History of Williamsburg, From 1705 - 1923
By William Willis Boddie
Columbia, SC; The State Company, 1923
Transcribed by Dena W. for Williamsburg County, South Carolina Genealogy Trails

CHAPTER   VIII.
COLONIAL   WILLS.

The wills of the people of Williamsburg who died dur-ing the Colonial period are recorded in the office of the Judge of Probate, Charleston. To those who can see, these wills contain a vast amount of historical material. One reads in them that the average man of Williamsburg who came about 1735, without a material possession, amassed a considerable estate within a score of years. When he died, his will and inventory of his goods show that he owned many broad acres of land, a number of valuable slaves, droves of horses, and herds of cattle. It shows, too, that sometimes he wore silver shoe buckles and a "Wigg," and was ready to furnish a "pair of pistols" whenever the code duello demanded. The rapid recuperation of these Scotch-Irish of Williamsburg under these pioneer conditions proves what manner of men they were. Their sustained strength under further development is simply additional evidence.

In these old wills, the women, wives and daughters and sisters, are called by name. And well may they be remembered, for women have borne the burdens of the day since the curse was pronounced in Eden. When one looks into the first life of these "Poor Protestants" in Williamsburg and regards the women, he draws on all his virtuous manhood to salute them. These ancient women of "Williamsburg were the real "Colonial Dames of America." Whether or not their fathers had been commissioned by the King for service in the colonies, their sons were called by God Almighty for the accomplishment of American freedom and for the establishment of the American Commonwealth. And right worthily did these sons fulfill their high calling!

Here follow some statements taken from these ancient wills, and a few comments. All are described as planters unless otherwise specified.

William Anderson married Ann Baxter, a widow. He left a son, Alexander Anderson, and a daughter, Ann Anderson. Charles Baxter was his stepson. William Anderson died in 1746.

John Avant died in 1750 leaving two sons, Francis and John; and three daughters, Hydia, Hannah, and Rebecca. One of his daughters married a Green, for he left two grandsons, William and Francis Green.

James Bradley died in 1775. He left an annuity of one hundred pounds to be paid to his mother, Jane, who, when a widow, married William Burrows. His sister, Mary, married Robert McConnell. He had three half-brothers, George, Samuel, and Joseph Burrows; and one half-sister, Jane Burrows. He had a cousin named James Bradley, who was the son of his uncle, Samuel Bradley-Moses Britton died in 1773. His Will shows that he left a widow named Ann; two sons, Daniel Lane and Benjamin; and a daughter, Rebecca. He had three brothers, Philip, Henry, and Francis.

Joseph Britton died in 1773. His wife was named Ann. He left eight children, Elizabeth, Philip, Thomas, Martha, Mary, Moses, Joseph, and John.

William Barr died in 1764. His wife was named Esther. His children were James, Margaret, Isaac, Nathaniel, Rachael, Caleb, Jacob, Silas, Esther, John, and William. He instructed his executors to have each one of his children taught a trade.

William Brockinton died in 1741. He and his wife, Sarah, lived on the South side of Black Mingo Creek. His sons were William, John, and Richard; his daughters, Elizabeth, afterwards wife of James Hepburn; Mary, married Joshua Jolly; Hannah, married James Hoole; and Sarah Jane. Sarah, wife of William, died in 1759, leaving a Will in which, she made her son Richard executor. William and Sarah Broekinton were ancestors of all the South Carolina Brockintons.

William Broekinton, Jr., married Rachel Commander in 1742 and died in 1743. He left all of his property to his wife, providing for an unborn child. This "unborn child" became, in all probability, the Joseph Brockinton of whom Bishop Gregg writes in his "History of the Old Cheraws."

William Borland died in 1741. His wife was named Mary. He left two sons, William and Archibald; and three daughters, Mary, Jean, and Elizabeth.

Timothy Britton died in 1749. He divided his property between his wife, Mary, and his child, who was not named. His executors were his wife, Mary, his brother, Joseph, and his brother-in-law, Francis Goddard.

Philip Britton died in 1749. He left a wife named Jane, but no child. He bequeathed property to his brothers, Joseph, Moses, Francis, and Timothy Britton; his nephew, John Rae; his nieces, Ann and Rachel; and, also, gives some property to Walter Martin's two children and to William and Francis Goddard.

Daniel Britton died in 1748. He left property to his wife, Elizabeth, and to his unborn child.

John Blakeley died in 1747.     He left a wife, who was born Elizabeth Fleming, and four children who were not named in his will.    He designated James Armstrong, William  Pressley,   and  James  McClelland,   and  his  brother James, executors, and ordered that if his wife, Elizabeth, remarried, his brother James was to have control of his children  and of his  estate.     He left fifty acres  of land to the Williamsburg Presbyterian Congregation.

Elizabeth Clapp died in 1751. She was the daughter of Gibson  Clapp,   for whom  Clapp   Swamp  was  named. In her will, she mentions her grandfather, Colonel Thomas lynch; her uncle, the Honorable Joseph Blake; her beloved sister, Mary Clapp; her mother, Sarah Hopton, wife of William EEopton; her aunt, Sarah Blake, half-sister to her father; and her aunt, Mary Acheson, daughter of her grandfather, Thomas Lynch.

Isaac Chandler died in 1748. He left a widow named Elizabeth; two sons, Samuel and Isaac; and a daughter, Ann. He was an Antipaedo Baptist minister and was trained under the Reverend William Screven, the elder. Mr. Chandler was a member of the Baptist colony which came with Reverend William Screven from Kittery, Maine, and settled at Somerton. He was at his death a man of considerable wealth, much learning, and liberal culture. His will indicates that he owned one of the largest private libraries of his day, and many heirlooms of silver and gold.

John Dick died in 1749. His will names his wife, Jane; his sons, Robert, John, and William; his daughter, Jannet, who married Packer; his daughter, Elizabeth, who married John Leviston; his daughter, Margaret, who married John Scott; his daughter, Mary, who married Runnels; and his daughter, Susannah, who married Wirter. He names two of his grandchildren, John and Samuel Leviston.

Nathaniel Drew died in 1750. His wife was born Margaret Barr. He mentions in his will his son, Samuel Drew; his brother, David Drew; and his sister, Mary Drew, who married Thomas Ervin, of Fog's Manor, Pa.; and his son-in-law, John Barr. He left some money for the education of his two grandsons, John and Samuel Nesmith, sons of John Nesmith, deceased. After specific bequests, he instructed his executors to sell the remainder of his estate and place one-third thereof in the hands of Reverend John Baxter, Thomas Came, and Alexander McCants, trustees, for the use and benefit of the Presbyterian Congregation at Black Mingo Creek. The remaining two-thirds he gives to James McClelland and John Leviston, trustees, for the benefit of the Presbyterian Congregation
at Williamsburg. He provides that these trustees shall give security for this money and that none of it shall be paid to any minister but one who preached and taught the doctrines and submitted to the rules and discipline of the Church of Scotland and who was of moral conduct.

Margaret Drew died in 1762. She was the widow and relict of Nathaniel Drew. She mentions her son, Samuel Drew, and makes her trusty and well beloved sons-in-law, John Brockinton and Samuel Nesmith, her executors.

John Frierson died in 1760. He left four sons, Aaron, Moses, John, James, and a daughter, Mary.

John Fleming died in 1750. He left three sons, John, James, and William; and three daughters, Elizabeth, who married Blakeley; and Jannet, who married James; and Isabella, who married John. Pressley.

