Genealogical And Family History Of The State Of Vermont

Taken from 'Genealogical and family history of the state of Vermont', published by 'The Lewis Publishing Company', 1903. Transcribed by AFOFG.


GEORGE JERRISON STANNARD


George Jerrison Stannard, brigadier and brevet major general of volunteers in the United States army, of St. Albans, Vermont, was born in Georgia, Vermont. October 20, 1820. The Stannard family is of English descent and exhibits the best characteristics of the old Anglo-Saxon stock. The grandfather of General Stannard emigrated from Connecticut to Vermont and settled in Fairhaven. His father, Samuel Stannard, married Rebecca Petty, to whose material influence the future soldier patriot was greatly indebted. The sixth son of his parents, and the heir of such advantage as the parental farm afforded, he grew up in the old homestead about four miles south of the village of St. Albans. His early education was received in the common schools, and was supplemented by two terms of study in the academies of Georgia and Bakersfield, Vermont.

Between the years of fifteen and twenty he toiled on the parental acres in summer and taught school in winter. His infirm health forbade classical education and dictated active employment. For this service the alternating physical and intellectual labors had been an admirable preparation. In 1845 he accepted the position of clerk to the St. Albans Foundry Company, which consisted of Gardner G. Smith, W. C. Smith and S. P. Eastman. Efficient in discharge of duty, in the course of about a year his employers placed him in charge of the business, which he held until 1860, when he formed a copartnership with Edward A. Smith, of St. Albans, leased the foundry and became joint partner of the business.

The outbreak of the war found Mr. Stannard industriously occupied in his usual vocation, but he was prepared to sustain the authority of the constitution and the laws. Being of military taste, at the age of sixteen he joined the "Floodwood Militia." This characteristic design had been derisively bestowed upon the citizen-soldiery, whose appearance on parade was held to resemble that of the sticks of wood cast upon the shore by the freshet. The title was uncomplimentary and may have fortified the determination of the young volunteer to make himself a complete soldier.

In 1837, when the state militia was called out during the excitement by the Canadian insurreaction, he was the orderly sergeant of his company. Not long after that he was elected second lieutenant, but had not received his commission when the militia was disbanded. Following years witnessed his activity in raising a militia force in Vermont, that consisted of independent volunteer companies. In 1856 he assisted in the organization of the Ransom Guards at St. Albans, and was chosen first lieutenant of the company. In this new relation his talent for command was apparent, and was soon fully acknowledged by his appointment to the colonelcy of the Fourth Regiment of Vermont Volunteer Militia, when that body was organized in 1858, holding the second rank in the state.

In April, 1861, when came the summons to arms for the defense of the government, it stirred the martial element in Colonel Stannard's spirit, before President Lincoln's proclamation could reach him. When that message reached St. Albans he immediately telegraphed the offer of his services to Governor Fairbanks. His is the singular honor of being the first Vermonter to volunteer for the help of his country.

He then offered his regiment to supply the requisition of one from Vermont. The acceptance of the offer was subsequently notified by the state authorities in special session. A regiment of ten companies, called from the First, Second and Fourth regiments of the state militia, was formed and placed under the command of Colonel John W. Phelps, Colonel Stannard was reserved for appointment to one of the two additional, that, as was decided, should be raised.

The Second Vermont Volunteer Militia was organized in May and Mr. Stannard was commissioned as lieutenant colonel, himself concurring with the governor in the opinion that an experienced West Point graduate should have the chief command, and Captain Henry Whiting, of Michigan, was appointed colonel. The regiment was mustered into the service of the United States at Burlington, Vermont, May, 1861, by Colonel John Rains, who afterwards joined the rebel army, and left for the scene of apprehended hostilities on the 6th of June.

Attached to Howard's Brigade, it showed in the first battle of Bull Run, and came into action near the close of the conflict while covering the retreat of the national army. Colonel Howard complimented the Second for its steadiness under fire. Colonel Stannard exemplified the utmost bravery and self-possession. Soon afterward the command of the Third Vermont was tendered to him, but with characteristic modesty he declined the proffer. In the fall of 1861 the Vermont regiments were brigaded and stationed near the Chain Bridge. Lieutenant Colonel Stannard was the first to cross that structure at the head of a detachment, and frequently lead scouting parties into territory occupied by the insurgents. His reputation for success in this species of service rose so high that he was often detailed to accompany scouting detachments from other commands. With the Second Vermont he marched and skirmished until May, 1862, when he was commissioned as colonel of the Ninth Vermont, returning home to recruit and organize his new command; he effected the task by July and departed for the front. In August he was stationed with his regiment at Winchester, Virginia, but withdrew before the advance of Stonewall Jackson in September to Harper's Ferry, and was there infamously surrendered on the 15th by Colonel D. P. Miles, who commanded the post, together with all the forces under that officer's control to the enemy. Colonel Stannard earnestly but unavailingly protested against this traitorous action. The national troops were at once paroled by the rebels, who hastened to join General R. E. Lee in Maryland. Colonel Stannard objected to release upon parole and justly urged that the care of eleven thousand persons would seriously embarrass the enemy at that crisis. He resolutely refused to sign the parole for himself or regiment. Their release was effected by a parole given by some other officer of a higher rank. Had his policy been adopted, the force of the invaders would have been badly crippled. The Ninth Vermont was ordered into parole camp on the 1st of January, 1863, and there employed in guarding an extension camp of prisoners at Chicago until March.

On the 11th of March, 1863, Colonel Stannard was appointed brigadier general of volunteers by President Lincoln. The United States senate confirmed the appointment on the same day. Parting with the Ninth Vermont, which had been ordered to North Carolina, at Baltimore, he assumed command of the Second Vermont Brigade, consisting of Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth and Sixteenth regiments, to which he had been assigned, and was stationed on the Occoquan and Bull Run. The duty of this brigade was to guard the lines below Washington and also the Orange and Alexandria Railroad from Bull Run to the Rappahannock. On June 20, 1863, it was ordered to join the army of the Potomac under General Hooker, in opposing Lee's second invasion. Holding the line of the Occoquan till the army had passed, General Stannard hastened to join the First Corps under General Reynolds, which led to advance. This he did with such vigor that he effected the junction on the Cemetery Hill on the close of the first day's engagement in the battle of Gettysburg.

General Stannard's opportune arrival was hailed with gladness by the Seventh Army Corps, which had lost its gallant commander, and well nigh half its number on the second day of the fight. He had temporary charge of the position held by the federal batteries on the left slope of Cemetery Hill. In the afternoon he was ordered to the left and front to repel Longstreet's assaults, which followed the route of the Third Corps. His brigade eagerly sprang into the gap, prevented the capture of two batteries, rescued another from the grasp of the foe, and captured two rebel guns and some prisoners.

On the third and last day of the strife came the supreme opportunity of General Stannard's military career. He discovered its importance, seized it in its flight, improved it to the uttermost and thereby won a name and fame immortal on the records of American history. Holding that portion of the front line on the left center so gallantly re-established by himself on the previous night, with three regiments of his brigade, the Twelfth and the Fifteenth having been detached for other service, he held the most advanced position in that part of the field. For that reason he was the first to feel the brunt of the final desperate assult of the enemy on Friday afternoon.
Pickett's strong division of Longstreet's corps, composed of fresh and veteran Virginians, constituted the right of the attacking force; Heath's division, supported by two brigades, constituted the left: in all it numbered about eighteen thousand men. Compactly and swiftly the great column pressed forward. The federal artillery ploughed great gaps through their ranks, which were closed as rapidly as they were made.

Heading for the left of the Union center, where General Doubleday was posted, they came in contact with Stannard's Vermont Brigade. These, with the other members of Doubleday's division, were in lines five deep, and well strengthened by hasty intrenchments of rails and stones. As admitted by their inflexible opponents, the Confederates slightly moved to the left. This movement exposed Pickett's center to a flank from Stannard, which threw it into confusion and was the forerunner of a series of disasters to the splendidly brave assailants. All that mortal courage could do was achieved by Pickett's veterans, but they could not overcome the disciplined, enthusiastic and fearless patriots who encountered them. To advance, stand or retreat under the withering fire that smote them in front and flank, was equally impossible. They flung themselves upon the ground with hands uplifted in total surrender. Not one of four escaped, the others were dead or prisoners. What ruined them, the prisoners declared, was the fire of Stannard's Brigade on their flank, as they found it impossible to contend with them in that position, and they drew off all in a huddle to get away from it. Wilcox, who failed to support Pickett, now moved forward as if to renew the attack, but chilled by a fierce artillery fire, he was compelled to move back.

To Stannard, who struck the first sharp blow in this fight, it was reserved to strike the last. He launched the Sixteenth Vermont and half of the Fourteenth upon the retreating force, and cut off some hundreds, in fact, nearly the whole body, from its rear, and the Confederates had failed, the victory was lost, and before night fell they were in desponding retreat.

The critical moment was when General Stannard struck the charging division of Pickett upon the flank. That blow disabled them, it decided the issue of the engagement and probably that of the rebellion. The deadly fire of the Vermonters delivered at half pistol range, was more than mortal antagonists could stand. Three thousand of the survivors marched into the Union lines as prisoners.

To have been the directing genius in this supreme crisis of the nation's fate, and to have been equal to the emergency, is a unique and eternal honor to General Stannard. He himself did not escape injury-a Shrapnel shot from Longstreet's cannon, as if envious of his happiness, buried itself in the muscles of his right thigh. The ball was removed on the field, which he refused to quit, and which he would not consent to leave until the enemy was beaten, his own wounded men cared for and his brigade relieved from duty on the front line. Several balls from sharpshooters had passed through his hat and clothes, but failed to hit him. His coolness and gallantry were contagious. No troops were steadier or more effective than the Vermonters. Stannard's order for the flank attack on the charging Confederates was pregnant with as marvelous consequences as Wellington's "Up Guards, and at them!" on the field of Waterloo. That culminating glory of his soldiery career shines with imperishable luster.

