Scarborough. There were three others, names forgotten.

Capt. D. R. McCallum spent nearly the whole night looking over the battle-field for the wounded of Company K, using a torch-light to enable him to identify them. Private Nichols assisted him in the search.

After the fight the Confederates, being victors, leisurely advanced into Maryland, We forded the Potomac River and advancing slept on the banks of the Monocracy River. Destroying the bridge we passed through Fredive city, where Joseph Lewis and W. J. Andrews were taken into the home of Mrs. Mantry and nursed through long spells of typhoid fever. At Boonsborough we fought again. Samuel Windham was wounded and Captain McCallum was shot through his cap. Captain Durham commanded the regiment, but was wounded and Captain McCallum took command. At one point of the fight, a Yankee seemed bent on killing Captain McCallum. The Captain drew the attention of one of his men (Samuel Windham), who killed the Yankee. The fight was a most unequal combat: the enemy had five full lines of battle, while we had only one and that stretched far out. They could have easily surrounded and captured our force, but failed to realize it. We were forced back to the top of the mountain and had to retreat. We fell back four miles to Sharpsburg; the Yankees followed but did little fighting. Priestly Colclough. being quite sick, was carried by Captain McCallum to a lady's house. She kindly received him and faithfully nursed him back to health and strength. Priestly had taken cold by exposure (he was never robust) and a case of pneumonia was developed. Cornelius Baker was killed at Sharpsburg.

Dr. Maschell, who was crowded with work and needed help, finding out that Captain McCallum had no men to command, called on him and obtained his services.

From Sharpsburg the Twenty-third Regiment went by easy stages to Winchester, Va. After being wounded at Second Manassas the orderly sergeant was sent to Lynchburg, Va. He remained in the hospital until the middle of October, 1862. He found the Twenty-third Regiment encamped five miles beyond Winchester, where we thought we were safe in our winter quarters. Captain McCallum and Charles Stiles left the command as the Twenty-third left Winchester, both sick. Priestly Colclough had been elected third lieutenant. We felt the need of fires when on guard duty at night. We, up to that time, were ignorant of the great propensity of the Chestnut Oak. Putting it to the test, we were soon convinced that fire was repulsive to it. As soon as our kindling wood was consumed, the Chestnut Oak would pop and pop, continuing until not a spark of fire was left. Thereafter we avoided it when practicable.

The last of October we left camp for Winchester; thence we proceeded towards Culpeper Courthouse. Stopping near we pitched camp. Thinking we would remain there some time, some of Company K erected as comfortable shelters as could be had, the materials at hand considered. That night six inches of snow fell. We tarried there only one night. We tramped through the snow next morning (November I, 1862), boarded the cars which had been left open all night and were full of snow. We had to stand up all the way to Richmond—thanks to worthy transportation agent. After a short delay we went to Tarboro, N. C. Taking a good rest we went by rail to Kinston, N. C. Passing through the town we took the road towards Newbern and encamped five miles beyond Kinston at a country church. The people living near were kind enough to let us have vegetables, which we craved, having been without them for quite a while. Some had scurvy in consequence. Some of the regiment found apple jack near the camp. When freely imbibed the apple jack (so said) made the best friends not only quarrel but desire to kill each other. We remained there perhaps two weeks.

General Evans' Brigade (a little over 2,000 in all—five regiments) began fighting an advancing force of Yankees under General Foster, seven thousand strong. On the evening of the second day, we broke camp and came to Kinston. Company K was sent to guard a point one and one-half miles distant that night. Early next morning we hastened to Kinston. As we drew near the Yankees tried to cut us off from the town bridge, which we had to cross to reach it. Albert and lien Weeks, flanking out for a foraging spree, were captured. We had to hurry to prevent the taking of our company. We halted at the bridge for a few minutes, and were ordered to form into line. The enemy meanwhile began shelling us. Before the company could advance a shell, bursting a little to his left, by concussion, crippled the orderly in the left leg. Fragments of the shell tore their way through the cape of overcoat and left sleeve. The regiment advanced for a while and drove the enemy back. Andrew Chandler was wounded in the leg.