David Fulton died in 1745. In his will, he mentions his wife, Rebecca, and his son, Samuel. After making specific bequests to them, he leaves the remainder of his property to his son, Samuel Fulton, subject to the payment of one hundred pounds to Jean Fulton, only daughter of his son, Paul Fulton, deceased, when she attains the age of fifteen years.

Paul Fulton died in 1742. He mentions his wife, Mary; his daughter, Jean; his nephew, David Fulton; and his brother, Samuel Fulton.

Roger Gordon died in 1750. His wife was named Mary. He had three sons, James, John, and Moses; and four daughters, Sarah, who married Hugh McGill; Margaret, who married Robert Wilson; Elizabeth and Mary. He mentions his granddaughter, Mary, and his grandsons, Roger Wilson and Roger McGill.

Peter Gourdin died in 1774. He gives his son, Peter Gourdin, all of his property when he shall arrive at the age of nineteen years. He instructed that his son should have as good an education as could be had in the province of   South   Carolina.     He   directed   that   his   negro   man, Billy, should not be put to any field work but to be kept jobbing on the plantation and, in proper seasons, to tend the indigo works about the vats, and further that Billy should not be under the power or authority of any overseer which should be put on his plantation after his decease. His first wife was named Esther Sullivan. He wills, if his son, Peter, die before he arrives at the age of nineteen years, that the property coming to him from, his wife, Esther, shall return to his brother-in-law, John Sullivan, and to his sister-in-law, Margaret Richbourgh. If his son, Peter, die before reaching the age of nineteen, the property which came to him from his late wife, who was Ann Lester, should return to his brother-in-law, John Lester, and to his sister-in-law, Martha Lester. He mentions his niece, Mary Ann Finley; his nephews, Theodore and Samuel Gourdin; and his brother, Isaac Gourdin.

Elizabeth Jaudon died in 1743. She left three young children, Paul, David, and Elisha. Paul was the oldest and yet a minor. She waived his age and made him her sole executor.

John Hamilton died in 1744. His wife was Christian McClelland. They left no children. He bequeathed three hundred acres of land in Williamsburg Township for the support of the Williamsburg Presbyterian Church, then under the management of Reverend John Rae.

William James died in 1750. His widow was named Elizabeth. He had four sons, John, William, Robert, and Samuel; and four daughters, Jannet, Elizabeth, Esther, and Sarah. He mentions his sons-in-law, David Wilson, Gavin Witherspoon, James McCullough, and Nathaniel McCullough.

William Heathly died in 1742. He mentions his wife, Mary; his son, William; and his daughter, Elizabeth.

William Jamison died in 1756. He left a large estate which he gave to his sister, Agnes Still, widow of James Still, who  lived  in  Ireland. Agnes  Still  came to  Williamsburg with James McDowell, who was married to her granddaughter, Agnes Davidson. Agnes Still died soon afterwards and left her property to James McDowell. When James McDowell died, his widow, Agnes, was made attorney for them by the following heirs, who then lived in Ireland; Archibald Drew, Margaret Drew, Adam Wilson, William McCormick, James McCormick, George Maxwell, Dorothy Maxwell, Robert Adams, and Sarah Adams.

Crafton Kerwin died in 1747, leaving a widow, Mary; and a son Thomas. His widow afterwards married the Reverend John Fordyce, minister of Prince Frederick's Church.

Sarah Mongtomery died in 1770. She mentions her two sons, William and Henry; and her two daughters, Janet, who married Dunn; and Mary, who married Armstrong; and her niece and her nephew, Margaret and John Barr. William McCalla died in 1750. He mentions his daughter, Jannet; his daughter, Margaret, wife of Alexander McCrea; his daughter, Sarah; and his daughter, Jean, wife of John James.

John McCormick died in 1752. He mentions his sister, Isabella McCormick; and his three other sisters, Mary Averton,  Agnes Carson,  and  Jean  Dick.

William McCormick died in 1750. He mentions his son, John McCormick; his daughter, Mary, who married John Dick; and his daughter, Isabelle.

James McCown died in 1750. He left all of his property in the hands of William Young, Samuel Montgomery, and Gavin Witherspoon, to apply so much of same as was necessary for the "Christian education" of his children, and the remainder to be paid to his sons, David, Thomas, and James.

John McCrea died in 1765. He mentions his wife, Martha; his sons, Thomas, William, John, and Joseph; and his daughter, Sarah.

Joseph. McCrea died in 1762. His wife was named Mary. He left two daughters, Mary, and Ann, who married John Matthews.

James McClelland died in 1761. His wife was named Mary. He had six children, James, John, Leonard, Bryce, Samuel, and Grizelle.

Abraham Michaux died in 1767. His wife was named Lydia. He had four sons, Peter, Daniel, Paul, and William. Of his daughters, Lydia married Clegg; Julia married Perry; and Hester married Cromwell.

Samuel  Montgomery died in 1751.     He left his wife, Jeleba, his plantation and all his slaves so long as she remained his widow.    He mentions his sons, Nathaniel and William.

Jonathan Murrill died in 1743.    He left legacies to his children, Anthony, William, Elizabeth, Susannah,  Sarah, Mary, and Martha.

John Matthews died in 1750.   His wife was Ann McCrea. He left four sons, William, John, Isaac and Abraham; and four daughters, Mary, Sarah, Elizabeth, and Jean.

Matthew Nelson died in 1742. He mentions his eldest son, George; his daughter, Mary, and his daughter, Elizabeth; and his four grandsons, Matthew, son of the oldest son, George; Samuel, son of his son, John; William, son of his son, William; and William, son of his son, Samuel.

George Nelson died in 1742. His wife was named Eleanor. He had two sons, Matthew and Jared; and three daughters, Mary, Jane, and Isabelle.

John Porter died in 1750. He had a son named James and a daughter named Mary and a brother-in-law named Joseph Bradley.

Dr. Thomas Potts died in 1760. His wife was named Sarah. He had a son named Thomas, and four daughters, Mary, Ann, Elizabeth, who married Swinton, and Margaret, who married Potts. He had a grandson named Thomas Johnson.

Robert Paisley died in 1761. His wife was named Mary. He had four sons, John, Robert, James, and William; and two daughters, Mary and Elizabeth.

John Rae died in 1760. He was the first Minister of the Williamsburg Presbyterian Church. His wife was named Rachel.    They left no children.

Samuel Scott died in 1774. He married Margaret Gregg. They had two daughters, Janet and Elizabeth. His widow married second William Gordon, third William Flagler. She was the Margaret Gregg Gordon of the Revolution.

Reverend Elisha Screven died in 1756. His wife was named Hannah. He had six sons, Joseph, Elisha, Joshua, Samuel, William, and Benjamin; and two daughters, Elizabeth, wife of James Fowler, and Hannah. This man was the founder of the city of Georgetown.

Nathaniel Snow died in 1760. He had three sons, George, James, and John; and two daughters, Mary and Ann.

James Scott died in 1750. He left all of his property to his two brothers, Alexander and John.

John Scott died in 1750. He left his property to his wife, and children, not named, and made his brother William Scott, Richard Richardson, and William Cantey, his executors.

Samuel Vareen gives all of his property to his grand-daughters, Martha and Elizabeth Crousby and Elizabeth Harbin. He makes his son-in-law, Francis Harbin, and his daughter, Ann Harbin, executor and executrix.

John White died in 1750. His wife was named Mary Ferguson.    They left one son, Blakely White.

John Watson died in 1760. He left two hundred pounds to the Williamsburg Presbyterian Church and the remainder of his estate to be equally divided among the daughters of Thomas Scott, of Williamsburg, deceased.