General Stannard did not linger in convalescence. As soon as he was fitted for light duty he took command of the troops in garrison at New York Harbor. In May, 1864, he rejoined the Army of the Potomac in its last advance upon Richmond, was assigned to the Tenth Corps, and soon afterwards was placed in command of the First Brigade, Second Division of the Eighth Corps under. W. F. Smith, a Vermonter like himself. His new brigade had a fighting reputation, and increased it under his control. At Cold Harbor, foremost in the fray, Stannard received a fresh wound from a minie-ball in the thigh. Two of his staff slain and three wounded, only one regimental commander was left untouched. Stannard, bleeding and unassisted, rallied and brought off under a tremendous fire the shattered remnants of his command. The glory of Spartan fortitude, but not of Waterloo victory, was his own last fateful day.

On the 14th of June he lead the advance of the Eighteenth Corps on Petersburg, and seized some of the enemy's works within three fourths of a mile of the city.
Assigned next to the command of the First Division of the Eighteenth Corps, he established headquarters within musketry range of the enemy's works. Part of his lines were within a hundred yards of their fortifications. He was again wounded by an accidental pistol shot from an officer of his own division. The suffering of a permanently maimed finger was the result, and not this only. Weakness from pain became so great that he could no longer mount his horse, and at the end of three weeks he was invalided. Returning to duty as soon as strength would allow, he was once more charged with perilous and exhausting service.

On the 29th of September he lead the advance of the Tenth and Eighteenth Corps on the north of the James against the defences of Richmond, and was charged with the enterprise of storming Fort Harrison. That important rebel post mounted fifteen heavy guns and poured a destructive fire upon Stannard's columns as they advanced, over open ground and through abattis, to the assault. The fort was captured and held. Stannard rode unhurt to the muzzle of the enemies, artillery, but four members of his staff were struck by his side. The gallant and meritorious exploit received due recognition in the shape of a major general brevet, under the date of October 28, 1864. Fort Harrison was too vital to the Confederate defense to be allowed to remain in Stannard's possession, and was assaulted on the next day by Generals Hoke and Field. The works faced only in one direction. A rude breastwork, thrown up only the night before, alone protected from an attack in the rear. Behind this slight cover, and unaided by artillery, Stannard's division repulsed with heavy loss three resolute charges of the enemy. As the first of these ended, a bullet from the retiring assailants shattered his right arm, while from an exposed position he encouraged his men, and made amputation at the shoulder a matter of necessity. Several months of enforced retirement ensued after the operation.

But General Stannard was not permitted an undisturbed repose. The St. Albans raid recalled the notice of the national government to the unprotected northern; frontier, and in December, 1864, he was placed in charge of the Vermont section of it, with headquarters at St. Albans. Thenceforward he continued in the department of the east until February, 1866, when, as ordered, he reported for duty to General O. O. Howard, and was assigned to service in connection with the freedman's bureau at Baltimore. On the 27th of June of the same year he resigned.

General Stannard's claims upon his country were of the most meritorious and unquestionable character. Having sacrificed business prosperity for its welfare, lost his good right arm in its service, fought heroically through all the period of perils for its rescue, and established a reputation without reproach, those claims were properly acknowledged on his retirement to civil life as Collector of Customs for the district of Vermont. This office he occupied until 1872.
The leading events in which he took an active part were the battles of Bull Run, Lee's Mills, Yorktown, Williamsburg, Golding's Farm. Winchester, Harper's Ferry, Gettysburg, Drury's Bluff and Cold Harbor. General Stannard was taken prisoner of war September 15, 1862, and exchanged January 9, 1863. He was mustered out June 27, 1866. No general was held in higher esteem, not only by his government for brave deeds, but his subordinates and these who were in touch with his private life.

G. A. R. RESOLUTIONS.

At a regular meeting of the Stannard Post No. 2, held December 3, 1886, the following preamble and resolutions were passed:
Whereas, On the first day of June, 1886, our honored namesake, Major General George J. Stannard, was summoned from his post of duty to the silent camping-ground of the dead, and this Post, which bears his name, has not placed upon its records this the deep sense of bereavement they feel, and the loss they have sustained in the death of our illustrious comrade, therefore be it,
Resolved, by Stannard Post No. 2, Department of Vermont, Grand Army of the Republic, That they will tenderly cherish the memory of his great services as a brilliant military commander in defence of our country, his sterling qualities as a patriot, and his many praiseworthy traits of character as a citizen.
Resolved, That in paying this tribute to the memory of General Stannard, they honor Vermont's greatest captain, whose life of self-sacrifice and deed of bravery and devotion in our Country's hour of peril, will shine with undying luster, and while they cannot attain to the summit of his fame, they will ever strive to imitate his virtues.
Resolved, They are deeply grateful to the senators and representatives of Vermont for the generous appropriations voted at the recent session of the general assembly toward an erection of a suitable monument at the grave of our distinguished soldier.
Resolved, That they will ever extend their warmest sympathy to the widow and daughters of our beloved comrade in their great sorrow.
Resolved, That these resolutions be enrolled upon the permanent records of this Post and that
the adjutant transmit a copy of them to the afflicted family.
Headquarters Stannard Post No. 2, G. A. R., Burlington, Vermont, December 3, 1886. Official
Wm. C. Schroder, Post Adjutant.
Mr. Cunningham, S. V. Commander.
Per order of the Post
E. H. Trick, Post Commander.
F. O. P. Ray, S. V. Commander.

Brave and fearless as a great general and patriot, stern and resolute when serving his country, but mild, genial and companionable when with friends or surrounded by his home circle; a kind and affectionate husband, and lenient father and a friend to those who were less favored than he; the loss of such a man not only his family feels, but he left such a record that the nation mourned his demise.

General Stannard was married in September, 1850, to Emily, daughter of Jeremiah Clark, of St. Albans, and three daughters and one son were born.


JACKSON MILLER


Jackson Miller, one of the noted agriculturists of Williston, Vermont, is a worthy descendant of an old and honored English family. The line of descent is as follows: Thomas Miller, a native of England, emigrated to this country, and located in the state of Massachusetts. His son, John Miller, was the father of the following named children: John, Thomas, Ebenezer and Samuel. John Miller, Sr., was killed by the Indians in a skirmish which took place in Springfield, Massachusetts. Samuel Miller was the father of these children: Samuel, Jonas, Thomas, Benjamin, Ichabod, Ruth, Mehitable and Sarah Miller. Thomas Miller was the father of five children: Sarah, Thomas, Ruth, Solomon and David Miller.

Solomon Miller, great-grandfather of Jackson Miller, was born October 9, 1731, and after receiving the usual education in the district schools he engaged in the occupation of manufacturing agricultural tools. He was united in marriage to Miss Desire Smith in 1756, and nine children were born to them: Solomon and Samuel, who died in infancy; Solomon (2); Samuel (2), born in 1764; Elisha, born in 1766, died in 1847; Desire, born in 1769, died the same year; Epaphus, born in 1770, died June 25, 1850; Anna and Alexander, born in 1776, died in 1844. One of the above named sons had the honor of being the founder of Middlebury College. Both Mr. and Mrs. Miller died in Wallingford, Vermont, in the year 1807.

Elisha Miller, grandfather of Jackson Miller, was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1766. He acquired his education in the district school, and later he removed to Wallingford, Vermont, where his time and attention were occupied in shoemaking and tanning. Subsequently he located in Williston, Vermont, making the journey from Wallingford in a sleigh. While a resident of Wallingford, Vermont, Mr. Miller was united in marriage to Miss Loraine Jackson, a daughter of Abraham Jackson, one of the first settlers of that section. She was also the first white child born in that town. Mrs. Miller died in 1806, and Mr. Miller married, in 1807, Miss Sarah Elliott, and by these two marriages he became the father of seventeen children, all but two of whom were born in Williston, Vermont.
Elisha Miller, father of Jackson Miller, was born in Wallingford, Vermont, August 4, 1792. He acquired his education in the common schools of his native town. He participated in the war of 1812, serving on the frontier, and by a peculiar oversight of the military authorities he was never discharged from the service, and thus he remained a soldier until his death. Politically Mr. Miller was a member of the Whig party and afterwards a Republican, and served as justice of the peace for many years. He was a consistent member of the Congregational church for several years, but eventually became a freethinker.

On March 9, 1825, Mr. Miller married Miss Angeline Munson, who was born in Williston, Vermont, August 24, 1804, and died in Williston, March 6, 1878. Four children were born to this union, namely: John Harrison, born in Williston, Vermont, July 13, 1827, died January 10, 1840. Norman Elliott, born July 23, 1830, married March 9, 1853, Miss Mary Ann McBurney, who was born in Edinburg, Scotland, April 14, 1835, daughter of Sarah McBurney, and died
September 25, 1887; they had three children: Ellen A. E., born July 28, 1856, married Professor Otis S. Johnson, of Bakersfield, who died in January, 1886; Samuel H., born April 4, 1858, died December 5, 1873; S. Louise, born June 27, 1867; Norman E. Miller was a member of the state legislature in 1822. Jackson was born May 27, 1833. Ellen Elizabeth was born November 29, 1836, and died January 31, 1840.

Jackson Miller, son of Elisha and Angeline Miller, was born in Williston, Vermont, May 27, 1833. He attended the common school of the town, and later was a student in the Burlington high school. After his graduation from the latter school he decided to follow the occupation of his ancestors, that of farming, and he has met with a well merited degree of success. He has made a specialty of dairy products, for which he always finds a ready market.

Mr. Miller is a firm adherent of the principles of the Republican party, and he has been chosen to fill the offices of justice of the peace, selectman, school director and superintendent of schools, all of which duties he has performed with credit to himself and to his fellow townsmen. In religious thought Mr. Miller is independent. Mr. Miller was united in marriage, October 29, 1856, to Miss Hannah A. Ferre, who was born August 20, 1838, a daughter of Eliza K. L. Ferre, who was born September 2, 1806, and died February 2, 1892. Two children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Miller, namely: Charles E., born August 12, 1858, and Laura Angeline, born January 4, 1867, married, September 6, 1894. Mr. R. L. Parker, engaged in the wholesale tobacco and cigar trade in Burlington, Vermont; they have one child, Laura Jackson, born August 2, 1895.