Our regiment fell back, crossed the bridge and entered Kinston. General Evans tried to have the bridge burned, but the Yankees prevented it. General Foster sent Colonel Potter with flag of truce demanding surrender of troops and town. General Evans, being near the Twenty-third Regiment, received Colonel Potter in its front. In reply to the demand. General Evans sent word. "Tell Foster—him. I know him of old—give me two hours to remove the women and children out of town and I will give him hell." In two hours General Evans and his command were half way to Goldsboro, which place was reached that night. The next day General Evans gave battle to General Foster on the river. We lost several good men in the regiment, but none of Company K were killed. Albert Guerry was slightly wounded in the hand; W. J. Andrews wounded in breast and ankle: Lieutenant H. N. Browne and the orderly were sent to the hospital at Raleigh. Lieutenant Browne had pneumonia.

The regiment went to Wilmington in December, 1862, marched three or four miles in the country and encamped. Our camp was in an oak grove. An open field adjacent was used for drilling.

An aid of General Whiting (post commander at Wilmington) was drill master. After some weeks spent in drilling, we moved camp, going nearer the coast on the opposite side of Wilmington to Smith Sound, twelve or fifteen miles distant. January, 1863.  Nothing of much interest transpired while there.

In March, 1863, we went to Wilmington, thence by rail to Charleston and by steamer to Mt. Pleasant; remained there several days and marched across bridge to Sullivan's Island. After reaching the island we passed through the village to the sea sides and camped. Our duties were confined to camp guard.

In June, 1863. the Twenty-third Regiment went to Meridian, Mississippi, thence to Jackson; continuing, we pitched camp near Big Black River. While at Jackson we camped on Pearl River several days. We put up forks, driving the lower ends into the ground to make them firm. We placed poles in the forks and floored across them. This made our couch from one to two feet high. A tent fly or oil cloth made the covering. Some, having neither, stripped off Warhoo or Elm bark and stretched the bark over theirs. A heavy rain would cause the river to rise and overflow our camp four or six inches in depth. Our drinking water was from the river.

We remained near the Big Black until the morning of July 5, 1863. Before day (perhaps two hours) we were routed up and made tracks for the river. Just before we reached the thick woods near the river we called a halt. We wondered why. Soon the cause was made known. Scouts had come in and reported to General Johnston that General Pemberton had given up Vicksburg to General Grant the day before (July 4, 1863). General Johnston aimed to aid the defenders of Vicksburg and since he failed to reach there in time he planned a masterly retreat. General Grant had laid a trap for General Johnston, hoping to ambush Johnston's army in the river swamp by concealing a force of 30.000 men there, but General Johnston was not so easily ensnared.

General Grant had also sent Sherman with 30,000 more to cut off all retreat to Jackson. Though threatened in flank as well as rear. General Johnston took his time, never going more than three miles to the hour. His cavalry covered his retreat. He not only had every well and spring dried and the water placed in barrels, tubs and buckets on the roadside for his men, but he had trenches made from each cattle pond on the route to drain them, leaving a rim to prevent the escape of the water till we had passed them. A mounted soldier was placed at each pond with spade in hand to cut the rim. This cutting off the water supply forced the enemy to scour far and wide, stretching out for miles in search of the great elixir of life—Adam's ale. Hence their progress was slow indeed. We fell back to Forrest's camp. A splendid rain fell as soon as tent flies were stretched. After allowing the fly to be washed, some of us caught the water as it dripped from the fly cords in our cups, drank freely and satisfactorily, and then filled our canteens. None save those who warred in Mississippi have the least idea of the great value of this rain to the truly thirsty soldier—one with the Mississippi thirst. After a whole-some rest General Johnston went to Jackson. Putting the defenses in order. General Johnston held the Yankees in check for eight days. They charged the works repeatedly without availing any thing, for each attempt was vigorously repulsed. They urged forward negro troops to be beaten back. This incensed General Johnston. Trace chains were brought and the guns charged with them instead of shot. Such gaps were cut in their lines, they could not be made to face the music again. When General Johnston thought advisable, he left Jackson and was gone five hours before the enemy seemed to know it. During the siege the enemy's sharpshooters in our front gave much annoyance. John Ridgeway and James Richbourg begged Captain McCallum to let them go to the front and dislodge them. He allowed them to go and they drove off the sharpshooters and returned unhurt.