James Witherspoon died in 1768. He married Elizabeth McQuoid. They had four sons, James, Gavin, Robert, and John; and one daughter, Ann, who married Archibald McKee. In his will, he mentions his granddaughter, Elizabeth McKee.

Elizabeth Mouzon died in 1748. She mentions her five sons, Louis, James, Peter, Samuel, and Henry; and two daughters, Elizabeth and Ann.

Henry Mouzon died in 1749. His wife was named Ann. He had seven children, Henry, Ann, Esther, Jane, Sarah, Susannah Elizabeth, and Mary Ann.

John Pressley died in 1750. His wife was named Margaret. He left legacies to his son, William; his daughter, Susannah, of tender age; his daughter, Sarah; his daughter, Jane McCullough; and his daughter Eleanor Thompson. In his will, he directs that if his house, which he leaves to his wife, should become unfit to live in, that his son, William, should build her a house twenty-eight feet in length, and eighteen feet in breadth and that he shall keep her comfortable.

Joshua Screven died in 1764 and is buried on the North side of Big Dam Swamp. The tombstone standing at the head of his grave is the oldest monument in Williamsburg County. He endows his wife, Hannah, and gives to his brother, Benjamin Screven, his plantations on the North side of the North bank of Black River. He gives his silver knee buckles to his brother, William Screven, and his watch to his brother, Benjamin Screven; and some negroes to his mother, Hannah Screven.

William Matthews died in 1760. He left legacies to his wife, Elizabeth, and to his son,  William.

William Sabb died in 1765. His wife was named Deborah. He left two sons, Thomas Sabb and William Sabb; and four daughters, Deborah, Anna, Elizabeth, and Mary. In this will, he mentions his brother, Thomas  Sabb.

John McBride died in 1766. He gives his wife, Elizabeth, a liberal share of his property and his family Bible.  He provides for his five children, John, James, William, Samuel, and Rebecca, and for an unborn child.

Esther Vanalle died in 1749 and gave all of her property to her husband, Matthew Vanalle.

John Scott died in 1788. He mentions his wife, Sarah; his mother-in-law, Mrs. Elizabeth Williams, and his sister-in-law, Mrs. Rebecca Screven.

Thomas Scott died in 1766. He provides for his wife, Jannet, and his seven daughters, Elizabeth, Jean, Mary, Jannet, Katherine, Margaret, and Sarah, and gives all of his real estate to his son, William. These seven daughters were given much property in the will of John Watson.

John Scott died in 1769. His wife was named Catherine. He left three sons, Samuel, Joseph, and Moses, and one daughter, Isabelle.

Thomas McCrea died in 1760 without leaving a will. His oldest son, William McCrea, did not come to this country with his father but remained in Belfast, County Antrim, Ireland. Thomas McCrea left some children living in Williamsburg. When he died, his brother, Robert McCrea, of Lisnabrin, County Down, Ireland, made affidavit to these facts, aiding William McCrea to appoint attorneys in South Carolina.

Jannet Scott of Williamsburg. She mentions her grandson, Thomas Scott; son, William Scott; seven daughters, Elizabeth, Jean, Mary, Jannet, Catherine, Margaret, and Sarah; and her son-in-law, John Burrows. This will was probated on the 29th day of March, 1772.

James Fowler, planter and merchant, died in 1772. He mentions his father, Richard Fowler; his mother, Sarah Fowler, and his sister, Joanna Fowler, all of whom then lived in England; his wife, Elizabeth Screven, and his only child, Martha Fowler. He provides that his daughter, Martha, should inherit when she reached the age of eighteen years, and appointed his friends, John Scott, William Scott, and his wife, Elizabeth Screven, his executors.

William Frierson died in 1773. In his will, he mentions his wife, Mary; his son, Robert, and his son, John James. William Brown, William Campbell, and Isaac Nelson were his   executors.

Theodore Gourdin's will was probated January 8, 1774. He mentions his brothers, Isaac and Peter Gourdin; his sons, Theodore and Samuel; and his niece, Marian Boisseau. He left legacies to John Boddin, Esther McDonald, daughter of the late Captain John McDonald, and Edward Howard, son of George Howard. He wills that in the division of his negroes families should not be separated. His will was witnessed by James Lynch, William Buford, and Daniel Rhodus.

Francis Britton's will was proven before Samuel Nesmith, Esq., March 24, 1768. He mentions his sons, Moses, Francis, and Henry, and his daughter, Mary; his grandson, Daniel Lane Britton, son of Moses; Martha Britton; and Philip Britton, son of Joseph, his brother.

Isaac Branson's will was proved September 7, 1770. He mentions his wife, Mary; his son, Daniel; and his other children-his sons, David, Isaac, Josiah, Matthew, Moses, and Joshua; and his daughters, Mary Mellett and Susannah.

John Fleming's will was proved before James McCants, Esq., May 11, 1768. He mentions his wife, Elizabeth ; his brother's daughter, Elizabeth; his cousin, Samuel Shannon ; his sister, Agnes Cooper alias Fleming, and her two sons, James and Thomas Cooper; his sister's son, George, and daughter, Elizabeth Cooper; his wife's daughter, Jannet, and her daughter, Elizabeth Blakeley; his brother, James Fleming and his son, Peter Blakeley Fleming.

Henry Montgomery's will was proved January 26, 1769. He mentions his wife, Sarah; his sons, William and Henry; his daughters, Sarah Jannett Dunn and Mary Armstrong and his nephew, Hugh Montgomery.     This will was witnessed by Alexander McCrea, John McElveen,  and William McCullongh.

Jeremiah Vareen's will was proved July 5, 1767. He mentions his wife, Mary Vareen; his sons, William, Jeremiah, and Ebenezer; his son-in-law, James Sullivan; his daughters, Sarah Lewis, Ann Jenkins, Rebecca, Hannah, Rachel, Jane, and Martha.

Thomas Frierson's will was proved December 27, 1770, before James McCants, Esq. He mentions his wife, Mary Frierson; his daughter, Mary Wilson, and his daughter, Sarah Scott; and his grandson, Thomas Wilson. He makes his two sons-in-law, Roger Wilson and John Scott his sole executors.

Mary Gordon's will was proved the 23rd day of May, 1766. She mentions her six children, Moses, Elizabeth, Sarah, Margaret, Jean, and Mary. She left a legacy to Mary Wilson and also one to John Gordon, if he come to this province. She makes her son, Moses, Samuel Bradley, and William Frierson, Jr., her executors. This will was witnessed by James Dickey and Robert Wilson.

Royal Spry's will was proved December 27, 1770. He mentions his wife, Rebecca; his four children, Jean, John, Elizabeth, and Rebecca. He wills that his old slave Phyllis should have her freedom immediately after his death and be maintained and clothed out of his estate.

Thomas McKnight's will was proved November 29, 1772. He mentions his sons, Robert, James, and William; and his daughter, Mary; and his brother, Robert. His will was witnessed by William Law, George Dickey, and Richard Tyser.

John McFadden's will was proved July 19, 1773. He mentions his five children, John, James, Robert, Thomas, and Mary. His executors were Robert Wilson, Sr., and his son, John McFadden, at the age of twenty years, William Orr, and Robert Paisley, and Joseph McKee.

John Gregg's will was proved October 3, 1775. He mentions his wife, Eleanor; his sons, James, John, Robert, and William; and his daughters, Margaret, Mary, and Janet. "It is my desire that my sons, Robert and William, and my daughter, Jannet, be learned to Read, and Right, and Cypher through the common rules of Arithmetick."