GUY A. LAMSON


Guy Adams Lamson, of Williston, Vermont, was born January 7, 1879, a son of Anderson E. and Mary (Fobes) Lamson. He began his education in the public schools of his native place, completed a course in the Essex high school, and took advanced studies in the Troy Conference Academy, in Poultney, Vermont. While a student in the latter named institution he was a member of the Delphin Society, and president of the commercial class. The greater part of his mature life has been passed in mercantile pursuits in Williston, where his interests are cast, and where he is regarded as among the stable and enterprising members of the community.

Mr. Lamson was married February 13, 1901, to Miss Florence Chase. She was born in Burlington, May 3, 1880, a daughter of George D. and Sarah (Minckler) Chase. Of this marriage was born a son, Harold Chase Lamson, March 8, 1902.


LA FAYETTE WILBUR


The Wilbur family of Vermont, in its own history and in that of the families with which its members have intermarried, presents an interesting chapter of New England genealogy, which has been written in extenso by one of its descendants in the eighth generation, La Fayette Wilbur, a prominent lawyer and author of Jericho.
The founder of the family was Samuel Wildbore (which was the original form of the name), of Boston and Taunton, Massachusetts, who died September 29, 1656; he married Ann Bradford. Shadrach (2), of Taunton (Rayorham), died in February, 1697-8, he married Mary Dean, who died December 27, 1691. Shadrach (3) was born December 5, 1672, and died November 8, 1749; he married Joanna Neal, born May 27, 1680. Philip (4), ot Rayorham, who wrote his name Wilbore, married Mary Leonard, of Taunton, December 29, 1737. David (5), of Royorham and Westmoreland, New Hampshire, was born in 1743, and died August 2, 1819, at Waterville (Coit's Gore), Vermont. He married Tibitha Briton, who was born April 11, 1748, and died March 28, 1840, at the age of ninety-two years. William (6) was the first to give the family name its present form of Wilbur. He was born August 13, 1772, at Westmoreland, New Hampshire, and died April 19, 1835, at Waterville, Vermont. nWilliam (7) was born March 8, 1801, in Westmoreland, and died at Waterville. March 7, 1882. La Fayette (8) was born May 15, 1834, at Waterville. Earl M. (9) and Ralph W. (9) were born at Jericho, Vermont, April 26, 1866, and March 30, 1869, respectively.

The material ancestry of La Fayette Wilbur begins with Ann Bradford, wife of Samuel Wildbore, and she was a daughter of Thomas Bradford, of Dorcaster, Yorkshire, England. Mary Dean (2) married Shadrach Wilbore, of Taunton, and died March 27, 1691. Joanna Neal (3), born in Braintree, Massachusetts, May 27, 1680, married Shadrach Wilbore, of Taunton. Phoebe White (4), born in 1726, at Taunton, married Abijah Wilbore, of Rayorham, and died August 26, 1812. Rachel Wittam (5) married Abijah Wilbore. Asenath Wilbore (6), born April 13, 1770, married William Wilbur, her second cousin, and died February 26, 1832. Betsy Fuller (7), born October 6, 1802, married William Wilbur, February 21,1826, at Westmoreland, New Hampshire, and died November 12, 1888, at Eden, Vermont. Mercy Jane Morse (8), born May 12, 1840, married La Fayette Wilbur, January 9, 1861, and their children were Earl Morse Wilbur and Ralph William Wilbur. Dorothea Dix Eliot (9)) married Earl Morse Wilbur, of Portland, Oregon, June 30, 1888, and Alice Dunbar Heustis (9) of Boston, Massachusetts, married Ralph William Wilbur, June 26, 1894.

William Wilbur (7) was a farmer and merchant. His parents removed to Waterville, Vermont, when he was about two years old, when the region was mostly a wilderness and the settlement went by the name of Coit's Gore. He had a common school education, but being a man of strong character he made this the foundation for an ample equipment for the duties of life. He came to occupy various important town officer, was postmaster for over twenty years, and in 1842 and 1844 represented the town of Waterville in the legislature. He was a member of the Congregational church, in which he was a deacon for the period of forty years, until his death. In politics he was originally a Whig, and he connected himself with the abolition party at its formation. He became a Free-soiler afterward, and when the Republican party came into being he affiliated with it and was one of the most earnest supporters during the remainder of his life.

His son, La Fayette Wilbur (8), was born during one of the most severe snow storms known in the history of Vermont, two feet deep, May 15, 1834. Considering the conditions at the time, he was highly favored in an educational way. He began his studies in the district school at Waterville, and subsequently attended academies at Bakersfield, Underhill Center, Fairfax and Morrisville. He took up the study of law under the preceptorship of a local lawyer, Thomas Gleed, who was interested in him, and he was admitted to the bar, Lamoille county in December, 1851, and from that time to the present has been actively and usefully occupied with the duties of his profession in Chittenden and adjoining counties. A lawyer of an old school, his practice has been almost entirely confined to civil law, and his methods have been marked by absolute precision and conscientious devotion to the real principles of jurisprudence, trickery and indiscretion being constantly avoided. It has been the good fortune of several who subsequently took highly respectable positions at the bar, to receive their instruction under his guidance.
Deeply versed in knowledge of the growth and development of his state, and loyally devoted to the preservation of its history, he performed a monumental work in the production of his "Early History of Vermont," in four volumes of some four hundred and fifty pages each, published in 1889-1903, and of his "Life of La Fayette Wilbur and Family Genealogy." Both of these excellent works have been utilized to good advantage in the writting of tins history of Vermont, and orders for these works have been received from all parts of the United States, also from London, England. His is the only full history of the state ever written.

In early life Mr. Wilbur was a member of the Congregational church, and for many years was clerk of that body in Jericho, and superintendent of the Sunday-school. He subsequently became a member of the Unitarian church in Burlington, with which he is yet connected. He was one of the founders of the Republican party, and cast his first vote for Fremont. During the Civil war he was a zealous member of the Union League. He has held various town offices, and is a member of the Masonic order.
Mr. Wilbur was married to Miss Mercy Jane Morse, of Underhill, a daughter of Calvin and Mercy (Mead) Morse. Her father was a farmer and was distantly related to Professor S. F. B. Morse, the inventor of the telegraph. She was educated in the public schools, and in the academies in Johnson and Bakersfield. Of her marriage with Mr. Wilbur were born two children: Marl Morse Wilbur was born in Jericho, Vermont, April 26, 1866. He entered the University of Vermont, when sixteen years of age, and was graduated in 1886. He taught Latin, Greek, German and French at Fishkill on the Hudson, New York, in 1887. He entered the Harvard Divinity School in 1887, and graduated in 1890, and was ordained as a Unitarian minister. He preached in the city of Portland, Oregon, for eight years, from 1890 to 1898, and now preaches in Meadville, Pennsylvania, and is instructor in the Theological School in that city. He was married at Portland, Oregon, June 30, 1898, to Dorathea Dix Eliot, a daughter of Thomas L. Eliot, D. D.

Ralph Williams Wilbur was born at Jericho, Vermont, March 30, 1869. He was educated in the common schools, in an academy and at the high school in Burlington, Vermont, and at the University of Vermont, and also graduated from the business college at Burlington, Vermont, and at the Boston University School of Law, graduating from the last named in 1892. The same year he began the practice of law at Portland, Oregon, where he now resides. He married Alice Dunbar Heustis, of Boston, June 26, 1894. The following is the genealogy of the families closely allied with that of Wilbur:

Robert Fuller (1), of Salem and Rehoboth, married Sarah Bowen; they died May 10, 1706, and October 14, 1676, respectively. Jonathan (2), of Attleboro, was born at Salem about 1640, married Elizabeth Wilmarth, and died February 10, 1709. Robert (3) was born at Attleboro, March 2, 1673, and died in 1710; he married for his second wife Mary Titus, who was born March 30, 1681, and died in 1779. Josiah (4), of Rehoboth, was born at Attleboro, November 18, 1704, and died in January, 1753; he married Mehitable Ormsbee, October 22, 1728, and she died in March, 1779. Noah (5), of Rehoboth, Wrentham and Westmoreland (locating in the place last named in 1779), was born March 17, 1728-9, and died in March, 1809; he was twice married, first to Dorothy Hunt, who died in 1762, and then to Esther Ware, born May 30, 1739, and died in March, 1809. Joshua (6), of Westmoreland, born February 10, 1774, and died April 22, 1849, married Mercy Felt, June 22, l801; she was born December 14, 1776, at Wrentham, and died at Waterville, Vermont, December 17, 1862; she was the daughter of Joshua Felt, son of Aaron and Mary (Wyatt) Felt. Joshua Felt was born June 21, 1751, at Lynn, Massachusetts, and lived at Parkersfield, Keene and Westmoreland, New Hampshire; he served in the first company which marched from Lynn to Lexington, April 19, 1775, and he was wounded at Concord; he died about 1822, at Westmoreland. Betsy Fuller (7), daughter of Joshua (6), was born at Westmoreland, October 6, 1802, and died November 12, 1888; she married William Wilbur, of Waterville, who was born at Westmoreland, and died March 7, 1882. La Fayette Wilbur (8), was born May 15, 1834, in Waterville; January 9, 1861, he was married to Mercy Jane Morse, who was born May 12, 1840. Their children are elsewhere mentioned in this sketch.

The Morse family begins with Samuel Morse, born in England, in 1585, who came to America in 1635, and died in Medfield, April 5, 1654; his wife was named Elizabeth. Daniel (2), of Medfield, was born in 1613 and died June 5, 1688; his wife, who was Lydia Fisher, died in 1690. Jonathan (3), of Sherborn, was born in 1643, and died August 30, 1727; his wife was Mary Barbour. Jonathan (4), of Sherborn, born July 11, 1667, married Jane Whitney. Paul (5), born February 14, 1700, and died in 1760, married Sarah Sheffield. Daniel (6), born July 27, 1735, and died in 1808, married Ruth Morse, his fourth cousin, January 25, 1758, and she died August 1, 1811. Levi (7), born January 8, 1772, at Dublin, New Hampshire, and died February 9, 1818, at Jericho, Vermont, married Sally Grimes. Calvin (8), born January 7, 1804, at Dublin, died at Jericho, Vermont, September 11, 1880. He married Mercy Mead. Mery Jane (9) became the wife of La Fayette Wilbur.