Colonel Benbow, being informed that General French wanted a certain hill taken, asked the privilege of sending some of his command for that purpose. General French acquiescing, Captain McCallum was ordered forward. He went and, though the enemy vigorously opposed him. he drove them away. The enemy had been making encroachments on our line and had advanced uncomfortably near, hence the above order. General Johnston planted percussioned cap bombs on every road leading from Jackson to his line of retreat, spiking with rat-tail files all the siege guns he could not carry away. It is a known fact that in the attempt to follow General Johnston the enemy suffered much by the bursting of shells. Turn as they would a bomb was there ready to blow up either wagon or artillery when a wheel would strike it. They picked their way the best they could through the woods to avoid the demons in the roads. The confinement in the trenches around Jackson told on the Twenty-third Regiment. Company K had some sick. Sumter Durant was left in the hospital on the retreat.

" August, 1863, the Twenty-third Regiment went from Jackson to Mobile Ala. Tarrying only long enough to secure transportation, we proceeded to Savannah, and going out to the Isle of Hope encamped. Our stay there was short, for we soon went to Charleston. From Charleston we went to Mt. Pleasant and thence to Hamlin's Farm in Christ Church Parish. Lieutenant Colclough having been transferred to Florida cavalry with promotion from third lieutenant to first lieutenant. Colclough claiming Florida as his adopted State, this made the transfer more sure. Being without a third lieutenant, Company K elected H. A. Scarborough to fill the vacancy. In September, 1863, we left Hamlin's Farm for Sullivan's Island. We sent relief weekly to Fort Sumter. This duty was both hard and arduous, for the enemy's gun-boats not only daily but nightly bombarded the walls of the old fort with their heaviest missiles, which seemingly crumbled its very walls. Yet. although the top was knocked off, the walls were thickened and thus made more impregnable. Now and then some damage was done to parts of the casing, which were readily repaired.

When the Yankees saw that the gunboats could not demolish the fort they filled barges with men, who were to scale the outer walls and force surrender. Bringing into play hand-renades (hand-bombs) the defenders soon drove the foe back. After repeated efforts, each resulting in defeat, the enemy desisted. While on Sullivan's Island our commandant of the post erected batteries at the point of the island nearest Long (now Palm) Island. Attempts were made to draw the fire away from Fort Sumter, but the enemy only drew their smaller boats farther off from that point. In January, 1864, the Twenty-third Regiment went to Wilmington via Florence. We encamped fifteen miles off in the direction of Fort Fisher. While there, we did some picket duty.

Captain McCallum was put on light duty, having been thoroughly examined and pronounced totally unfit for field service. H. A. Cooper became captain by promotion. In June, 1864, we left for Petersburg, Va., thence to Bermuda Hundred, getting there just after Lieutenant-Colonel Dantzler of Keitt's Regiment had attacked a Yankee fort and was repulsed with great loss, Lieutenant-Colonel Dantzler being among the slain. We were stationed to the left or west of the fort on the line of defense. We occupied this position until 16th June. 1864. Albertus S. White furnishes some facts: "We went to Petersburg, reaching it at dawn of day, marched through the city; after reaching the rail road, halted. Company K being in a cut. We were ordered to divest ourselves of our baggage, never to see it again. We moved forward and threw up a line of breastworks. Our regiment was divided that day and our Company K was under Lieutenant-Colonel Kinlock. Colonel Benbow with the right wing was some distance to our right and rear. In the afternoon things warmed up, hot and fast. Early in the game Lieutenant-Colonel Kinlock and Leachey (sergeant-major) were seen beating a hasty retreat for Petersburg. Our first wounded was John Buddin, in arm.