Archibald McKee's will was proved October 3, 1776. He mentions his wife, Elizabeth; his five children, Adam and Joseph McKee, Martha Cooper, Jane Miller, and Archibald Knox, and his two sons-in-law, William Miller and Samuel Knox.


CHAPTER   XL
Williamsburg Soldiers in the Revolution

So far as is known, all records of Marion's Brigade have been lost; indeed, it is not certain that General Marion kept any rolls of his soldiers. Tradition is full of tales of these men of valor, but it is difficult to obtain authentic information of many who must have been among them. Some years after the War, those soldiers who submitted accounts for services and supplies were paid. There are a great many of these "Pay Indents" in the office of the Historical Commission of South Carolina and from these records it has been established that nearly all of the following served under General Marion. There are a few names on the list that have other incontestable evidence to warrant their worthiness among these mighty men.

Colonels: John Baxter, Hugh Ervin, John Ervin, Archibald McDonald.

Majors: John James, William Buford, James Conyers, Morgan  Sabb, James Postell.

Captains: John Armstrong, Philip Frierson, William Frierson, John Graham, James Green, William Gordon, John James, Hugh Knox, Andrew Lester, John Macauley, Robert McCottry, John MeKenzie, John Mills, Henry Mouzon, Robert Paisley, William Spivey, John Nelson, Samuel Taylor, James Wilson, James Witherspoon, John Witherspoon, David Witherspoon, Gavin  Witherspoon, Daniel Conyers, Andrew DuBose, Mark Huggins.

Lieutenants: James H. Allison, Daniel Britton, Daniel Cottingham, John Frierson, William Gamble, James Gordon, Roger Gordon, James Hamilton, John Hinds, Alexander James, Thomas Kerwin, Andrew Lester, James McDowell, Hugh Postell, John Reed, Joseph Scott, John McKenzie, James McDowell, John Wilson, William Wilson, James Davis, William Huggins.

Sergeants: George Frierson, Gavin James, Thomas McGee, David Simms, William Nelson.

Soldiers:
Alexander Adair, Benjamin Adair, James Adair, John Adair, James Allison, James Armstrong, John Armstrong, William Armstrong, John Arnett, Francis Austin, John Austin, Thomas Austin, John Anderson.

Israel Baxter, Samuel Bennett, John Blakeley, James Bradley, John Borland, John Boyd, John Bradford, Joshua Braveboy, John Brockinton, James Brown, John Brown, James Branson, William Branson, Joseph Burgess, William Burgess, John Burns, William Burrows.

David Campbell, Duncan Campbell, George Campbell, James Campbell, Thomas Campbell, William Campbell, John China, George Chandler, Isaac Chandler, Jesse Chandler, Jacob Coleman, Benjamin Coker, Nathan Coker, West Cook, William Cook, Samuel Cordes, Dill Cottingham, John Cunningham Thomas Clark, John Cantey, Charles Cantley, Thomas Coker, John Cousar.

John Daniel, John Davis, James Davis, Robert Davis, John Dial, John Dickey, Peter Dubose, Ben Duke, William Duke, John Dye, Isaiah Dennis.

Daniel Eaddy, Henry Eaddy,  James Ervin.

Hugh Ferguson, John Ferguson, Thomas Ferguson, James Fleming, John Fleming, William Fleming, Absalom Frierson, George Frierson, Joshua Frierson, Robert Frierson, William Frierson, William Frierson, Jr., John Ford, William Fullwood, Moses Ferguson, James Frierson, James Fleming, Jr., Robert Fraser, William Fraser.

Hugh Gamble, James Gamble, John Gamble, Robert Gamble, Samuel Gamble, Stephen Gamble, Samuel Garner, Jesse George, Richard George, William George, James Gordon, James Gibson, Robert Gibson, Roger Gibson, William Godwin, Moses Gordon, John Gordon, James Green, James Graham, William Graham, Samuel Garner, Benjamin Green, William Green, Andrew Gillespie.

James Hamilton, John Hamilton, William Hamilton, Richard Hanna, Sr., Robert Hanna, Jr., William Haselden, Richard Haselden, Robert Heathley, John Huggins, James Hodge, Benjamin Hodge, William Hodge, Benjamin Howard, Edward Howard, John Hatson, William Hutson, John Howard.

Gavin James, William D. James, Robert Jamison, Nathaniel James, David James, James James, Robert James.

Abraham Keels, Isaac Keels, John Keels, James Kelly, John Kelly, Samuel Kelly, Alexander Kennedy, James Kennedy, Joseph Kennedy, Stephen Kennedy, Thomas Kennedy,  Robert Knox, Archibald Knox.

Andrew Lee, John Lee, Henry Lenud, Peter Lequex, Samuel Lequex, Daniel Lesesne, Francis Lesesne, John Liesesne, James Lester,  Robert Lowry, William  Lowry.

David Matthews, John Marshall, Isaac Matthews, Joseph Matthews, Samuel Matthews, William Matthews, Samuel Mayes, David McCants, John McCants, Thomas McCants, William McCants, John McCown, Samuel McCown, Moses McCown, John McCreary, James McCreight, Alexander McCown, John McConnell, James McConnell, Hugh McConnell, Thomas McConnell, Robert McCormick, Hugh McBride, James McBride, Barkley McClary, John McClary, Matthew McClary, Jr., Thomas McClary, Samuel McClary, William Michau, James Macauley, James McCutchen, James McCullough, John McCullough, Hugh McCullough, Nathaniel McCullough, William McCullough, Francis McDonald, James McDonald, John McDonald, William McDowell, James McDowell, William McElveen, Edward McFaddin, John McFaddin, Thomas McFaddin, William McFaddin, Adam McKee, Robert McKee, Thomas McKee, John McKnight, Moses McKnight, Robert McKnight, James McGee, Thomas McGee, William McGee, John McGill, Samuel McGill, Thomas McGinness, Charles McGinney, John McCrea, Thomas McCrea, Thomas McCrea, Jr., James McCutchen, William McPherson, Andrew Miller, Jesse Mills, Thomas Mills, Thomas Mitchum, William Moffat, Hugh Montgomery, James Montgomery, Robert Montgomery, Samuel Montgomery, Norman Montgomery, Benjamin Morris, Thomas Morris, William Morris, Edward Murphy, John Murphy, James Murphy, William Murrell, John Mills, John Morris, George Morris, Andrew McMuldrow, John MeMuldrow, James McMuldrow, William McMuldrow, Hugh McMuldrow, David McMuldrow.

Isaac Nelson, Samuel Nelson, Thomas Nelson, William Nelson, John Nesmith, Lemuel Nesmith, Robert Nesmith, Samuel Nesmith, Thomas Nesmith, Joseph Nettles, Robert Nettles.

William Oliver, William Orr.

John Perdreau, John Paisley, James Parnell, James Parsons, John Postell, Joshua Patrick, James Patrick, Patrick Pendergrass.

James Richbourg, John Robinson, William Robinson, Andrew Rodgers, John Rodgers, Jr., Nathanial Rodgers, William T. Rodgers, Benjamin Reeves.

Morgan Sabb, Peter Salters, Alexander Scott, James Scott, John Scott, Samuel Scott, Thomas Scott, William Scott, Daniel Shaw, William Sellers, David Simms, Thomas Simms, Richard Singleton, Peter Sinkler, Samuel Smiley, William Smiley, James Smith, John Smith, William Smith, James Snow, William Snow, John Staggers, Alexander Stewart, Hugh Stewart, James Steele, William Steele, Robert Strong, Hugh Sutton, Robert Swan, William Swinton, Shadrack Simons, Edward Sexton, James Steele, William  Shaw, Jacob Sutton.