The founder of the Mead family was William (1), who came from England to Stamford, Connecticut, about 1635; he was born in 1600 and died in 1663; he married Ruth Hardy, who died September 19, 1657. John (2), of Horseneck (Greenwich), Connecticut, was born in 1634 and died in 1699; he married Hannah Potter. Jonathan (3) was born in 1665, and died in 1727; his wife was named Martha. Timothy (4), born in 1701, removed to Manchester, Vermont, with his wife, who was Martha Weeks, and six children, in 1769, and there they both died. Captain Zebulon Mead (5), born at Horseneck in 1729, settled in Rutland, Vermont, in 1770, and died January 26, 1787; he married Anna Thompson, and after her death he married Mercy Carey, who was born in 1735 and died February 3, 1811. Martin (6), born at Pittsford Vermont, March 17, 1767, and died May 6, 1850, removed to Underhill, Vermont, in 1807 ; he married Freelove Wright, November 12, 1796; she was born October 28, 1774, and died November 24, 1858. Mercy (7), born at Pittsford, Vermont, January 11, 1807, died December 26, 1881, married Calvin Morse, who was born at Dublin, Vermont, in 1804, and married January 14, 1830, and died September 11, 1880. Mercy Jane Morse (8), daughter of Calvin and Mercy (Mead) Morse, became the wife of La Fayette Wilbur.


CARROLL S. PAGE


Hon. Carroll S. Page, of Hyde Park, Vermont, former Governor of the state and favorably known throughout its bounds for his persistent and successful efforts in the encouragement and development of local industrial enterprises, was born in Westfield, Vermont, January 10, 1843. His parents, Russell S. and Martha Malvina (Smalley) Page, were both natives of Hyde Park.

His grandparents on both his father's and mother's side were among the first settlers of that town. His mother's grandfather, Capt. Jedediah Hyde, came to Hyde Park soon after the Revolutionary war, in which he served as captain, surveyed and chartered the town and gave to it his name "Hyde" Park.
Mr. Page was educated in the common schools of Hyde Park, at the People's Academy in Morrisville, Vt., the Lamoille County Grammar School at Johnson, Vermont, and the Lamoille Central Academy at Hyde Park, Vermont.

Among the public positions held by him maybe mentioned that of Representative from Hyde Park to the legislature of Vermont, 1869-72, Member of Vermont state senate 1874-1870; member of Republican state committee, 1884-1888; chairman of Republican state committee, 1884-1888; inspector of finance of Vermont, 1884-1888; governor of Vermont, 1890-1892.

Mr. Page has been quite extensively interested in banking and has been director of the Lamoille County National Bank since 1874, and its president for the last ten or more years. He organized the Lamoille County Savings Bank and Trust Co. in 1889 and has been its president since its organization. His maxim during his whole banking life has been, "Vermont money should be kept in Vermont to foster Vermont industries and to develop Vermont enterprises," and during his entire management of the two banks at Hyde Park neither of these two institutions have ever loaned a dollar outside of Vermont.

It is perhaps as a dealer in green Calfskins that Mr. Page is best known to the financial world, his business in this line extending from the Pacific ocean on the west to Asia in the east, and being regarded among the trade as the largest in its line in this country, if not in the world.

Governor Page was married April 11, 1865, to Miss Ellen Frances, daughter of Theophilus Hull and Desdemona (Jackson) Patch of Johnson, Vermont. Three children were born of this marriage; Theophilus Hull, who died in 1898 leaving two children, Carroll G. and Proctor H.; Russell S., who is now associated with his father in business at Hyde Park, and Alice.


HENRY ALEXANDER PHELPS


Henry Alexander Phelps, of Barre, Vermont, belongs to one of the oldest families of New England, the founder of which left his ancestral home in the older England and joined himself to one of the earliest companies of those fearless and devoted men who crossed the sea to found a nation on the shores of the new world.

William Phelps (1), the emigrant ancestor, was born August 19, 1599, in the old town of Tewkesbury, England, beneath whose walls flows the Avon, which, not far off, mingles its waters with those of the Severn, the two rivers richest, perhaps, in all England, in poetical associations. In early, life William Phelps allied himself with the Puritans, with a company of whom he sailed, in 1630, for the colony of Massachusetts Bay, where he found a home in the settlement of Dorchester, removing thence, in 1635, to Windsor, Connecticut. There, we are informed, he married his second wife, whose name was Mary Dover. In regard to his first wife history is entirely silent. The death of William Phelps probably took place at Windsor, Connecticut, on the homestead where his descendants remained for three-quarters of a century.
Timothy Phelps (2), son of William and Mary (Dover) Phelps, was born September 1, 1639, probably at Windsor, Connecticut. From the fact that he was known as "Lieutenant" Phelps, it is evident that he was a soldier in the colonial army, the frequent Indian wars doubtless rendering his military career an active one. He married, May 19, 1661, Mary Griswold, and, in all likelihood, died on the homestead where he had passed his life.

Nathaniel Phelps (3), son of Timothy and Mary (Griswold) Phelps, was born January 27, 1677, at Windsor, Connecticut. While still a young man he removed to Hebron, Connecticut, where he planted another homestead. He married, March 28, 1700, Hannah Bissell, and, no doubt, passed all the latter part of his life in the place whither he had migrated.

Solomon Phelps (4), son of Nathaniel and Hannah (Bissell) Phelps, was born July 29, 1716, in Hebron. Connecticut, where he appears to have passed his entire life. He married, May 11, 1738, Temperance Barber.

Bissell Phelps (5), son of Solomon and Temperance (Barber) Phelps, was born February 16, 1754, at Hebron, Connecticut. He was only twenty-one when "the embattled farmers" of Lexington and Concord "fired the shot heard 'round the world," and not long after he enlisted in Washington's army, in which he held a captain's commission from Quartermaster General Nehemiah Hubbard. After participating in the campaigns of the first two years of the war, he resigned, re-enlisting in the army of Lafayette, under whom he served during the remainder of the war. When the restoration of peace allowed him to return home, Captain Phelps removed from Hebron, Connecticut, to Middlefield, Massachusetts, where he remained only a few years, traveling, in 1791, with his two yoke of oxen, to Waitsfield, Vermont, where he was one of the earliest settlers. Captain Phelps married, January 12, 1775, Lovina Skinner, after whose death, on March 28, 1802, he married, February 27, 1803, Sally Waterman, who was born January 31, 1772, at Killingly, Connecticut. The eventful life of Captain Phelps was prolonged beyond the limit of four score and ten years, his death occurring in Waitsfield, Vermont, October 25, 1845. His wife attained almost to the state of a centenarian, dying April 6, 1871, after passing her ninety-ninth birthday.

Alexander Phelps (6), son of Bissell and Lovina (Skinner) Phelps, was born October 6, 1780, at Hebron, Connecticut. While he was still a child the family removed, first, to Middlefield, Massachusetts, and then to Waitsfield, Vermont, which was his home during the remainder of his life. He married Rachael Steele, daughter of John and Sarah (Cobb) Steele, of Tolland, Connecticut, where she was born June 19, 1780. Alexander Phelps died May 29, 1826, and his wife survived him many years, her death occurring at Waitsfield, Vermont, July 8, 1857.

David Martin Phelps (7), son of Alexander and Rachael (Steele) Phelps, was born October 10, 1824, at Waitsfield, Vermont, and was educated in the schools of that town. During his youth and early manhood Mr. Phelps was a farmer, but his marked talents for a business career attracted attention, and in response to urgent requests he abandoned the pursuit of agriculture and removed to Burlington, Vermont, in order to become the representative of several commercial houses. Mr. Phelps was a member of the Republican party, in the interests of which he was extremely active, and by which he was held in honor, being sent by his fellow townsmen to represent them in the state legislature. During the Civil war Mr. Phelps was indefatigable in his labors for the enlistment of men, as well as for the support of the army in the field and the relief of the sick and wounded in the hospitals. He was a member and also a deacon in the Congregational church. Mr. Phelps married, at Waitsfield, May 28, 1857, Zilpha Brooks Dewey, born at Montpelier, Vermont, January 22, 1825, a descendant of Thomas Dewey, who came to America in 1633, and was the founder of the Dewey family in this country. Mr. and Mrs. Phelps were the parents of two children,-Nelson Dewey, born at Waitsfield, Vermont, February 27, 1859; and Henry Alexander, also born at Waitsfield, Vermont, October 15, 1861, and mentioned at length herein-after. The death of Mr. Phelps took place September 18, 1869, and that of his wife October 31, 1894, in Barre, Vermont.

Henry Alexander Phelps (8), younger son of David Martin and Zilpha Brooks (Dewey Phelps, was born in the town of Waitsfield, Washington county, Vermont, October 15, 1861, an received his early education in the district school of his native town, afterward becoming a student at the Montpelier Seminary. He lived on the homestead until he attained his majority, and 1883 went to Barre, Vermont, where he was employed in a store. On January 1, 1885, his brother, Nelson Dewey Phelps, purchased the hardware business of Orvis Jackman, on North Main street and in this business Mr. H. A. Phelps in the following summer purchased an interest, after which the establishment was conducted under the fit name of Phelps Brothers. On January 1, 18** the firm moved to the Gordon block, where an extension and development of their business he been such that they have today one of the best appointed stores in Vermont, in which they are conducting a very flourishing trade. They are also extensively engaged in plumbing and heat and are known to be large dealers in real estate.