Sumter Durant was shot in the head and killed. E. R. Josey was shot in the lobe of the left ear. That night we fell back and threw up breastworks, which formed a part of our regular line of works around Petersburg. All day of 18th we exchanged shots with the enemy and worked on breastworks. Major Bancroft was wounded on 18th and died 19th. Night of 18th Longstreet's corps reinforced us (Beauregard's corps). Beauregard with only 20,000 men had held in check Grant's army of 150,000 men for two days, while Longstreet could come up. The contest was hard. It was a trying struggle, about eight men to our one.

No protection whatever, not even a mole hill behind which one could screen his head. They had a very hard time in protecting themselves. Bayonets were used to dig up the earth, which was thrown out with iron spoons and tin plates on the sides next to the enemy. Thus was prepared their rifle pits. They worked by reliefs until they had, as it were, wormed themselves into holes sufficiently large to screen themselves when doubled up. The enemy at some point was scarcely thirty yards distant. As soon as spades, shovels and pick-axes could be procured our line of breast-works were established in the immediate rear. To give you a more definite idea of the nearness of the enemy, the men on the picket lines could be distinctly heard as they gave each other the daily salutation: "Good morning. Johnnie;" "Good morning, Billie." We were called "Johnnie Rebs," and the Yankees "Billies." But, while thus greeting each other, if one on either side dare to expose so much as one finger, whiz would come or go a minnie ball for that finger.

Our regiment took part in all necessary work of construction. As soon as completed Company K occupied that part where the blow-up (Crater) was. In order that those on duty in the main line could keep an eye on the enemy and still not be exposed to the aim of the globe-sighted rifles of the enemy's sharpshooters, cotton sacks, holding about two bushels and filled with sand, were placed lengthwise on the breastworks at convenient distances to protect the sentinel while viewing the situation, three sacks at each view-point, two placed lengthwise on works nearly touching, the third on them thus leaving a loop or peep hole through which the sentinel could look or shoot if necessary, and be hid from the enemy. Their sharpshooters took a great dislike to those bags and daily shot them up. Every night a new set replaced them. We were kept continuously in the same position until Thursday afternoon, July 28. 1864, we were moved the length of a regiment to the right. For at least six weeks we had not been allowed to sleep any from 1 A. M. to broad daylight, but took our positions in line under arms. Our 200-pound mortars threw shells into the enemy's lines nightly. Sometimes we would be overcome with loss of sleep and bowed our heads between the shots, jerking them up at next report of mortar and rub our necks to ease the pain caused by sudden jerk. The enemy daily shelled us from 8 to 10 A. M., then about two hours every evening. It was soon noised among us that the enemy was sinking a mine to strike our line at or near the part the Twenty-third Regiment occupied.

Details were made from each company to counter-mine, intending to intercept their mine before they could reach our works. Our men worked day and night, walling up their mine with split pine to prevent caving. After the blow-up we found out that our mine would have run into theirs, but their workers, being old Pennsylvania miners and accustomed to all kinds of noises under ground, apprehended our movement and sank their shaft 10 feet deeper until their's passed the line of intersection and proceeding onward completed their work, placed their powder and blew up our works, making great rents in the solid clay in the rear several feet deep and wide enough to admit a man's leg. The part blown up was lifted in solid mass and thrown over in adjacent rear. Some four or five companies of the Twenty-second Regiment were buried in the ruins. Companies on the right and left were stunned and captured. Colonel Fleming, of the Twenty-second Regiment, who was in his bomb-proof (a place built to sleep in), was so completely buried, that though diligent search was made for three days, his body was never found. Our removal to the right on afternoon of Thursday, 28th of July, was a merciful providence, for otherwise the Twenty- third Regiment would have met the fate of the Twenty-second in its stead.