Edward Thomas, William Thompson, Archibald Thomson, James Thomson, John Tomlinson, James Thomas, Nathaniel Tomlinson, William Thomas.

Michael Wallace, James Wallace, John Wallace, William Wallace, John Watson, James Watson, Robert Watson,  John  Wheeler,  John  White,  Jesse Williamson,Sterling Williamson, William Williamson, Hugh Wilson, James Wilson, Edward Wingate, Gavin Witherspoon, John Witherspoon, John Workman, Robert Workman, John Wilson, John Woodberry, David Watson.

Among those who furnished supplies for Marion's brigade were the following:
John Armstrong, John Burns, David Campbell, John Cantey, Charles Cantey, Thomas Ferguson, Moses Gordon, Thomas Kerwin, James Lester, James Macauley, John Macauley, Robert McKnight, James McCullough, Samuel Montgomery, Nathaniel Montgomery, Mrs. Susannah Parsons, William Thompson, Michael Wallace, John Watson, Mrs. Catherine Watson, John Wilson, Mrs. Mary Wilson, Captain Hugh Knox, Robert McKee, John Mills, John Mills, Jr., William McFaddin, William Nelson, Alexander Kennedy, Robert Gibson, James Gibson, John White, Benjamin Screven, Benjamin Singleton, John Woodberry, Daniel Lesesne, Edward Thomas, William James, Mrs. Sarah James, Thomas Kennedy, Thomas Simms, John Lee, Archibald McDonald, Mrs. Rachel McDonald, Daniel Kelly, Abraham Keels, John Kennedy, Charles McGinney, John Gordon, John Arnett, Daniel Eaddy, William Graham, Robert Lowry, Peter Lequeux, William Michau, Isaac Nelson, James Richbourg, Peter Sinkler, Samuel Cordes, James Brunson, Henry Lenud, John Staggers, Joseph McKee, John McGill, Thomas McCants, William Burgess, John Perdreau, James Armstrong, John Adair, William Burrows, John Dye, Samuel Bennett, Nathaniel McCullough, James McCullough, John Scott, William Scott, Mrs. Jane Arnett, Mrs. Martha Boyd, John Boyd, Absalom Frierson, Hugh Gamble, Theodore and Peter Gourdin Estates, Mrs. Mary Lesesne, Thomas McFaddin, Mrs. Mary Salters, Morgan Sabb, Ben Duke, Mrs. Elizabeth Dobbin, Henry Lenud, Hugh McCullough, James Belin, John Dickey, Mrs. Elizabeth Bradley, George Chandler, James McCullough for estate of Paul Fulton, William Snow, John Gamble, Allard Bella, James Belin, Mrs. Margaret Gordon.

Colonel John Baxter was a son of the Reverend John Baxter, minister of the Black Mingo Presbyterian Church in 1733. Colonel Baxter was born and reared in Williamsburg, where his father was a successful planter as well as a vigorous preacher. Colonel Baxter was severely wounded at Quinday, from which wound he never fully recovered.

Colonel John Ervin commanded the Britton's Neck Regiment and served in Marion's Brigade. He was born March 25, 1754, and died June 10, 1820, the son of John and Elizabeth Ervin. He married Jane Witherspoon, daughter of Gavin and Jane James Witherspoon, January 10, 1775. Their children reaching maturity were Samuel, who moved to Georgia and married Harriette Keith; Elizabeth, who married Mr. Ford of Mississippi; and James Robert, who married Elizabeth Powe. Jane, wife of John Ervin, died September 20, 1790, and he, on October 6, 1799, married his cousin, Margaret Ervin. Two of their children reached maturity, Hugh and John. Colonel Ervin was born in the Cedar Swamp section of Williamsburg County but moved just before the War of the Revolution to the Aim-well community of the great Pee Dee River. He was one of the founders of the Aimwell Presbyterian Church and one of its first Session of Elders. It is probable that he was the youngest man who attained to the rank of colonel during the War of the Revolution.

Colonel Hugh Ervin was second in command of Marion's Brigade. He was as a general rule left in command at Marion's headquarters when the general was in the field. He was a son of Hugh Ervin, Sr., and was born in the Cedar Swamp community of Williamsburg. He moved to the Aimwell community on Pee Dee just before the War of the Revolution and was one of the founders and first Elders of the Aimwell Presbyterian Church.

Colonel Archibald McDonald was born in Orangeburg and later moved to Williamsburg and served in the Revolution from this district.

Major William Buford lived on the San tee River and was a valuable officer in Marion's Brigade.

Major James Conyers was one of the most dashing officers South Carolina furnished in the Revolution. He was born on his father's plantation in the Brewington community where a lake is still known as Conyers' Lake. He first enlisted in Captain Fullwood's company in 1775 along with his younger brother, Daniel. James Conyers was a major in Wade Hampton's Regiment of State Cavalry in 1782 and served under General Sumter in the northwestern section of South Carolina, and under General Green in his campaigns in northern South Carolina. Major Conyers was the officer chosen by General Green to bear his confidential communications to General Marion, evidencing unmistakably the high esteem in which he was held by the Commander-in-chief of the Revolutionary Armies of South Carolina.

Judge James, in his Life of Marion, relates how Major Conyers, when attacked by cavalry force of the British by night, rather than fall back on the main body in camp where he knew it must be asleep and liable to disastrous surprise, took the dangerous risk of leading the enemy off on another road, continuing a running fight, and by so doing, saved the camp. Major Conyers was killed after the British in South Carolina had been driven into the City of Charleston and the War of the Revolution had been practically won. One day late in the year 1782 his body servant came home leading his master's horse and telling that Major Conyers had been killed by a foraging party of the British at the Round O near Charleston.

Captain John Nelson was born September 17, 1753, and died December 27, 1803. In the War of the Revolution, he first enlisted as a private in Fullwood's Company, September 30, 1775, and afterwards became a captain in Marion's Brigade. He married a Miss Kingswood who was born 1768 and died 1864. Captain Nelson lived on his plantation in the Brewington community. Close by was the ford across Black River Swamp frequently used by General Francis Marion in his military forays. A few miles from this Nelson plantation Marion fell on the Tories at Tarcote and scattered them with great loss. Captain John Nelson's house was burned by Wemyss, the British Commander, but rebuilt on the same spot.

Captain Nelson was an interesting character and his home was the center of the social life of the Brewington community. As long as he lived, Captain Nelson kept at his home a cannon that had been used in the War of the Revolution; and, whenever he desired that his friends and Revolutionary comrades gather at his home for a few hours of feasting and fellowship, he would fire this old cannon and everybody in the community would hasten to his home. They knew very well that Captain Nelson had already roasted many pigs, and a barrel of good old brandy had been skidded out in the grove and made ready for tapping. His bread was baked in a large brick Dutch oven built out under the oaks. Sometimes a hill of luscious sweet potatoes was baked all at once in this oven. The corn meal used on his plantation was all ground in a hand mill and his slaves knew how to bake corn bread in a manner not known in the present day. The fact is the baking of corn bread is as much a lost art in Williamsburg as the tempering of Damascus' swords is in the world at large.

Captain Nelson loved his friends and hated his enemies. The story is told that after the War a man who had been a troublesome Tory during the conflict and who afterwards wanted the Captain's friendship and to "neighbor" with him rode up the long avenue one day and, prudently remaining on his horse outside the gate, hailed. When Captain Nelson appeared on the porch, the former Tory began to announce his errand, which was never finished, for the old Captain stepped back within the door where his loaded rifle always hung and the kind hearted housewife or somebody who understood, cried out, "Ride, Tory, ride," and when Captain Nelson with his rifle appeared on the porch, the only thing visible in the land was a cloud of dust.