In politics Mr. Phelps is a Republican, has only once in his life accepted office, when acted as bailiff of Barre, before the incorporation of the town as a city. Mr. Phelps married, in October 29, 1885, in Montpelier, Vermont, 1st to Maud Putnam, born at Cabot, Vermont, June 1862, daughter of Enoch D. and Mary (Sto**) Putnam, and a descendant of John Putnam, he was born in England, and came to America in 1634, where he settled in Salem, Massachusetts. Mr. and Mrs. Phelps are the parents of six children,-Evelyn Zilpha, born May 16, 1887: [Mid]dred Isabel, born October 12, 1888; Mabel, * February 12, 1892, and died February 13, 1***, Katharine Elizabeth, born April 5, 1894; A* Dewey, born June 9, 1895; and Nelson Put[nam] born January 7, 1898. In the commercial city of Barre Mr. Phelps is regarded as an experienced business man and a trustworthy counselor of mercantile affairs, and by the community he is respected as a public-spirited citizen, ever ready to aid in every movement having for its objec[tive] welfare of the city in which he resides.


HOWARD PRENTICE MARTIN


The Martin family, of which Howard Prentice Martin, of Marshfield, Vermont, is a representative in the present generation, was prominent in the colonial period, several of its members having held office, and others having served as patriot soldiers in the army of the Revolution. Among the latter was Jesse Martin, the grandfather of Howard Prentice Martin, who took part in the first, and, in some respects, the most memorable, of the conflicts in that long struggle for independence, the battle of Bunker Hill. Whether he was present at Lexington, where the "embattled farmers" shed the first blood which flowed in the struggle for freedom, we do not know, but on that greater battlefield, where General Putman said, "Save your powder; don't fire till you can see the whites of their eyes" there is no doubt that he bore his full part. The best proof of this is to be found in the fact that he received a slight wound, one of those wounds of which the possessors and their descendants were prouder than they would have been of the Decoration of the Garter. While not severely wounded himself, it was his lot to witness the infliction of a fatal wound on one the loss of whom was one of the greatest disasters of this disastrous day, the lamented General Warren. Mr. Martin, to his latest day, never lost the impression left upon his mind by the sight of the death of this youthful patriot. In the autumn of 1800 Mr. Martin, with his wife, Naomi Hopkins, and seven children, came from Francistown, New Hampshire, to Montpelier, now East Montpelier. In the following spring he settled on a farm on Maple Hill, in the town of Marshfield, Washington county, Vermont, but finally made his home in Plainfield, Vermont, where he died November 3, 1832. He left the memory of a man of strong character, and his eighty-one years were spent in the service of his country, both as a soldier and citizen. Mr. Martin's only daughter died at an early age. His sons were: James, William, Jesse, Allen, Ebenezer and Joshua Baxter.

Joshua Baxter Martin, son of Jesse and Naomi (Hopkins) Martin, was born in Francistown, New Hampshire, February 26, 1800, and attended the district school. He remained on the homestead and followed the occupation of farmer. Mr. Martin began his political life as a Whig, but on the organization of the Republican party he enrolled himself as one of its first members. He was a public-spirited man, and his townsmen testified to the respect in which they held him by making him, at different times, selectman, collector of taxes, and overser of the poor, which last named office he held for many years. Mr. Martin married in June, 1825, Betsey Shepard, daughter of William and Betsey (White) Shepard. Their children were Willard Shepard; George Flint, who died at the age of twenty-four; Laura, who died at the age of twenty-four; Caroline M., who died at the age of eighteen; Nancy, who died in infancy; Henry Hopkins, who resides in Williamstown, Vermont; Howard Prentice; and Ellen Augusta, who married W. J. Batchelder and resides in Plainfield, Vermont. Mr. Martin died January 17, 1879, and his wife survived him until October 2, 1882.
Howard Prentice Martin, son of Joshua Baxter and Betsey (Shepard) Martin, was born on the homestead in the town of Marshfield, Washington county, Vermont, April 22, 1845, and his education was received at the district schools and the Barre Academy. He remained on the farm, assisting his father, until he reached the age of-twenty-one, after which he worked the farm and in time came into possession of the property by purchase. Mr. Martin has devoted the greater portion of his life to farming, on the subject of which he has very progressive and advanced ideas. He has in various ways greatly improved the property, and is now the owner of one of the finest farms in the town. He combines the character of an enterprising agriculturist with that of a thorough business man, and is an extensive dealer in live-stock. Mr. Martin is a Republican, and the esteem in which he is held by his townsmen is best indicated by the fact that he has filled all the offices of the town except that of town clerk. He has held the office of justice of the peace for more than thirty years, and represented the town in the state legislature in 1884 and 1885. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, Lodge No. 14, at Marshfield, Vermont.

Mr. Martin married, September 28, 1869, Lucetta Wooster, daughter of Stephen Wooster. By this marriage there were two children, Stephen, who died in infancy, and Curtis Leland, born May 10, 1872; the latter married Mabel Eaton Emery, March 9, 1897, and they had one child, Stephen Howard, born March 1, 1899. Mr. Martin's first wife died November 23, 1874, and on January 25, 1876, he married Mrs. Sarah Ann Pitkin, daughter of William and Lucinda (Foster) Orcutt. Mr. and Mrs. Martin have one son, Walter Howard, born April 4, 1879, who married, March 13, 1901, Viola De Etta Buxton, and resides with his parents.


OLIVER OTIS HOWARD
MAJOR GENERAL, U. S. A., RETIRED.


The family from which is descended Major General Oliver O. Howard is one of the most ancient and honorable in New England. The emigrant ancestor was John Haward (as the family name appears), who came from England and settled first in Duxbury, Massachusetts, about 1635, was an original settler at West Bridgewater in 1651, and was licensed to keep an ordinary in 1670. He was surveyor of highways in 1657, ensign in 1664, and lieutenant in 1689, selectman in 1678, deputy in 1678, and representative to the general court in Plymouth in 1683. He died about 1700. His wife was Martha, daughter of Thomas Hayward. Thomas Hayward came from England (perhaps in the Fortune) in 1632, and returned for his wife and children, whom he brought in the Hercules, in 1635. He was a freeman at Duxbury in 1646, and was an original settler and proprietor of Bridgewater.

The line of descent from the emigrant John (1) Haward is as follows: Major Jonathan, (2)
(who was first to give the family name the form of Howard), married Sarah Deane, born November 9, 1668, at West Bridgewater. Seth (3), born November 15, 1702, married, in 1735, Mary Ames, born in 1717 and died in 1758. Captain Jesse (4), born July 20, 1740, was an officer in the Massachusetts militia during the Revolutionary war and moved to Easton, Massachusetts; in 1761 he married Melatiah Dunbar, born in 1741, died in 1814. Captain Seth (5), born November 21, 1762, moved from West Bridgewater to Leeds, Maine, about 1800. In 1782, he married Desire Bailey, born January 23, 1762, died December 28 1829. Seth died January 5, 1844.

Rowland Bailey Howard (6), born July 29, 1795, at Leeds, Maine, was a farmer. He married, February 29, 1828, Eliza Otis, who was born December 10, 1804, and died December 14, 1888, at Glencoe, Illinois. She was a daughter of Oliver Otis, who was born in Scituate, Massachusetts, November 8, 1768, and died at Hallowell, Maine, September 28, 1844. Oliver Otis was son of Ignatius, born February 2, 1731, died at Scituate, in 1802, son of Ensign Otis, born in 1691; son of Captain Stephen Otis, commander of militia, born in Scituate, in 1661, died in 1733; son of John Otis, born in Barnstable, England, died at Scituate, Massachusetts, January 16, 1684; whose father was John Otis, born in Glastonbury or Barnstable, England; both were emigrants from Barnstable, England, to Hingham, Massachusetts in 1635; John, Sr., died May 31, 1657, in Weymouth, Massachusetts.

Oliver Otis Howard (7), son of Rowland B. and Eliza (Otis) Howard, was born in Leeds, Maine, November 8, 1830. He was reared on the paternal farm and began his education in the district schools, and afterward in the academies in Monmouth and Yarmouth, Maine, largely paying for his tuition with money earned in teaching school. He then entered Bowdoin College, from which he was graduated in 1850, with the degrees of Bachelor and Master of Arts. He received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from Bowdoin College, from Waterville (Maine) College and from Shurtleff (Illinois) College in 1865, and from the Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) Theological Seminary in 1866.

In 1850, on leaving college, he entered the United States Military Academy at West Point, from which he was graduated in 1854, being fourth in his class in general standing. He was at once commissioned second lieutenant in the ordnance department, and assigned to duty at the Watervliet Arsenal; in 1855 he was commander of the Kennebec Arsenal, and in 1856 was again on duty at the Watervliet Arsenal. Later in the same year he was ordered to Florida, where he served under General Harney as chief of ordnance in the Seminole campaign. From 1857 to 1861 he was instructor of mathematics in the Military Academy at West Point. At the opening of the Civil war he resigned his commission as lieutenant in the regular army to enter upon service in the volunteers, as the war department then refused officers permission to take higher commands in the volunteers and still remain in the regular army.

He organized the Third Regiment of Maine volunteers, of which he was commissioned colonel, and with it took the field under General McDowell in Virginia. In the battle of Bull Run he commanded a brigade in which was the Second Vermont Infantry Regiment. The non-commissioned officers of that regiment presented him with a sword, which was always used by him during his service in the army. This brigade was among the last to hold the ground near the central portion of the field. September 3, 1861, he was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers, and commanded a brigade during all the early operations in 1862, including the independent expedition to the Rappahannock, under General Sumner. He served under General McClellan on the Peninsula, and participated in the battles of Yorktown, Williamsburg and Fair Oaks. For his conduct in the latter action, in which he was twice wounded and two horses shot under him, he received the congressional medal of honor at a later day. While recovering from the amputation of his right arm, he aided in recruiting troops in Maine, and in about ten weeks after the battle in which he was wounded, he returned to the front and was assigned to the command of the Second Brigade, Second Division, Second Corps, which he commanded in the second battle of Bull Run, and received credit for his successful command of the rear guard during the retreat. At the battle of Antietam he succeeded to the command of the division when General Sedgwick was wounded, and he also commanded it in the battle of Fredericksburg, participating in the dreadful assault upon Mary's Heights. November 29, 1862, he was promoted to major general of volunteers, and in April following he was assigned by the president to the command of the Eleventh Corps, which he commanded in the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. In the latter, after commanding the arduous fighting of the first day, he selected and occupied Cemetery Hill with his reserve troops. This was the key to the Union position and made possible the victory which was to follow, arid for his sagacity and courage in seizing upon this ground, he received the commendation of his commander, General Meade, and the "thanks of Congress," one of the privileges of the latter being admission at all times to the floor of the senate and house of representatives.