On Saturday, July 30, 1864, at grey dawn, hearing a noise, the orderly of Company K was aroused, feeling the earth rock beneath him. His first thought was that the enemy had sprung his mine and that he {the orderly) was up in the air, no telling how high. As soon as he realized his condition, he instinctively turned his head to the left and saw the dust rising aloft. Seizing his gun he hastened to his place in line ten to twelve steps distant. Almost immediately a division of negroes under General Humphries ran forward and entered the gap made by the explosion. They purposed to march into Petersburg. They were baffled, for soon our troops obstructed their path. Word came that the negroes proclaimed that they would neither give nor cry quarter. There was some hard hand to hand fighting. The negroes were forced back into the Crater, that is, the remnant of them, numbers had been killed. General Lee had placed troops in our immediate rear the previous night (Sanders', formally Mahone's) Brigade. These aided in driving the negroes back. In an hour or two the enemy seemed to open up all their batteries and bring into requisition their small arms also. For several hours it seemed to rain upon us, both shot and shell from front, right and left all at once. It was a continuous shower. It was a hot place, the hottest ever experienced by the writer. Finally a lull came; Yankee troops advanced in our front; they continued until they reached a ravine about 150 yards distant, which they entered and remained hid from view. We fired on them as long as they were in sight. Several of Company K were wounded earlier in the day and sent to hospital. Jim Richbourg three times wounded, died. Tom McDonald, wounded in shoulder.

Sanders' Brigade charged from the foot of the hill in the rear of our line. The Yankees made a strenuous effort to prevent their advance. The Yankee cannon seemed literally to tear up the ground under the very feet of the brigade. True as steel the men never wavered, but kept on and fell almost exhausted in our midst. Sumter had an artillery company in the Crater fight (Hugh Garden, captain). Captain Garden being absent the commander was Lieutenant Alexander McQueen. Under his directions the battery did most effective service with mortars. The mortars were trained on the Crater, into which the enemy had been forced. The first and second shells thrown, bursted over the Crater, but each succeeding shell fell into the Crater, resulting in the up heavel into mid-air many blue fragments as the shells exploded. This continued for an hour or two in the afternoon. Having dearly bought a wholesome lesson the Yankees surrendered by scores and hundreds. Many were carried to Petersburg. About 4 or 5 P. M. our regiment started back to our old position, the Crater, where we halted. While we opposed the Yankee infantry in the forenoon, Wise's North Carolina Brigade, touching us on the right, instead of aiding us to drive the enemy back—afraid to expose their most precious heads, simply raised their guns aloft and fired down our lines. Word was sent to them as to what they were doing, but they took no notice of the message. They were notified that, unless they ceased firing on us, we would open fire on them. They stopped and hid themselves entirely.

On our way to the Crater, we had gone only a few paces, when Dwight Shaw was killed. So slow was our progress, we seemed to scarcely creep along. The Yankees began cannonadingus and the report of small arms on the left showed that opposition was made to our advance. Goaded almost to frenzy by inaction in this trying time, patience and prudence were thrown to the four winds. To make the gravity of the case plainer and give a view of it from another standpoint. Wellburn J. Andrew's account is annexed:

"General Burnside planned a tunnel from the Federal to the Confederate lines, a distance of one hundred yards, entering the Confederate line under a battery of two guns. After reaching the Confederate line, the tunnel was extended under breastworks each way. placing large quantities of powder under the works. Plans for the explosion of this mine being completed, on the 30th of July, 1864. as the sun was gilding the Eastern horizon, the match was touched to the trail and soon a mass of earth, human beings, guns, etc.. was lifted high in the air, accompanied by a terrible noise and trembling of the earth. Before the vast column ofsmoke had floated away, this immense Crater made by the explosion was being filled by line after line of Federal soldiers, many of them negroes. The batteries of the contending forces opened a terrific fire, and line after line of the Federal army was repulsed with heavy loss. Fighting commenced at dawn of day, and was kept up the entire day. Just before the sun went down five high privates of Company K—Morgan Baker. Mack Huggins, Joe Lewis, William Prescott, and Wellburn J. Andrews - had pressed their way through seven companies within fifteen paces of the blue coats, where a fierce conflict was going on.