Captain William Gordon was a native of Pennsylvania, He settled in the Cedar Swamp section in 1770. Some time later, he married Margaret, widow of Samuel Scott, and daughter of John Gregg. In 1774, William Gordon moved into the Aim well community. He died in 1783, before any claims for the services of Marion's men were paid. When his widow submitted her claim for his services, the separate items amounted to a considerable sum. Endorsed on this claim for payment and signed by Robert Baxter, Justice of the Quorum, is the following: "Captain Gordon is dead; there is therefore no person to prove his account; however, I can assure the Auditor that Mr. Gordon was as constantly and as regularly in the service of his country as any Militia officer in the Pee Dee Regiment; and, from the character of the officers who have given his service, I really think his account must be just." The claim was paid in full. Captain Gordon was elected a member of the General Assembly of South Carolina for the district "East of the Waterees" in 1782.

Captains John McKenzie, William McKenzie, and John Mills were from the northwestern section of Williamsburg and served under General Sumter. Captain Samuel Taylor lived in the Pudding Swamp community and was an aide-de-camp to General Sumter and one of his most dashing officers.

Lieutenant Roger Gordon was a grandson of Colonel Roger Gordon, an original settler in Williamsburg in 1732. In 1781, General Marion sent him out to patrol on Lynch's Creek.  He and his company were surrounded by a much larger body of Tories; and, after having capitulated, he and all his men were murdered. Lieutenant Gordon left a widow and one son, who was an infant. They lived afterwards in Sumter District.

Lieutenant Joseph Scott was born August 18, 1747, son of John Scott,  an original settler in Williamsburg.     He married Jannet McCrea, born August 5, 1747, daughter of Alexander McCrea, original settler in Williamsburg. They had four daughters, Margaret, Jannet, Elizabeth, and Mary, and one son, John.    Lieutenant Joseph Scott was one of the most daring officers in Marion's Brigade.    He served under Marion but a short time, from the formation of the Brigade in June until wounded by a rifle ball which shattered his thigh in the Battle of Black Mingo, which prevented him from further active duty with troops.    His record was such that he has always been a favorite Revolutionary hero in Williamsburg, and fiction writers have frequently found   material   in his exploits.     The   bullet which shattered his thigh still remains in the possession of one of his descendants in Kingstree.

Major John James was born in Ireland, April 12, 1732, son of Elizabeth Witherspoon and William James, who brought him to Williamsburg when he was less than a year old. Major James' grandfather was John James, Captain of Dragoons, under William, of Orange against James II. Major James was a powerful man from every point of view, broadshouldered, clearminded, and commanding in appearance and character. He was captain of militia under George III in 1775 and immediately resigned when the Revolutionary War began and served with distinction during that seven year conflict. He gained special distinction in commanding a company at the battle of Tulifinny's Bridge before the fall of Charleston.

Major James, before the fall of Charleston, was sent by Governor Rutledge to Williamsburg to organize the district into a fighting force for service in the Revolution.

While doing this work, Charleston was taken by the British and thus Major James escaped capture. A number of the men of Williamsburg were soldiers in the American forces at the fall of Charleston, May 12, 1780. These soldiers were paroled and allowed to come home on condition that they would refrain from further active participation in the war against the King's forces. Major James had already begun his work organizing and training soldiers in Williamsburg for service in the Revolution when these paroled soldiers reached home. Their coming on parole gave an element of uncertainty in the district. The men who Major James had already incited to action and enlisted in the service of the colonies did not know just what to do. Major James was sent to Georgetown to interview Captain Ardesoif, British Commander at that time. The military record of Major James is shown along with the story of the participation of Marion's Brigade in many battles of the Revolution. History is full of records of his daring deeds. Frequent references to him are found in Weems' life of Marion, Simms' Life of Marion, McCrady's History of South Carolina, and Ramsay's Revolution.

Major James was Ruling Elder in the Indiantown Church, represented his people in the Provincial Assembly, and was a member of the Legislature after the formation of the State. His statesmanship is well shown in his services in the State Legislature during the trying time when the colony was being transformed into the State. January 18, 1753, Major James married Jean, daughter of William Dobein, of Indiantown, and to them were born four children; John, who was a Captain in the Revolution; William Dobein, a seventeen year old soldier in the Revolution, later a Chancellor in Equity and the author of the Life of Marion; and two daughters, Elizabeth and Jannet.

Captain John Witherspoon, the son of Gavin and his cousin, Jane James, was born in Williamsburg in 1742 and died in 1802. He married Mary Conn. He was an Elder in the Hopewell Church and lived in the Pee Dee section. He was a captain in the Revolutionary War. Simms in his life of Marion says of him, "Like his brother, Gavin, he is distinguished for great coolness, strength, and courage, and delighted in rash adventure, the rashness giving a sort of relish to the danger."

Gavin  Witherspoon,   son  of  Gavin,  was  born  in  Williamsburg in 1748 and died in 1834.    Marion called him an extraordinary soldier.  He was a great athlete all of his life. He died at eighty-five years old; and, on the day of his death, he rode thirty -miles on horseback and died in his chair.    The children of Gavin Witherspoon all gave distinguished service in the Revolutionary War: John and Gavin as captains,  and Robert  and William as private soldiers, while two of his daughters married the Colonels Ervin, who ranked next to Marion in his Brigade-Captain James Witherspoon, son of Robert and Elizabeth  Heathly, was born March 20,   1759,  and died  September 9, 1791.    On July 15, 1781, he was commissioned first   Lieutenant   of   Captain   John   McBride's   company, Colonel Archibald McDonald's Regiment.     On April 16, 1782, he was promoted to be Captain of the Kingstree Company.    In transmitting his commission, as Captain, General  Marion  in  a letter thus  referred  to  him,  "A  man whose conduct and spirit I have been an eye-witness of, whom  I  have  always had  the highest  opinion  and  the highest regard for."    Captain Witherspoon was one of the most popular officers in Williamsburg.    He was engaged in most of the battles of the Revolution fought in South Carolina.    He is buried in the old Indiantown Churchyard.    No stone marks the spot.   He married Miss Nancy White January 8, 1782, and to them were born four children,   Robert  Lynn,  James  Harvey,   George  White, and Martha Ann.

John Witherspoon, son of John and his first cousin, Mary Witherspoon, was born in 1755 and died in 1827. He was an active soldier in Colonel Taylor's Regimnet during the Revolution. He married Rebecca Ervin, widow, whose maiden name was Me Bride. He lived near Midway Church and served for a time as Judge of Probate in Wil-liamsburg District.

Captain David Witherspoon lived near Salem Church. He was an active officer under Marion. He married twice: first, Elizabeth Bradley; and second, Mary Story.

Gavin Witherspoon was a Corporal in Captain Daniel Conyers' company of Marion's Brigade.

Captain Daniel Conyers was a daring officer under Marion. Many tales of his exploits are told. One story in which the young woman who afterwards became his wife figures. The British were encamped on the Witherspoon plantation about seven miles South of the King's Tree. They held possession of the place for several days. It seems that the British protected the Witherspoon women and showed them commendable courtesies. Mary Witherspoon, daughter of the house, was affianced to Captain Conyers. He was then serving under Marion and Marion's forces were preparing to drive the British from the Witherspoon plantation. Before Marion had made his final successful attack on the British at the Witherspoon house, Captain Conyers had ridden up the Witherspoon Avenue and challenged any British officer to mortal combat. On the afternoon of the day on which Captain Conyers had issued this challenge, a British officer was taunting Miss Mary with the hopelessness of the American cause and telling her how soon Captain Conyers would be his prisoner. Miss Mary pulled off her slipper, struck the British officer in the face, saying at the same time, "He  is  ready  to  meet you;  go  out and  fight him,  you coward."