General Howard with the Eleventh Corps (less one division under General Hooker's command) and the Twelfth Corps under Slocum were both sent to Tennessee to reinforce the Army of the Cumberland. For his conduct at the battle of Wauhatchie he received warm commendation from General Thomas. His activity was so conspicuous in the battle of Missionary Ridge, that, at the request of General Sherman, he was sent with that officer to the relief of Knoxville. In April, 1864, General Howard was assigned to the command of the Fourth Corps, which he commanded in all the operations under General Sherman against Atlanta, including the engagements at Dalton, Reseca, and about Kenesaw Mountain. After the fall of the lamented McPherson, in the battle of Atlanta, General Howard was by order of the president made his successor as commander of the Army of the Tennessee. He fought the battle of Ezra Chapel alone with the Army of the Tennessee, and his march on Lovejoy was so prompt as to find the enemy in divided force, and render Atlanta no longer tenable. In the march to the sea General Howard commanded the right wing of Sherman's army, and his troops were the first to establish communication with the outside world and effect the capture of Savannah, by Hazen's (one of his division commanders) assault upon Fort McAllister, tinder his own eye, and with Sherman at his side. In January, 1865, with the remainder of Sherman's army, General Howard's troops' marched through the Carolinas, forcing the Salkehatchie, and passing through Columbia to Bentonville, where was fought a severe engagement, the last engaged in by General Sherman's army, which resulted in the surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston, with his army, the last considerable rebel force in the fields March 13. 1865. General Howard received the brevet of major general in the regular army, and on December 21 he was made a brigadier general.
Immediately after the close of the Civil war General Howard was assigned to duty. May 12, 1865, as commissioner of the bureau of refugees, ******

This division he administered to the satisfaction of the war department and the president until November 1888, when he was transferred to the command of the military division of the Atlantic. This division he held until the divisionsv*****

General Howard has been allied with the Republican party from the date of its founding, and has always been an ardent advocate of its principles. In 1890 and again in 1900 he took the platform in advocacy of the election of McKinley to the presidency, and delivered numerous forcefull addresses and, in thr former year, in company with several veteran officers of the Civil war, he made a notable political tour of the country. He is connected with numerous societies, among which are the American Tract Society, of which he is president; the American Bible Society, of which he is one of the managers; the Congregational Club and the Author's Guild, of New York city; and is an honorary member of the New England Society, the Historical and Genealogical Society and the Union League Club, all of New York city. He is also a member of the leading patriotic societies, the Society of the Cincinnati, the Military Order of the Loyal Legion; and various Civil war societies, the Potomac, the Cumberland and the Tennessee. He is a resident of Burlington, Vermont, and a member in Stannard Post, G. A. R., and the Algonquin Club, of that city. In 1884, while in Europe attending the manoeuvres of the French army, he received the decoration of "Commander" in the Legion of Honor from the president of the French Republic.
General Howard was married at Portland, Maine, February 14, 1855, to Miss Elizabeth Ann Waite, who was born and educated in that city. Her parents were Alexander Black and Lucretia Strickland (Whitman) Waite. Her father, a ship-builder and owner, was a native of Falmouth, Maine, born April 24, 1810, married December 6, 1831, and died December 7, 1849; his wife was born June 6, 1809, and died June 30, 1857. The line of descent of Alexander B. Waite (7) was: (1) Sergeant Thomas Waite, of Ipswich, Massachusetts, 1646; (2) Jonadab, born in 1667, at Newbury, Massachusetts, died in 1737; (3) John, 1701-1769, a ship captain sailing between Newbury and Portland; (4) Benjamin, Newbury, Massachusetts, 1725-1812, a major and mustering officer at Portland during the Revolutionary war; (5) John, Falmouth, Maine, 1751-1838, a ship-builder; (6) Ebenezar, 1776-1852, a caulker at Falmouth, then a farmer at Turner, Maine.

The children born to General Oliver Otis and Elizabeth Ann (Waite) were:

Guy, born in Augusta, Maine, December 16, 1855: A. B., Yale, 1875: lieutenant colonel, United States Army; killed in battle, October 22, 1899, in Philippine Islands; he married Jeannie Woolworth, at Omaha, Nebraska, February 14, 1884 ; two children, Helen, born in 1884, and Otis Woolworth, born in 1887.
Grace Ellen, born in Augusta, Maine, June 22, 1857; attended Vassar College; married Captain James T. Gray, at Portland, Oregon, September, 1879; children: Elizabeth H., born in 1880, died in 1895: Mary Augusta, born in 1882; Grace Whitman, born in 1884; Jeanie, born in 1885; Howard, born in 1887.
James Waite, born at West Point, New York, December 1, 1860; graduate Andover Academy, Renssalaer Polytechnic Institute, Gottingen University (C. E.), Germany, 1888; married Adelheid Bodemeyer, at Gottingen, in 1888; one child, Hildegard, born in 1889.

Chancey Otis, born in Augusta, Maine, May 3, 1863 ; married Alice G. Rustin, at Omaha, Nebraska, in 1886; children: Mary, born in 1887; William Rustin, born in 1889; Harvey F., born in 1892; Alden L., born in 1897.

John, born in Washington city, June 15, 1866; attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and graduate of the Infantry and Cavalry School, United States Army, 1895; major, United States Army; married Emily Britton, at San Francisco, California, in 1895.
Harry Stinson, born in Washington city, July 25, 1869; special student University of Vermont; graduate of New York University Law School, LL. B., 1899, admitted to Vermont bar, October 1900.

Elizabeth, born in Washington city, September 19, 1871; married at Burlington, Vermont, October 29, 1902, to Joseph Bancroft, of Wilmington, Delaware.


EDWARD JUSTUS BARTLETT


The Bartlett family, which as been prominent in state and national history from the colonial period to the present time, is represented in the present generation by Edward Justus Bartlett, a leading citizen of Plainfield, Vermont, who, having been placed by his townsmen in positions of honor and trust, has faithfully justified, by the manner in which he has discharged his duties, the confidence reposed in him.

Like so many of the best citizens of Vermont, he comes of Massachusetts stock, his grandfather, Solomon Bartlett, brother of Hon. Josiah Bartlett, whose name appears as the second of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, having emigrated in 1790, or a little later, from Brookfield, Massachusetts, to Hanover, New [Hampshire. A few years after he removed to Orange, Vermont, and, later, to Plainfield, in the same state, where he died. During the Revolutionary war he served his country in the field as his brother did in the council chamber. Farming was the occupation of his life, and he cultivated the farm where his grandson, Joseph E., now lives, He was four times married, and was the father of seven children, of whom two sons, ***** and Levi, settled in Plainfield.
Levi Bartlett, son of Solomon Bartlett, was born in Hanover, New Hampshire, in November, 18**. When he was about eighteen years old he **** to Orange, Vermont, with his father, and, *** ** ***. He cultivated the farm now in his possession] ** ***
principles, all the latest improvements being found in operation there.

Mr. Bartlett is a Republican, and in his political life has received repeated proofs of the esteem in which he is head by his townsmen, having filled the offices of lister, selectman, road commissioner, justice of the peace, and also represented his town in the state legislature in 1890. Mr. Bartlett was district deputy grand master of District No. 7, I.O.O.F., at Plainfield, Vermont, and also of Pleasant Valley Lodge No. 42, Rebekah Lodge, I.O.O.F., of the state of Vermont.
Mr. Bartlett married, December 27, 1865, Mary A. Nye, and had one child, Clinton Arthur, born September [3, 186*.] His wife having died November 6, 1879, Mr. Bartlett married, April 9, 1881, Hattie P. [Kidder], daughter of Ezra and Mary [Kidder.] But this marriage he had one child, [Ray] ******, born July 20, 1889. Mr. Bartlett's second wife died November 9, 1900. His ***** son, Clinton Arthur, married, March 29, ****, [Maud L.] ****. His younger son, Ray ***, lives at home with his father.


STEWART


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which form it has been preserved to the present day.
John Stewart, familiarly known as Captain John, was born in Londonderry, New Hampshire, in 1744. He was a man of marked characteristics and took an active part in the French and Revolutionary wars. At the early age of fifteen years he killed an Indian in a notable fight in the forest, and subsequently he became a member of the famous band of courageous frontiersmen known as Rogers' Rangers. He accompanied the expedition of General Montgomery against Quebec, and was near that gallant officer at the time of his death. After that he happened to be in Bennington, paying his addresses to the lady who afterward became his wife, at the epoch of the battle in that place, and led a company of patriot soldiers in that decisive conflict. In 1777 he married Huldah Hubbell, by whom he became the father of five children.
Ira Stewart, the second son of Captain John, was born July 15, 1779. He settled first in New Haven, Vermont, and in 1810 removed to Middlebury, this state, of which in the following years he was one of the leading citizens. He entered into the mercantile business with his brother, Noble, but the latter died in 1814, and Ira conducted thenceforward the business alone until his own death in 1855. He served his fellow-citizens in both branches of the state legislature, was a member of the Middlebury College corporation, and was actively interested in everything pertaining to the welfare of the villagers. October 29, 1814, he was married to Betsey, daughter of Wolcott Hubbell, of Lanesboro, Massachusetts. Three children were born to them. One of whom, a daughter, died in infancy, and the others, who were sons, were named Dugald and John Wolcott, survived.