William Prescott soon fell from a minnie ball, which shivered the thigh bone. Joe Lewis was the nest forced from the field with a painful wound in the face. Mack Huggins was the next shot down. The struggle was then between Morgan Baker, W. J. Andrews and three blue coats. One of the blue coats rose from his ambush and fired with no harm; another lifted his rifle and fired. At the same time Morgan Baker fired his rifle at the one so near, and aiming so at his life, but the ball took affect in a plank just beyond his head. Another arose from his hiding place, but before he could raise his rifle W. J. Andrews fired his ready, well aimed piece, the ball crushing through the brain causing instant death. This was the last gun fired. We carried away 500 prisoners (black and white) together with a few Indians from the West. And oh! what a spectacle to behold in this Crater, 30 or more feet deep and more than too feet in length.

More than one of the Twenty-second Regiment, South Carolina Volunteers, was taken out alive, where he had been buried under the debris all day. It so happening that a board of timber of some kind had kept the pressure of dirt from him and a little air had spared him from being buried alive. Then the burying of 500 human beings in this Crater and around it. For months after this the Twenty-third Regiment was on duty at this point; and oh! what a stench as the partially covered bodies would open the earth for the gas to escape. The hills were whitened with lime to enable us to remain on duly there. The two battery guns were blown about 90 feet from their position near the enemy's lines. A 60-day furlough was offered any one to place a rope around them, so they could be pulled back and gotten in our possession, but no one was found daring enough to try it." The orderly saw in the Crater two men (one a Confederate, the other a negro). They were on their knees, their guns clinched in their hands, their bayonets thrust through their bodies (the Confederate's through the negro and the negro's through the Confederate's body), their hacks against the clay wall, both stiff in death.

There was blood in the Crater. Several Confederates dug into spots of blood to find how deeply it had soaked. One spot at five inches depth showed blood.

For weeks we suffered much. The Yankees refused, on application, to grant a flag of truce to remove the dead and wounded.  We removed ours at night. The next day we made negro prisoners drag the bodies of their dead and throw them into holes dug for their reception, filling many of them to within two or three inches of the surface and spreading a little earth over them. These pestholes and pools of blood, coupled with the beaming, scorching rays of an August sun, filled the whole atmosphere with a foul vapor, which we inhaled at every breath. Green flies without number buzzed audibly all around us and added to the hideousness of the scene. Every attempt to eat or even open one's mouth caused nausea. This was not confined to one or two days, but for weeks it was the same daily endurance. Our duties were increased, for our ranks had been thinned and no recruits came in to fill the vacant places. None, save those who were in or near the Crater in this trying time, can have any adequate conception of what we endured. Who would have thought that mortal man could stand up in so trying a position.

We were later moved a mile or more to the right. The enemy was not so near to us: and we were free to move about without fear of being shot down by sharpshooters. All the wood we used was obtained by going over our works in front and bring it on our shoulders at least one-fourth of a mile. Our rations were reduced. One pint of wheat Hour, one-fourth of a pound of bacon, salt and peas were its ingredients in kind and quantity. We kept that position for several weeks.

Before we made the move to the right, while still at the Crater, Albertus S. White (October 12, 1864), was wounded by a fragment of mortar shell while lying down in the trenches reading a home letter. The piece of shell broke his left jaw-bone, severed two arteries on that side of his face, tore out several teeth and lodged there. He was laid out as dead. Providentially the blood clodded and prevented his bleeding to death. In about two hours' time he was carried to our regimental infirmary. Drs. Murry and Dick examined and dressed his wounds, after taking up the arteries. Afterwards he was taken to the Confederate State Hospital on Washington Street, Petersburg. I having chills and fever, was allowed to nurse him. and for several weeks my sole duty was the care of my brother. Eggs fed to him cost only ten dollars per dozen. I nursed him six or eight weeks. As soon as he could walk about well he was sent home and I returned to duty in the trenches.