From these old pay vouchers on file in the office of the South Carolina Historical Commission, Columbia, S. C, the following statements are taken: "Thomas Ferguson furnished Marion with seventy-five thousand feet of lum-ber which Marion used in the 33rewington vicinity; Samuel Montgomery made boots and shoes for Marion's men; Alexander Kennedy, a saddler; James Hamilton, a paymaster; William Murrell, commissary; Richard George frequently ferried Marion's men across the Pee Dee; Daniel Eaddy was a bootmaker; John Perdreau was Marion's ferryman at Lenud's; Ben Duke was saddler for Colonel Peter Horry; John Dickey was one of Marion's purchasing commissaries; James Armstrong was a wagon master; Governor Rutledge in 1781 impressed five hundred thirty-four pounds of indigo from Allard Belin; John Hamilton was one of the keenest observers in Marion's remarkable secret service."

The four Nesmith brothers, John, Robert, Samuel, and Lemuel, were General Marion's bodyguard. These Nesmiths were herdsmen in their boyhood days and knew the country from following the cattle. They were exceptional physical men, each one of them more than six feet, straight, active, and alert as Indians, and everyone an expert rifleman. They all loved their leader with surpassing loyalty and devotion. Tradition says that General Marion and a Continental officer, who had a message from General Green to General Marion, were discussing one day at Tarcote conditions then existing when a body of Tories under Major Gillis appeared in the distance. General Marion and the Continental officer stood their ground but the four Nesmith brothers disappeared immediately behind a little milk house. Marion understood, but the Continental officer doubted. The Tories came  on. When their leader had arrived at a point about three hundred yards from. General Marion, four rifles from behind the milk house shot as one and the Tory leader fell. His followers fled. General Marion and the Continental officer walked up to the body of the dead Tory. General Marion placed his hand over the heart of the dead man and asked the Continental officer to locate the wound. The four Nesmith brothers had each placed a bullet in the space covered by Marion's hand. The Continental officer then told General Marion that he would go back to General Green and tell him that the swamps of South Carolina were safe for liberty.

The four captains, Henry Mouzon, Robert McCottry, John Macauley and John James, Jr., who organized the companies forming the Williamsburg battalion about which Marion's Brigade grew, are outstanding officers in the War of the Revolution.

Captain Mouzon was of French Huguenot descent, had been schooled in France, and spoke French as fluently as English. He was one of the peculiarly active influences in the amalgamation of the Huguenot and the Scotch-Irish elements in Williamsburg. It was largely due to him that these two peoples lived so harmoniously in the first days of contact and flu ally united in the Americans of the present time. He was a civil engineer of the first rank. He made the first map of North and South Carolina drawn anything like to scale, which map became the basis of all maps of these States made since 1775. It was in that year that his map was first published in London and afterwards in Paris. He made the first survey for the Santee Canal. Within a month after Marion's Brigade began its work, Captain Mouzon was so severely wounded in the battle of Black Mingo that he could not further participate on the field. He was buried in the Mouzon graveyard near where he lived on Pudding Swamp.

Captain Robert McCottry developed, in all probability, the   most   effective fighting   unit   of   his   age.     Tales   of McCottry's riflemen told by Tarleton and Wemyss and Ardesoif in London caused all the world to wonder; and it may be that the marksmanship displayed in battle by these men of Cedar Swamp and Black Mingo has had much to do with the careful training of modern riflemen. Captain McCottry was the leading man of his organiza-tion, from every point of view. When he fired, a victim fell- Many stories are told of his unerring aim. One tale of him goes: He saw across Black River a Tory leader, raised his rifle, drew a bead on the Tory, and the men looked to see the Tory fall. But Captain McCottry lowered his rifle without firing. The unconscious Tory did not know. Three times Captain McCottry raised his rifle, and every time he refused to fire. His men wondered. "That Tory is one of my neighbors, Captain John Broekinton," he explained, "and I cannot kill him." Captain McCottry is buried in George's Field and no stone marks his grave. McCottry's Lake, a favorite pleasure ground of Williamsburg, is named for him. [Captain McCottry was called. "Robert" by his family and his namesakes for generations have been Roberts. Family records refer to him as Robert. He is known, however, as "William" in the South. Carolina General Assembly Journal, and. so denominated by some historians who have referred to Williamsburg in the Revolution. His  name was probably William   Robert   McCottry.]

Captain John Macauley was the conservative force in the Williamsburg battalion. He was of the scholar type. It must not be understood from this statement that he was wanting in daring, dash, and executive ability, for no oman could have commanded his company a single day unless he had these qualities. But, rather, that his un-derstanding was a positive factor. "When Captain Macauley expressed an opinion, his soldiers ceased to think and translated it into action. Captain Macauley was elected to the General Assembly for many years after the Revolution, and was of great usefulness and strength in that body while it was building the State on the broken colonial foundation. He was for some time Major of the upper Williamsburg battalion of Militia. He was buried with his fathers in the Frierson graveyard. No stone shows the spot.

Captain John James, son of Major John James, was born in 1754. Although young and somewhat overshadowed by his illustrious father, Captain James was worthy of his place in the "Big Four" captains of Revolutionary Williamsburg. He was the chief actor in many thrilling exploits during the War wherein he added reputation for valor to his name and to the lines of his blood. He was a soldier in the War before the fall of Charleston. After he had joined Marion's Brigade, he was, therefore, outlawed by the British. Once they captured him and he escaped the halter merely because the British soldiers who could identify him would not testify against him. He was long a useful, substantial citizen and a ruling elder in the Indiantown Church. He was buried in his churchyard, and his family placed a tombstone to mark his grave.

Nearly every man in the foregoing lists of officers and men of Marion's Brigade now has descendants living in Williamsburg County. Careful study indicates that less than one per centum of the people now living in Williamsburg have none of the blood of these heroes of the American Revolution in the veins.

CHAPTER    XII.
GOVERNMENT   BY   THE   PEOPLE.
During the Revolution, the State of South. Carolina considered few matters than those directly related to prosecuting the War to its successful conclusion. The General Assembly did, however, virtually abolish the over-lordship of the Church of England. It enabled men who were not communicants of this Church for the first time to hold official positions. This permitted the Scotch-Irish to enter politics.

In 1782, Williamsburg, or Prince Frederick's Parish, sent to the House of Representatives the following: Colonel John Baxter, Major John James, Major John Macauley, Captain Robert McCottry, and Dr. Thomas Potts. All of these men were serving as officers in the Revolutionary War at that time. Dr. Potts was a surgeon in Marion's Brigade. James Postell was the sixth member chosen from Williamsburg, but he was elected at the same time from St. Philip's and St. Michael's Parishes in Charleston and represented these parishes.

The General Assembly of 1783 began real constructive work for the permanent welfare of the State of South Carolina. Williamsburg was fortunate in having in this Legislature such an able delegation. This General Assembly found the State in a most precarious condition. The people of the state had determined to form a republic and had little precedent for guiding them along the way they had chosen.