John W., son of Ira and Betsey (Hubbell) Stewart, was born November 24, 1825, in Middlebury, Vermont. After preparation in Middlebury Academy, he entered Middlebury College and graduated with honor in 1846. Adopting the legal profession, he began reading law in the office of Horatio Seymour in Middlebury, and remained there until January, 1850, when he was admitted to the bar of Addison county. Commencing practice at Middlebury, he conducted it alone until 1854, when he contracted a co-partnership with ex-United States Senator Phelps and maintained the connection until the death of the latter in April, 1855. His association with Senator Phelps proved to be very valuable in many respects. Early in his professional career Mr. Stewart identified himself with the political affairs of his native state. Honors have been showered upon him thick and fast by his fellow citizens, who in this way practically acknowledge his many sterling intellectual and moral qualifications, and particularly his patriotic public spirit, in the years 1852, 1853 and 1854 he held the office of state's attorney for Addison county. In 1856 he was elected to the lower house of the Vermont legislature, and served therein as chairman of the committee on railroads. The matters affecting the consolidation of the Vermont Central Railroad interests came before his committee, and attracted much and close public attention. His services proved so acceptable to his constituents that he was re-elected in the following year, and was also reappointed to his former position on the railroad committee. In 1857 the state house at Montpelier was destroyed by fire, and a strong movement was set on foot to make Burlington the capital of the state, but this movement Mr. Stewart resisted. Although one of the members from the "West Side" of Vermont, he was influentially active in the legislative debates on the question of removal, favoring the retention of Montpelier as the capital, and was largely instrumental in carrying the point in favor of the old location.

In 1861 Mr. Stewart was returned to the state senate from Addison county, and served on the judiciary committee, of which the late United States Senator Edmunds was chairman. The members of the Vermont senate in that session were probably the most able that the citizens of the Green Mountain state have ever chosen. Not only Mr. Edmunds, but also F. E. Woodbridge and C. W. Willard-who were afterward elected to the Congress of the United States-Roderick Richardson and other gentlemen prominent in state affairs, were among the members. Elected to the senate of 1862, Mr. Stewart again served on the judiciary committee, and as chairman of the committee on rules. In 1864 he was returned to the lower house from Middlebury, and served on the committees on joint rules and the judiciary. In 1865, 1866 and 1867 he was a member of the house, and at each session was elected presiding officer of the body. As incumbent of the speaker's chair his ruling were received with great favor, and the reputation for ability, faithfulness, and impartiality then established was such that on his election to the house in 1876 he received the singular compliment of unanimous election to his old post-the speakership.

One of the changes in the organic law of the state effected by the constitutional convention of 1870 was that by which the sessions of the legislature were made biennial, instead of annual, as formerly. Mr. Stewart was the first governor of Vermont elected under the new order of things, and filled the chief magistracy with great honor and acceptability from 1870 to 1872. His inaugural address was brief, businesslike, and statesmanly. Delivered nine years before the resumption of specie payment, it contained the following just and sagacious recommendation: "It is held by a recent decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, that the provisions of the Legal Tender Act are not retroactive and that debts contracted prior to its passage are payable in coin. . . I respectfully recommend the prompt recognition of the supreme judicial authority of the country, by an enactment authorizing our treasurer to pay in coin that portion of our debt falling within the decisions referred to." This equitable recommendation was promptly acted upon. An additional expense of sixty thousand dollars was incurred, but the probity of the commonwealth was placed beyond question. In this as in other particulars Vermont is an excellent exemplar to her sister states.

Governor Stewart's recommendations in respect to public education, and also in reference to the jails of the state exhibited keen foresight and were adopted by the legislature. His administration had fallen in the "piping times of peace," and nothing occurred to develop special executive ability. The ordinary routine of state affairs was conducted with dignity and skill, and his whole career as governor was one of honor to himself and of credit to the state. He has not given his whole time to the practice of his profession, but has devoted a portion of it to the management of financial institutions. He was chosen a director of the Middlebury Bank in 1858, and for several years prior to 1881 he served as president with great acceptance, and gave much evidence of his entire fitness for the position. In 1881 the pressure of other engagements upon his time forced him to decline a further re-election.

The redistribution of seats in Congress, agreeably to the population of each state, that followed the United States census of 1880 occasioned a loss to Vermont of one member. Governor Stewart was elected by the Republicans of the new first congressional district to the Forty-eighth Congress, and received fifteen thousand six hundred and thirty-eight votes, against six thousand and nine cast for L. W. Redington, Democrat; eight hundred and sixty-five for C. W. B. Kidder, Greenbacker; and thirty-six scattering. His long service in both branches of the Vermont legislature and his excellent gubernatorial administration gave promise that was amply fulfilled of good and influential service in national legislation. He was re-elected to Congress in 1884, 1886 and 1888. Since the expiration of his eight years in Congress Governor Stewart has returned to the active practice of law-to the work of a profession which he adorns and whose members are all his admirers and friends.
Governor Stewart is a typical Vermonter of the best quality. Like most notable excellent men, he is most highly appreciated where he is best known. Middlebury certainly knows of no official honor that she would not bestow nor of any official duty that she would not entrust to her "favorite son." Possessed of a lucrative legal practice and ever widening acquaintance with men and things, his high reputation as a lawyer is established, and his professional services are in great demand. Not only is he frequently called upon to appear in the highest law courts of Vermont, but also of those in other states. His position in the foremost ranks of citizens and professional men is unchallenged. The state is honored by the nurture and services of such sons as he.

John Wolcott Stewart was married November 21, 1860, to Emma, daughter of Philip Battell, of Middlebury. Five children were born to them, three of whom, two daughters and one son, are still living. The son, Philip, graduated from Yale University in 1886, was admitted to the bar in Massachusetts, and is now a banker at Colorado Springs, Colorado. The daughters, Elga and Jessica, reside at home.


FRANK TALCOTT


Frank Talcott, one of the leading agriculturists of Williston, was born in Williston, October 13, 1873,a son of Lewis H. Talcott, and a grandson of the late Roswell Talcott, who was among the first of the native-born citizens of the place. Deacon Jonathan Talcott, the great-grandfather of Frank Talcott, was born in 1773. After his marriage he settled in Williston, taking up one hundred and forty acres of land about two miles south of the present village, where he cleared and improved a farm, in addition keeping a public house. He married Jerusha Morton, who was born March 1, 1778. He was a man of strong religious convictions, and a deacon in the Congregational church. He died while in the prime of manhood, leaving two children: Roswell, the next in line of descent; and Jerusha, who became the wife of Leonard Smith. On December 21, 1803, his widow married Dr. Seth Cole, by whom she had three children, as follows: Betsey, born September 22, 1804, died August 1, 1891: Morton, born March 16, 1807, died April 28, 1864; and Seth L., who died January 27, 1861. Mrs. Cole died April 8, 1857.

Roswell Talcott, a life-long resident of Williston, was born in 1798, and died September 1, 1893. Following the occupation in which he was reared, he carried on general farming on the old homestead with much success. He married, February 1, 1824, Lodicia Holt, daughter of Smith Holt, who was born in Ashford, Connecticut, in 1757, settled in New York state in 1793, and there reared his family, Lodicia being born there. She died October 19, 1887, in Williston. Five children were born of their union, as follows: Seth Cole, born January 24, 1825, resides in San Francisco, California ; Jerusha Caroline, born December 31, 1827; Lydia Janet, born November 2, 1831, died July 1, 1847; Lewis H., father of Frank; and Jonathan Roswell, born May 3, 1844, is a resident of Oakland, California.

Lewis H. Talcott was born in Williston, June 27, 1836, and here acquired his early education, attending the common schools and the academy. Obtaining a thorough knowledge of the various branches of agriculture under the wise tuition of his father, he assisted in the management of the home farm until 1862, when he went to California, where he engaged in farming and dairying for four years. Returning to his former home in 1866, he has since been extensively engaged in general fanning and dairying, having a landed estate of twelve hundred and fifty acres. A man of great enterprise and energy, he organized the first co-operative creamery in the state of Vermont, in 1891, and is now interested in three creameries in the neighborhood. He is prominently identified with the local public offices, besides which he represented his town in the legislature in 1872, and was state senator in 1896. He is a stanch Republican in politics, and a member of the Universalist church. He married, in 1858, Lucy Root, who was born in Williston, a daughter of Zimri and Amelia (Atwater) Root, and a granddaughter of Arnold Root, who came from Montague, Massachusetts, to Williston in 1800. Into their household five children were born, namely: Seth R., born March 12, 1860, died December 12, 1864; George M., born June 3, 1862, died August 9, 1883; Charles R., born May 16, 1867, died March 5, 1886; Jane E., born September 30, 1870, died March 27, 1887; and Frank.

Frank Talcott was educated at Goddard Seminary and the University of Vermont, and has since carried on general agriculture with marked success, being a prominent member of the farming community of his native town. He is an active member of the Republican party, and served as selectman in 1899, 1900 and 1901. Fraternally he belongs to the Ethan Allen Lodge, F. & A. M. On August 25, 1897, Mr. Talcott married Clarinda Stuart, a daughter of Robert and Lucia (Bingham) Stuart, of Westford, Vermont.


WILLIS F. CHAPIN


Willis F. Chapin, of Essex Center, Vermont, can trace his ancestry back to 1642, when Deacon Samuel Chapin settled in Springfield, Massachusetts. His son, Japhet Chapin, was the father of a son named David Chapin, who resided in Chicopee, Massachusetts, and his son, Benoni Chapin, who was born January 24, 1726, was the founder of the family in Connecticut. His son Ichabod Chapin was born September 26, 1760. He learned the trade of tanner, which he followed in connection with his farming pursuits. He was an active and earnest member of the Congregational church, and was noted for the wonderful memory he possessed. He was united in marriage to Miss Asenath Smith, of Goshen, Connecticut, and they took up their residence in Jericho, Vermont, in 1786. He died May 16, 1843. His son, Myron Chapin, was born March 6, 1794, and married Miss Ruth Currier. Their son, Albert F. Chapin, was the father of Willis F. Chapin.

Albert F. Chapin was born in Jericho, Vermont, December 9, 1825. He was a self-educated man, and taught school for many years. He resided in Essex Center, Vermont, from 1871, and followed the occupation of farming. He was elected to the position of superintendent of schools, and he retained this office for many years. On November 25, 1853, Mr. Chapin married Miss Sarah Palmer, a resident of Underhill, Vermont. Two children were born to them: Willis Fremont; and Carrie Palmer, who was born in 1862, and married G. E. Humphrey, of Burlington, Vermont. The father of these children died September 2, 1888.