We remained in the trenches until about the last of February or first of March, 1865. and then were marched fourteen miles west of Petersburg and took quarters in log cabins found there. Taking up a notion that we were to enjoy a peaceful rest some of Company K busied themselves, trying to mend their clothing, patching their pants, coats, etc. Some cut out and stitched up homespun socks.

Our rest was of short duration. On the evening of the 24thof March, 1865, we were marched in quick time to Petersburg.  Arriving about midnight, we rested in an oak grove. Sleeping on wet ground until two hours before day, we marched to the iron bridge, halted and left all our baggage. It was not yet daylight. We pressed forward to our breastworks before sunrise. The part entered was near Appomattox River. As soon as reformed General Wallace (brigade commander) ordered us to scale our works, advance to, and hold the Yankee fort (Steadman), which had been surprised and captured by our pickets in the previous night. Our regiment had just reached the fort when Lieutenant Scarborough was wounded in thigh. Ten or fifteen minutes later, William Gregg was shot in head and killed. The regiment began spreading out to the right. The Yankees advanced in our front and right, firing as they came. In a short time our troops on the right began to retreat. The orderly of Company K (who was in command of the company, as the only commissioned officer present, had been shot down and removed from the - field), inquired if there was any order to retreat.

The reply was, No, still the retreat continued. The orderly determined to remain and was with five or six others captured. We were taken to General Meade's headquarters; after a little rest were put on ears and conveyed to City Point, where we stayed until afternoon of next day. The orderly, after eating supper Friday evening 24th, did not get another meal until 11 A. M.

Sunday 26th. On the 27th of March the prisoners at City Point were divided. The commissioned officers were held presumably for Johnson Island, while we non-commission and privates were carried to Point Lookout, Md. In a few days others of Company K arrived at the same prison. From 25th of March to the surrender, April 8th (both included), over twenty of Company K were gathered within the wooden walls of Point Lookout Prison. Wight man Durant, John Huggins, Tom W. McDonald, John Pearson, Legrande Joye, Ed. and Frank Mathis, J. Grier White. Ed. Lem and Hub Scarborough., Elijah Lafayette, Tom and Wilson Josey, Morgan Baker, Josiah Fleming and others.

The Twenty-third Regiment skirmished with Yankee cavalry from the trenches at Petersburg to the Battle of Five Forks without stopping to rest day or night. William Randal, of Company K, was killed at Five Forks. This mode of warfare continued until the surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. In the battle of Five Forks the Twenty-third Regiment was sacrificed to save the balance of the army. All of Company K who had not been previously captured fell into the enemy's hands save Joe Lewis and Randolph Bracy; they were at Lee's surrender.

Point Lookout Prison was at the extreme point of land between the Atlantic Ocean on the cast and Chesapeake Bay on the south and west, enclosed by a high wooden wall. None were allowed to go between the ditch and the wall. The ditch was called the dead line, for if a prisoner crossed it, he was shot down unceremoniously. We all occupied tents arranged in rows; two lines faced each other. The double lines formed a company. We were formed in line every morning and the roll called.  We were permitted to go through gates on the bay side and walk about between sunrise and sunset, when the gates were closed.  We were given two meals a day, mostly bean soup and baker's bread, yet it was fully as much as we had before our capture.  Wells eight or ten feet deep supplied the water we used. It was very brackish and frequently scarce. Major Brady, the commander of the post, was very humane and as kind to the prisoners as circumstances permitted.