The Whig or Patriot element in the state, while victorious and dominating, had the defeated Tory faction always present and portending evil to the new state. This Tory element included most of the men who had theretofore governed the colony and were therefore conversant. with conditions and  experienced  in  controlling.     A  majority of the men who lived in Beaufort, Charleston, and Georgetown had opposed the Revolution and had remained loyal to the Mother Country during that great struggle. The "back country" in South Carolina, of which Williamsburg formed a part, was composed almost entirely of men who had favored the Revolution and fought the war for independence to its successful conclusion. Beaufort, Charleston, and Georgetown, before the Revolution, had paid but little attention to this "back country" and this "back country" had no special bond of union with these places. When a certain element of these three cities elected to remain loyal to England and the men of the "back country" determined to struggle for independence, this breach was widened.

The Tories in South Carolina, while in the minority and defeated in war in 1783, for the most part were even then unwilling to accept the result of the War and to enter enthusiastically into the formation of the independent State of South Carolina. This Legislature of 1783 had this Tory opposition to face. The Patriots were in the majority in the Legislature, however, and passed laws confiscating the property and banishing many of the leading Tories from South Carolina. Of the three Tories of Williamsburg, Major Sabb died during the War; Major Hamilton left the colony when the British finally evacuated Charleston and did not return; and Captain John Brockinton remained on his plantation on Black Mingo. This Legislature ordered that his property be confiscated and that he be banished. Immediately in 1783 upon the passage of this act naming him for banishment, he petitioned the General Assembly to waive the penalties provided in the act so far as he was concerned and his petition was referred to the delegates from this parish and from Saint David's. Every member of this committee knew Captain Brockinton personally before the War of the Revolution and liked him.

This committee, although composed entirely of men who had served under Marion, among whom were Major John James and James Bradley, took a large view of the whole situation, and their decision to remove the disabilities imposed upon Captain Brockinton had much weight in determining the future liberal policy of the State of South Carolina toward the Tories. Perhaps that one act dissipated more of the hatred then existing between the Whigs and Tories in South Carolina than any other, and opened the way for all men to unite for the upbuilding of the commonwealth. A. few of the Tories were banished and the estates of some of them were confiscated; however, the State very soon began to welcome these men, once so hated, as valuable citizens of the new nation, which they so soon proved themselves.

While a majority of the people realized that the Whigs and Tories were simply, in the beginning, two great political parties in England and America, and that a colonial citizen, in all good conscience, might have espoused the cause of the "Mother Country," some regarded the Tory taint as ineradicable. In 1787, when a bill to restore the civil rights of a certain Tory was before the General Assembly, the Williamsburg delegation voted as follows: Aye, Robert Paisley, John Dickey, and Benjamin Porter; Nay, John Thompson Green.

From the close of the Revolution in 1783 until South Carolina became a member of the Federal Union in 1788, Williamsburg was concerned primarily in working out its own economic salvation. No other section in South Caro-lina suffered so severely during the Revolution as did Williamsburg. When the War began, Williamsburg had grown rich producing indigo and tobacco and raising cattle and sheep. This indigo that Williamsburg produced was exported to England; and, when the War of the Revolution began in South Carolina, the sale of indigo ceased. The one thing upon which Williamsburg had for so long depended for its economic prosperity failed all at once. Its immense stock of indigo on hand rotted. Its indigo tanks decayed and its indigo fields grew into wild wood. During the Revolution, the large herds of cattle that fed and flourished along the swamps and creeks and rivers emptying into Black River had either been exhausted in supplying Marion's men with beef or wantonly destroyed during the several British campaigns in this district.

After the Revolution, Williamsburg had to come again almost from pioneer conditions. Of course, pessimists preached that the end had come, but this district then evidenced its most striking recuperative powers, which have been evident ever since in the many calamitous conditions that have befallen the section. For several years, the men of Williamsburg paid especial attention to cattle raising, and, within a few seasons, many were abundantly rewarded. It is said that Captain John Nelson, whose home was burned, whose plantation was destroyed, and whose cattle were all lost in the Wemyss destruction of 1780, by 1790 was marking more than a thousand calves every season, while in other sections of the district, Major John James, Major John Nesmith, William Wilson, Benjamin Screven, Alexander McCrea, and John Snow owned herds as large as Captain Nelson. Ready markets for these cattle were found in Charleston and Georgetown. They were driven by cow boys across Murray's Ferry to Charleston and Brown's Ferry to Georgetown.

Much tobacco was grown in Williamsburg immediately after the War and was a source of great revenue. Some cotton for market was grown on the Santee. Rice for plantation use was grown all over the section, but only along Big Dam Swamp was it produced in marketable quantities.

The State Convention for the purpose of considering and ratifying or rejecting the Constitution framed for the United States by a Convention of Delegates assembled in Philadelphia in May, 1787, met in Charleston on May 12, 1788. One hundred delegates from the various districts in South Carolina were present. The members of this Convention from Williamsburg, or Prince Frederick's Parish, as it was then called, were William Wilson, Patrick Dollard, Alexander Tweed, William Frierson, William Reed, James Pettigrew, and John Burgess, Jr. A temporary organization was effected and the Convention adjourned until the following day. When it reassembled, there were two hundred twenty-four delegates present. General Thomas Sumter moved the postponement of further consideration of the proposed Constitution, which, motion was lost. Ayes, 89, and nays, 135. The delegates from Prince Frederick's Parish voted as follows: Patrick Dollard, William Reed, James Pettigrew, and John Burgess, Jr., aye; William Wilson, Alexander Tweed and William Frierson, nay.

This Convention considered in detail every article of the proposed Constitution. William Wilson of Williamsburg was appointed a member of the committee of seven from this South Carolina Convention to suggest to Congress amendments to this Constitution. One of the points most feared was its failure to limit the eligibility of the President of the United States to re-election after the expiration of one term of four years. This section was hotly contested It was urged that the failure to limit the President to one term of four years was dangerous to the liberties of the people and calculated to perpetuate in one person during life the high authority and influence that inheres in the chief magistracy; and that in a short time unlimited terms of office for the President would terminate in a hereditary monarchy. The Convention voted on a resolution to limit the tenure of the President to one term of four years. The final vote stood: ayes, 68, and nays, 139. The delegates from Prince Frederick's Parish voted as follows: William Wilson, William Frierson, and James Pettigrew, nay; Patrick Dollard, William Reed, and John Burgess, Jr., aye. The following resolution was passed: "This Convention doth declare that no section or paragraph of the said Constitution warrants a construction that the states do not retain all powers not expressly relinquished by them and vested in the General Government of the Union."

South Carolina ratified the proposed United States Constitution on May 23, 1788, the vote of the Convention being ayes, 149, and nays, 73. The delegates from Wil liamsburg voted as follows: For ratification, William Wilson, Alexander Tweed, William Frierson, James Pettigrew; against ratification, Patrick Dollard, William Reed, John Burgess, Jr. Thus it will be seen that four of the seven delegates from Williamsburg in the South Carolina Constitutional Convention of 1788 voted for the ratification of the United States Constitution as adopted by the Thirteen States and three voted against it. The four delegates who voted for ratification were sons of original settlers who came from Ireland to Williamsburg in 1736 and were Scotch-Irish; the three delegates who voted against ratification had themselves come directly from Ireland to Williamsburg about 1770 and were of Irish ancestry. William Wilson was one of the leaders of the Convention for ratification; while Patrick Dollard was especially earnest and eloquent in opposing South Carolina's entering the Union.

In 1788, South Carolina had been a free and independent republic for twelve years. A. very substantial minority of its people most vigorously opposed the surrender of one jot or tittle of its sovereignty.

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