Willis Fremont Chapin, only son of Albert F. and Sarah Chapin, was born in Underhill, Vermont, October 23, 1857. He derived his education at Essex Classical Institute, and upon the completion of his studies he engaged in farming, making a specialty of dairy products, at which he was eminently successful.
Mr. Chapin has held many offices of trust and responsibility, among which may be mentioned that of selectman, a position he held for four years; he held the position of town clerk for three years; was justice of the peace, and he was chosen to represent Essex Center in the legislature in 1898. Mr. Chapin is a notary public, and he has served in the capacity of president of the board of trustees of the Essex Classical Institute; he is a commissioner of the cemetery, and fraternally is a member of the Ethan Allen Lodge, A. F. & A. M.

Mr. Chapin was united in marriage September 21, 1878, to Miss Ellen Andrews, daughter of Gideon B. and Polly (Buel) Andrews, of Huntington, Vermont. Mr. Andrews was born in Richmond, Vermont, and when quite a boy came to Essex, where he married Polly Buel, and they removed to Huntington, where they resided until death. Mr. Andrews died November 20, 1893; his wife died June 30, 1896. Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Chapin, namely: Claudius, born October 6, 1880, a student of the University of Vermont; Sarah B., born in 1882, now engaged as a teacher; Jeanette A., born in 1884, also engaged in teaching; Albert Franklin, born in 1886, a student in the Essex Classical Institute; and Carrie P. Chapin, born in 1888.


HON. REDFIELD PROCTOR

Hon. Redfield Proctor, of Proctor, Vermont, former governor of the state and United States senator, is a native of the soil, born in Proctorsville, June 1, 1831. His ancestors were of excellent English stock. The first of the family to come to America was Robert Proctor (1), who in 1643 was a freeman and in prosperous circumstances in Concord, Massachusetts. In 1653 he and others obtained a grant of land six miles square, upon which was founded the town of Chelmsford. He married Jane, eldest daughter of Richard Hildreth, the ancestor of the family of that name in America. He died April 28, 1697. Of his twelve children, seven were sons, and all became heads of families which were planted throughout Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire.

Samuel (2), tenth child of Robert Proctor, born in Chelmsford, September 16, 1665, and died January 17, 1757, was one of the grantees of the land which became Townshend. The christian name of his wife was Sarah, but her surname is unknown. Their children were also twelve in number.

Thomas (3), second son and third child of Samuel, was born in Chelmsford, December 12, 1698. He married Hannah, daughter of Isaac and Sarah Barron, who bore him four children. Their second son and fourth child, Leonard (4), founder of the Proctor family in Vermont, was born in Chelmsford, January 16, 1734. He was a selectman in 1770, 1778 and 1779. He was among the most active of the Revolutionary patriots, and was second lieutenant in Captain Minot's company, which marched from Westford to Lexington at the alarm of April 19, 1775. He participated in various engagements, including those of Lexington, Trenton and Monmouth. He was one of the committee of correspondence in 1780, and was one of its committee of thirteen "to take under consideration the new form of government." In 1781 he was a captain, and was head of one of the five classes into which the town was divided for army enrolling purposes. After the war he removed to Cavendish, Vermont, where he founded in an unknown forest the village of Proctorsville, which derived from him its name, and where he died, June 3, 1827. He married, in 1760, Lydia Nutting, who died November 16, 1767; and December 25, 1769, he married Mary (died September 3, 1827), daughter of Captain Jabez Keep. Leonard Proctor was the father of twelve children, of whom the two eldest, Philip and Abel, were also Revolutionary war soldiers.

Jabez (5), tenth child of Captain Leonard Proctor, was born in Westford, Massachusetts, April 22, 1780, and was three years old when his parents removed to Vermont, in which state he lived to become one of its most influential and honored citizens. Vigorous and versatile, he was for many years not only a farmer and a merchant, but was also a manufacturer, and on a large scale, considering the conditions. He was a Whig, and actively participated in public affairs. At different times he was a member of the governor's council, and judge of probate. He was a, presidential elector in 1824 and in 1836, and in the latter year, as chairman of the delegation, cast the vote of the state at Washington for William Henry Harrison. His wife Betsey, daughter of Isaac Parker, of Westford, Massachusetts, to whom he was married in 1817, bore him four children. He died in 1839.

Redfield (6), youngest child of Jabez and Betsey (Parker) Proctor, was born in Proctorsville, June 1, 1831. He was graduated in 1851 from Dartmouth College, and three years later received the degree of Master of Arts from the same institution. He studied in the Albany (New York) Law School, from which he was graduated in 1859, and he was admitted to the bar at Albany, and also at Woodstock, Vermont. During a portion of the years 1860 and 1861 he practiced with his cousin Judge Isaac F. Redfield, at Boston, Massachusetts. In June, 1861, Mr. Proctor enlisted in the Third Regiment, Vermont Volunteers, in which he was commissioned as lieutenant and quartermaster, and his command at once went to the front. In July he was assigned to duty on the staff of General. "Baldy" Smith, and in October he was promoted to the rank of major of the Fifth Regiment, Vermont Volunteers, with which he served about twelve months in front of Washington and upon the Peninsula. In October, 1862, Major Proctor; was promoted to the colonelcy of the Fifteenth Regiment, Vermont Volunteers, an organization; recruited for nine months' service, which performed much arduous campaigning. In the memorable and decisive engagement at Gettysburg, the regiment was posted on the famous Cemetery Hill during a part of the second day's struggle. In August, 1863, it was mustered out of service, and Colonel Proctor returned to civil life. He faithfully performed his duty, and was recognized as a most efficient officer. Speaking of his services, a Vermont newspaper stated that "none but those who served with him and were in a position to know, can ever understand or appreciate his-untiring zeal for the welfare of his men, his unswerving honesty in dealings with the government, and his fearless execution of every trust his position demanded."

Colonel Proctor now established himself in Rutland, and entered into partnership for the practice of law with W. G. Veazey, afterwards associate judge of the supreme court.

In 1869 Colonel Proctor, preferring an active business life, accepted the position of manager of the Sutherland Falls Marble Company, near Rutland. The quarries had been opened in 1836 by a company which failed the following year. In 1853 a new company was formed, which operated the quarries for three years, when the property came into the possession of the Sutherland Falls Company. When Colonel Proctor took charge, ten gangs of saws were in operation. Under his supervision the business was greatly enlarged, and in 1880 his company united with the old Rutland Marble Company, formed in 1863. This consolidation was perfected through the organization, on September 30, 1880, of the Vermont Marble Company, with Redfield Proctor as president. Since its organization in 1880, the Vermont Marble Company has steadily grown until to-day it is by far the largest industry in the state, and much the largest marble concern in the world.

Its principal producing plants are located at Proctor, Center Rutland, West Rutland and Pittsford, and the town of Proctor from a small hamlet has grown to a prosperous village of some twenty-five hundred people, all actively identified with the marble business. When Colonel Proctor first took hold of the marble business it was comparatively a small affair, but, owing to his business sagacity, foresight and energy, it has grown to large proportions. In its numerous quarries thousands of blocks are quarried each year, and under its huge piling derricks there are kept constantly on hand from ten to fifteen thousand quarry blocks from which a selection can always be made of different varieties of marble. In its mills something over two hundred and fifty gangs of saws are operated continuously from Monday morning to Saturday night, sawing out the rough material from the block that later is sent to the shop to come out as a finished product.

While the marble business was started primarily for the purpose of supplying the monumental trade, to-day it caters to every use to which marble can be put, and, while the monumental business is still its principal output, it now has large shops devoted entirely to the finishing of exterior and interior building work. Senator Proctor early conceived the idea of establishing branch yards at convenient points over the country for the distribution of marble, and the company now has branches in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Chicago, St. Louis and San Francisco.

Believing that the best results can be obtained only when friendly relations exist between the employer and the employe, efforts have been made all the time to improve the condition of the laboring men employed in this business. For many years model tenement houses have been furnished to the men at low rentals. A garden patch has been given to everyone for the asking. A well equipped hospital and a system of district nursing free to the employes and their families has been of great benefit. The twenty-five hundred men employed by the company are covered by an accident insurance at the expense of the company and without cost to them, which in case of accident insures them one-half their weekly wages and doctor's care, and, in case of death, five hundred dollars to their families. A well equipped library and a Young Men's Christian Association building have been furnished for the enjoyment of the people. Its stores, from which anything can be supplied, are upon a co-operative basis, a committee from the men taking an active part in the management of the same and the entire profits being distributed to the employes. In 1889, when Governor Proctor went into President Harrison's cabinet as secretary of war, he turned the presidency and the active management of the company to his son, Fletcher D. Proctor, who has held that position since that time.

The public career of Senator Proctor, which has been as honorable to himself as it has been useful to the people, began with his election as a selectman of the town of Rutland in 1866. In 1867 he was elected to the lower house of the state legislature, in which he served as chairman of the committee on elections. Again a member of the house in 1868, he served upon the committee on ways and means. Returned to the state senate from Rutland county in 1874, he was elected president pro tem, and discharged the duties of the position most capably. In 1876 he was elected lieutenant governor on the same ticket with Governor Fairbanks, receiving a majority of 23,825 votes over his Democratic competitor. In 1878 he was elected governor, receiving 37,312 votes against 17,247 cast for W. H. H. Bingham, the Democratic candidate; 2625 for C. C. Martin, Greenbacker; 750 for C. W. Willard. Reformer; and thirty-two scattering.

His familiarity with questions of state was illustrated by the skillful and thorough manner in which they were discussed in his inaugural address. He made a strong appeal for a reduction of state expenses, calling particular attention to the great increase in court costs, which had doubled between 1860 and 1876, and recommending the appointment of a special committee to consider the subject. This was the begining of the great reduction which has since been made in this the largest item of state expenses. His sugges- (stopped here)


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