About the first of April, 1865, General Grant, bent on surrounding General Lee's Army, moved all the white guards from our prison to add to his number, and substituted negroes as guards for us. The very first night they behaved badly. In the daytime we had only an outer guard on the prison wall. At night a guard was placed within to keep the quiet and promote decency and the welfare of the prisoners. The second night the negroes threatened some, shot at others and made a few kneel and pray for Abraham Lincoln and do other foolery of like kind.  Their conduct was reported to Major Brady, who immediately replied that he would remove the night guard within the walls, provided the prisoners would form a guard for the service within the enclosure, offering to place said guard in separate quarters and give them extra rations. The guard was formed—too in all—with two lieutenants and one sergeant. The orderly of Company K was the sergeant. At his suggestion to one of the lieutenants (a native of Sumter, S. C), as many of Company K as the sergeant could induce to join the guard were placed on it.

Our ration was much enlarged. Even sugar, coffee and tobacco were given us and we were allowed three men to do our washing.  A fifty-gallon caldron was given for that purpose. We felt the benefit of the change. Having nothing to do when first imprisoned our time hung heavily on our hands. Some New York ladies conferred with Major Brady and sent school books to him for the use of the prisoners. He furnished a house for school purposes and gave to capable prisoners, who would instruct the illiterate, an extra ration daily. Soon every thing was working right—plenty teachers, scores of scholars. Many, totally ignorant, learned to spell, read and write; others increased the limited knowledge. The Confederate Government, with the aid of Baltimore ladies, sent clothing for the prisoners, which was distributed by two old prisoners among the most needy. Alonzo Morgan (youngest son of Rev. Jesse Morgan, of Sumter, S.C.) was one of the clothing committee.

After General Joseph E. Johnston surrendered, the Federal Government soon began to parole prisoners. Some after capture wished to desert. They were released first. Major Brady, being approached about our release, replied that as soon as he could get rid of the rascals (deserters), then he would have only gentlemen to deal with and would parole them as rapidly as practicable. After our release began, the prisoners, who had been there longest, were paroled first. It was done alphabetically.

The orderly of Company K was in command of the inner guard from that time until the 23rd of June. 1865, when he was paroled.  He left Sergeant Legrand Joye in command. There were many captives within those walls, estimated at 25,000.

On the north side a commodious hospital was erected. Surgeons and nurses seemed plentiful. We had preaching in the school house two or three time a month.  After release, transportation was given us as far towards our homes as conditions warranted. Three Sumter men (John Brunby, Morgan Baker and J. Grier White) came from Point Lookout Prison. Leaving Monday evening by steamer, readied Charleston, S. C. Thursday morning. We left Charleston by South. Carolina Railroad for Orangeburg, where care stopped—the bridge across Congaree River had been burnt. We footed it to the river. It being night, we waited till morning. We found a man named Mitchell living in a shanty on the river bank. He had the only boat (bateau) to be seen. Though we were old soldiers he would not take us over the river without pay. The orderly was the only one of the three who had anything to pay with. He gave a good pair of blankets and about fifty cents worth of tobacco to the skinflint to take us over the river.

As soon as we reached the opposite shore we saw a hand car on the trestle. A young man (Ligon, telegraph operator at Kingsville), with a friend, had come to the river. They appeared and cheerfully offered to carry us to Kingsville. two miles distant.

At Kingsville we met Marion Lafar (formerly of Sumter), the railroad agent. He gave us free passage to Sumter, where we arrived between 12 and 1 P. M. Sunday.  The orderly passed the Methodist Church just as the morning services were over. This was the first Sunday of July, 1865.

After forty-four years of varied experiences, only a few battered specimens of humanity remain of the once proud Company K. Twenty-third Regiment, South Carolina Volunteers. None excelled us in morality, in patriotism, fixedness of purpose, or power of endurance, as fully evinced by what we did and suffered for a cause par-excellence.

Roll of Company K

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transcribed by D. Whitesell for South Carolina Genealogy Trails from the University Libraries Digital Collections


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